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  • There are some shark species that seem to do okay in aquariums.


  • Youll see a lot of nurse sharks, zebra sharks, some reef sharks and sand tiger sharks. But not the great white.


  • For decades, aquariums have tried to contain the world’s largest predatory fish.


  • Institutions like Marineland, SeaWorld and the Steinhart Aquarium repeatedly took in white sharks during the 1970s, 80s and 90s, at times drawing huge crowds.

    像佛羅里達州的水上樂園、海洋世界和舊金山的斯坦哈特水族館這些機構在 1970 、 1980 和 1990 年代都反覆引進大白鯊,有時吸引了很多人潮。

  • But they never lasted long. Some needed help swimming. None of them would eat.


  • The longest one lasted was just 16 days.

    活得最長的一隻大白鯊也只活了 16 天。

  • A 1984 report by the Steinhart Aquarium put it this way:

    斯坦哈特 1984 年有篇報導是這樣的:

  • "In most cases it could be said that all these captive sharks were merely in the process of dying, with some taking longer than others."


  • They had constructed an elaborate transport tank with a harness and IV fluids, but still couldn’t keep the sharks alive.


  • It wasn’t until 2004 that the Monterey Bay Aquarium proved that it was possible to keep white sharks for at least six months.

    一直到 2004 年,蒙特利灣水族館證明了維持大白鯊的生命至少六個月是有可能的。

  • It took a massive effort, and no one’s done it since.


  • Our approach was one of sort of a systematic, logical sequence of things leading up to our success and it started with designing a tank.


  • The Monterey Bay Aquarium had a million gallon, egg-shaped tank, 35 feet deep, designed for open-ocean animals like tuna and sharks.

    蒙特利灣水族館擁有一個一百萬加侖的蛋形水槽,它有 35 英呎深,是專門為了像鮪魚和鯊魚等這些開放水域的動物設計的。

  • So you need a big tank. You also need a small shark.


  • Adult great whites reach 15 feet on average.

    成年的大白鯊平均會長到 15 英呎。

  • The Monterey Bay Aquarium nabbed one in 2004 that was 4 feet, 4 inches, less than a year old.

    2004 年時,蒙特利灣水族館捕獲了一隻長 4 呎 4 吋,不到 1 歲的大白鯊。

  • That made it easier to move and easier to keep.


  • When theyre young, they feed on fish, and as they get older they transition to feeding more on mammals.


  • And so we were targeting the age bracket where we knew we were more able to feed their natural diet.


  • And once they collected the shark, they didn’t take it straight to the aquarium.


  • Instead, the Monterey Bay team set up a four million gallon pen right there in the ocean.

    取而代之的是,蒙特利灣水族館在海洋裡建造了一個 400 萬加侖的筆狀水槽。

  • That way they could monitor the shark and see if it would feed before they moved it into a transport tank to travel from southern California, where the sharks were born up to the aquarium.


  • Sharks, like all fish, need to have water continually passing through their gills in order to get oxygen.


  • Most species can open and close their mouths to pump the water through, but white sharks and a couple dozen other species don’t do that.


  • To breathe, they have to move forward through the water with their mouths open.


  • That’s why white sharks start to weaken as soon as theyre caught in a net.


  • And that’s why they needed a custom built transport tank with mobile life support.


  • Everything from oxygen sensors and video cameras and lighting and filtration systems that were needed for what turned out to roughly be nine to eleven hour transport time.

    運輸槽裡的氧氣偵測儀、攝錄像機,及照明和過瀘系統,都必須維持大約 9 至 11 小時的運輸時間。

  • Aquarium attendance jumped 30 percent while the shark was on display.

    開始展示鯊魚後,水族館的來客率躍升了百分之 30。

  • After six and a half months, they decided to release it because it had killed two other sharks.


  • Over the next six years, the aquarium displayed five more baby white sharks - some they paid fishermen to hand over, some they caught themselves.

    接下來的六年,水族館還展示了 五隻小白鯊,有些是水族館付錢給漁民得來的,有些是小白鯊自己跑進來的。

  • Their stays ranged from just eleven days up to five months.

    牠們停留的時間在 11 天到 5 個月不等。

  • The Monterey Bay Aquarium had succeeded in doing what no one else could.


  • But it did take a toll on the sharks.


  • They developed visible sores from bumping into the sides of the tank.


  • We actually snuck in with photographers and took pictures of the sharks as they were beginning to attrit and fail due to the constant scraping against the walls basically.


  • As we viewed it, it was a vase of flowers that would be kept for the visitors.


  • Historically, aquariums kept sharks that lived near the seabed or near reefs.


  • That makes sense - it’s easier to recreate those habitats in a tank.


  • But in recent decades, aquariums have wanted to bring in bigger, more pelagic sharks, those that spend time roaming the open ocean.


  • Theyve even been able to exhibit the largest shark in the world, the whale shark, if they have a big enough tank.


  • But pelagic sharks are used to being able to swim long distances without obstructions, changing directions only as they please.


  • So the faster-moving sharks like the white shark, mako shark, and blue shark, they have trouble with walls when theyre put in a tank.


  • That’s what was happening with the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s sixth white shark in 2011.

    這正是 2011 年蒙特利水族館第六隻大白鯊所遇到的狀況。

  • They decided to release it after 55 days and its tracking tag revealed that the shark died shortly after being released.

    55 天後,水族館人員決定放了這隻大白鯊,而牠身上的追蹤標籤顯示,這隻鯊魚在被釋放後不久就死了,

  • Theyre not sure why.


  • But since then, they haven’t tried bring in another great white shark.


  • It’s just a very very very resource intensive program and we felt like we had accomplished our goal of introducing the general public to a live white shark.


  • It took a huge, carefully planned system to keep a white shark alive.


  • And even then, the sharks didn’t quite fit there.


  • We can’t seem to stop trying though.


  • Earlier this year, an 11.5-foot great white shark was taken to an aquarium in Okinawa, Japan after getting caught in a fisherman's net.

    今年稍早的時候,有一隻 11.5 英呎的大白鯊被漁夫的漁網抓到後,被帶到日本沖繩的水族館。

  • It was the only adult white shark ever to be put on display, and within three days, it was dead.


  • I wanted show you a great resource online called the Biodiversity Heritage Library.


  • It’s the product of a couple dozen museums and libraries all agreeing to scan millions of pages from books related to biodiversity.


  • Theyve got a bunch of great albums on Flickr, including one that's all about sharks.

    他們在 Flickr 上放了很多精美的相簿,其中一個全是和鯊魚有關的。

  • Some of these go back to the 16th and 17th centuries, back when the naturalists used to call sharks "sea dogs",

    有些生物的種類甚至溯及 16 、 17 世紀前,當時的自然科學家曾經稱鯊魚為「海狗」

  • which is funny because as we now know, sharks were roaming the oceans for about 300 million years before the first mammals showed up.


There are some shark species that seem to do okay in aquariums.


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