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  • - [Narrator] Although the Spanish were the first

  • European colonists in the New World,

  • they didn't remain alone in the Americas for very long.

  • Just three years after Hernan Cortes captured Tenochtitlan,

  • the French government sent its first explorer

  • to poke around North America

  • and look for what many European explorers

  • had searched for from the beginning,

  • a passage to the East.

  • Now, although the explorers never found

  • this Northwest passage because it didn't exist,

  • they, like the Spanish, quickly learned

  • that there were quite a lot of riches to be had

  • in the Americas themselves.

  • In this video, I'd like to take some time to talk about

  • two of the lesser known European colonies in the New World,

  • New France up here in pink

  • and New Netherland, this little orange dot right here.

  • Now, you can see that compared to the extent of New Spain,

  • here in the Caribbean and Mexico

  • and expanding in South America,

  • these colonial exploits were pretty small indeed,

  • but I think it's important to learn a little bit about them

  • because they help us see the ways

  • in which the different goals of colonial powers

  • led to very different types of settlement in the New World

  • and very different relationships

  • between Europeans and Native Americans.

  • Now, though it's a little bit hard to see on this map,

  • these two colonies focused their efforts around two rivers,

  • the Saint Lawrence River

  • and the Hudson River

  • which runs along this little orange strip here.

  • And along these rivers,

  • you can still see the cities that were founded

  • by these colonial ventures like Quebec City up in Canada,

  • later Montreal and down here of course the most famous

  • which started as New Amsterdam

  • and later became the city of New York.

  • Right about here is the Island of Manhattan

  • on which New York City,

  • formerly New Amsterdam, is located.

  • Now, looking at this map, you might wonder,

  • why was it that Spain have these giant swabs of territory

  • really from coast to coast

  • where New France and New Netherland

  • really only followed along these rivers,

  • at least to start with?

  • And the answer really lies in this idea of goals.

  • And New France and New Netherland sat on the rivers,

  • rivers being the highways of the world

  • really up until the invention of the railroad,

  • because they were primarily interested in trade.

  • So let's talk a little bit more about that.

  • French and Dutch explorers were particularly interested

  • in gaining valuable furs to trade from Native Americans

  • living in the Northern part of North America

  • that they could then sell in Europe.

  • Long before European colonization began,

  • beavers had been hunted pretty much to extinction in Europe

  • while beaver pelts themselves were usually used

  • to create fancy hats.

  • This is a hat from a slightly later era,

  • but you can get the sense here

  • that Europeans met on something of an equal basis

  • with Native Americans in the process of the fur trade,

  • so Europeans wanted beaver pelts

  • and also the pelts of other animals and often fish,

  • another thing that was in great supply

  • in this Northern region which is today

  • the Northeast United States and Canada.

  • So how did this focus on trade affect the relationships

  • between Europeans and Native Americans in the area?

  • Well, primarily they made relationships between them

  • considerably friendlier and more cooperative

  • than the relationships between the Spanish

  • and Native Americans for example.

  • Now, Europeans quickly discovered

  • that it made a lot more sense to instead of sending hundreds

  • upon hundreds of Frenchmen to Canada

  • to hunt beavers themselves,

  • they could instead pay Native Americans

  • to hunt the beavers for them.

  • And consequently, there were considerably fewer

  • French and Dutch settlers in New Netherland and New France

  • than there were in New Spain.

  • And because there were fewer of them,

  • they generally ended up doing things

  • more on the terms of Native Americans

  • so whereas the Spanish might have used their guns

  • and their war dogs to force Native Americans

  • to labor for them,

  • the French and the Dutch were more likely to observe

  • trading rituals like giving gifts

  • and also fostering trade relationships

  • through intermarriage.

  • French traders learned the Algonquian language

  • and married native women and had children with them

  • so that they could be considered part of the family.

  • They even allied with Native American Tribes

  • against their own enemies and went to war with them

  • as in the case in 1609

  • when French explorer Samuel de Champlain

  • helped Algonquians in their war against the Iroquois.

  • And like New France,

  • New Netherland situated as it was in this very good harbor,

  • the Island of Manhattan, was likewise very focused on trade.

  • In fact, New Amsterdam was a little bit of a company town

  • controlled by the Dutch West India Company

  • which sought to make the most of all of the goodies

  • that could be brought from North America

  • and then shipped to Europe.

  • In fact, you can get a sense of what the major concerns

  • of the Europeans settling in this area were from this map.

  • You can see that they point out where beavers, turkeys,

  • foxes, and bears can be found all with their valuable pelts,

  • but you also see that there's an extremely detailed

  • rendering of where many Native American Tribes lived

  • like this detailed rendering of what I believe

  • is a Mahican village.

  • The French and Dutch bothered to learn all of these names

  • and map all of this territory because they cooperated

  • with the Native Americans to get these pelts.

  • It's hard to imagine a Spanish map

  • that would go into such detail about native villages.

  • It's important to remember

  • that Europeans were competing with each other

  • for resources in the New World

  • hoping that they could secure the best trade deals for furs

  • with Native Americans and prevent other nations

  • from securing those furs.

  • For example, the Dutch allied with the Iroquois

  • in the New World as trading partners

  • because the Iroquois were the long-time enemies

  • of the Algonquians who were allied with the French.

  • So just as the Europeans recruited Native Americans

  • into their competitions to supply Europe with furs,

  • Native Americans recruited Europeans

  • into their inter-tribal feuds

  • to supply the Americas with European goods.

  • I wanna finish by just briefly comparing

  • each nation's colonial goals with their outcomes

  • and what sorts of people settled,

  • what the relationships were like with Native Americans,

  • and even how they attempted or didn't attempt

  • to convert Native Americans to a form of Christianity.

  • Now, as we saw with Spain,

  • their goal was to quickly extract natural resources

  • from the Americas and to set up plantations

  • for tobacco and later sugar,

  • plus to convert as many of the native people to Catholicism

  • as possible by force if necessary

  • and it was frequently necessary.

  • Consequently, most of the Spanish settlers

  • who came to the New World were men and adventurers

  • who treated native people with violence and enslaved them

  • in the encomienda system

  • and in some cases had relationships with native women

  • and African women that resulted in that very complex set

  • of racial designations we see in the caste system.

  • But France and the Netherlands by contrast came for trade.

  • They wanted furs and fish and so they were very careful

  • to cultivate very friendly relationships

  • with Native Americans including by intermarrying with them

  • in a deliberate and formal way

  • so that they could take advantage of having natives

  • do the hunting for them

  • rather than having to do it themselves

  • so that really only a few men

  • came to New France and New Netherland,

  • nothing like the numbers of Spain.

  • And unlike the Spanish,

  • although the French did attempt

  • to convert natives to Catholicism,

  • they rarely did so by force.

  • Now, going forward as we talk about British colonization

  • in the next few lessons,

  • I want you to keep both the Spanish

  • and the French and Dutch modes of colonization in your mind

  • so you can compare and contrast English colonization

  • with both of them.

  • And as we'll see,

  • the goals of the various English colonies

  • whether it's to found plantations

  • like in Jamestown, Virginia,

  • or to escape religious persecution

  • like in Massachusetts Bay,

  • that goal will go on to influence

  • not only who came to the Americas from Europe,

  • but also their relationships with native people.

- [Narrator] Although the Spanish were the first

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B1 中級 美國腔

殖民化 (colonization)

  • 12 3
    Amy.Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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