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  • >>Charles Duhigg: So about a decade ago there was a woman named

  • Dr. Ann Graybiel at MIT who is a neurologist, and for years she had been doing experiments

  • to try and get sensors into the craniums of rats so she could measure what was going on

  • inside their heads as they went about their daily business.

  • As you can imagine it took a long time and a lot of rats to figure out how to do this,

  • but eventually she got to a point where she could get about 150 sensors into a rat's cranium.

  • And she would do the same thing with every single rat. After the surgery she would take

  • them and put them in the world's simplest maze. This maze works the same way every single

  • time. There's a click, the partition moves and the fat is free to move up and down.

  • Now if anyone has ever done this with a rat, what you know is when you drop a rat in a

  • maze like this it looks like the world's stupidest animal. The rat will run up and down the center

  • aisle and sniff and scratch. When it gets to the end it will actually see the chocolate

  • and then go the opposite direction. This is actually one of the reasons why rats

  • are used in experiments is because it's considered that if you can teach a rat something you

  • must be able to teach any animals anything. So she would do this experiment, but for the

  • first time she was able to see what was going on inside the rat's head. This is a simplified

  • neurological graph of the first time that a rat is dropped in this maze.

  • What you will notice is that its brain is actually working hard the entire time. So

  • when the rat would scratch on the walls, the scratching centers would light up, when it

  • would sniff, the sniffing centers would light up. It's actually trying to process as much

  • information as possible. This is what learning looks like.

  • So Dr. Graybiel takes the rats, each one, and drops them in 100, 150 times. And as imagine,

  • over time the rats learn how to navigate through the maze faster and faster. Click, the partition

  • moves, the rat will make a beeline to the chocolate and it actually becomes a habit.

  • But what's really interesting is Dr. Graybiel sees for the first thing what is going on

  • inside the rat's cranium. As the rat gets faster and faster, as the

  • habit to find the chocolate becomes stronger and stronger, the rat essentially thinks less

  • and less and less. This graph at the bottom is a simplified neurological

  • graph of the 150th iteration of a rat running through a maze. And that dip you see right

  • there is the same dip that you would see if a rat went to sleep.

  • There was a scientist at Duke University a couple of years ago who did a study to try

  • and figure out how much of your day was habits. She followed a bunch of people around and

  • found that 40 to 45% of the actions we take everyday aren't really behaviors. They're

  • actually just habits. And if I could somehow stick 150 sensors into

  • your head which I would not recommend, then when I saw you backing your car out of your

  • driveway or walking down the hall muttering to yourself or making automatic decisions,

  • I would see your brain looking like this. But what's interesting is if you notice there's

  • these two spikes in neurological activity. When there's the click we see a burst of neurological

  • activity and then essentially the brain almost goes to sleep. Then the rat finds the chocolate

  • and it's if as the brain sort of wakes itself up again to pay attention to what's going

  • on. This is the neurological signature of a habit.

>>Charles Duhigg: So about a decade ago there was a woman named


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B1 中級 美國腔

我們設計的世界--查爾斯-杜希格2012年美洲時代精神--片段。 (The World We Design- Charles Duhigg Zeitgeist Americas 2012 - Clip)

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    阿玟 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日