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  • Hello Space Fans and welcome to another edition of Space Fan News.

    宇宙迷大家好,歡迎收看新的一集節目

  • So, this happened today.

    這是今天發生的

  • Most of you I'm sure have heard of this by now, but early this Morning, 9:20 local time

    很多人大約在早上9:20分的時候都有聽到

  • in the skies over the Ural Mountain city of Chelyabinsk Russia, a meteor broke up. It

    一顆隕石在俄羅斯烏拉爾山上方爆炸

  • was so big and passed by so fast, that the shock wave that was created as it exploded

    又大速度又快,當它爆炸的時候產生了衝擊波

  • shattered windows all over the city and caused about 1,200 injuries.

    城市裡大多數的窗戶被震碎,並且造成了約1200人的傷亡

  • As I make this video, the fate of the meteor is still being investigated, but NASA is reporting

    當我在編輯這則影片時,隕石的動向仍在被調查當中,但太空總署已發佈

  • that it broke up in the atmosphere.

    它已在大氣層中就分離了

  • The Russian Academy of Sciences says the meteor was 15 meters across and weighed 10 tons and

    俄國科學機構宣稱隕石有12公尺高,10噸重

  • entered the earth’s atmosphere at a speed of at least 33,000mph (54,000kph) and shattered

    以至少時速54000公里進入大氣層

  • between 18 and 32 miles above ground (30 to 50km) and the resulting airburst had the equivalent

    在離地面30-50公里的高度發生氣爆,並產生相當於

  • yield of a 500 kiloton explosion.

    50萬噸的能量

  • The best account of the events as they unfolded was at the Guardian's website, so go check

    對於這個事件揭露最多的"衛報",讓我們去查證

  • it out, I have the link in the description box.

    我們有連結在他們的討論區裡

  • It isn't totally clear whether the meteor was completely destroyed or whether parts

    狀況目前不是很清楚,不管這個隕石是被破壞了或它的碎片

  • of it landed in a nearby lake, but those details are being investigated.

    降落在湖的附近,這些都正在被調查當中

  • What is clear is that Russians are really, really good at looking up.

    能確定的是俄羅斯正在積極的調查中

  • I mean, this event was captured by what seemed to me to be an unusual number of dashboard

    這個事件被很多行車記錄器拍到

  • mounted webcams. At first, I was really puzzled by this, but I learned while watching the

    首先,我對於這個感到很困惑,但是當我在看

  • weekly space hangout from CosmoQuest and Ian O'Neill, editor of Discovery News Space Website,

    每週與太空有約的節目,"CosmoQuest" 和 "Ian O'Neill",

  • said that apparently driving in Russia is a very perilous activity and the law enforcement

    指出,隕石衝入俄羅斯這顯然是一個非常危險的現象,

  • there is (how can I put this delicately), not very helpful.

    (我要如何簡單的說..)不是太有幫助...

  • Driving in Russia is such a problem, that drivers mount cameras on their dashboards

    在俄羅斯開車很麻煩,每個駕駛都裝了行車紀錄器

  • and record every trip they take so they can have documentation to back up their case should

    並記錄了每個過程,當需要的時就有資料可以佐證

  • they need it.

      

  • So that's why this bolide was so well video-ed. I think I'm going to get one of those dash

    這就是為什麼行車紀錄器如此重要,我已打算買一台

  • cams for when I'm driving around Baltimore. Driving around here seems a lot like Russia.

    用來在巴爾的摩開車用,在這裡開車就很像在俄羅斯

  • Now coincidentally, today was the day everyone was preparing to watch the flyby of an asteroid

    巧合的是,現今大家都期待看到隕石掠過

  • known as 2012 DA14. An asteroid coming from a completely different direction and having

    如同我們知道的編號"2012 DA14"小行星,從一個完全不知道的方向過來

  • nothing whatsoever to do with the Russian Meteor. This asteroid was going to fly 17,200

    完全不知道怎麼辦,這個小行星將從地球上方17200哩飛過

  • miles above our heads, that's so close that it was going to pass inside the orbit of our

    會很接近地從我們地球的同步衛星內側掠過

  • geosynchronous satellites.

        

  • We've known for a long time that it was never going to hit us - and most likely miss the

    我們知道小行星已經有很常一段時間沒有撞擊地球,就像

  • satellites as well - but this coincidence was more than a little freaky.

    衛星一樣,但是這種巧合是很怪異的

  • 2012 DA14 is much bigger than the Russian bolide (bolide is another word for fireball

    編號"2012 DA14"行星比這次的隕石大很多

  • in the sky). It is 45 meters across and if that one hit us, the resulting explosion would

    它有45公尺寬,當他一但撞擊地球,爆炸將產生

  • contain two and a half megatons of energy.

    2.5兆噸的能量

  • 2012 DA14 came at us from the south and travelled North. By Comparison, the Russian meteor came

    "2012 DA14"的行徑從地球的南方往北方經過,與這一次俄羅斯的隕石對照之下,

  • from a completely different area of the sky, which is why astronomers concluded that these

    它來自完全不一樣的方向,所以天文學家才下結論這兩個事件

  • events are unrelated.

    是沒有關聯的

  • When it passed by, you needed binoculars to see it (and you had to be where the sky was

    當它經過,你必需用天文望遠鏡才看的到 (且你必需在澳洲

  • dark: Austrailia, Eastern Europe and Asia.

    東歐和亞州)

  • Today was a real wakeup call for humanity and highlighted the need for something I've

    這件事情喚醒了人類並突顯了我長久以來

  • been advocating for a long time now: the need to find and track as many asteroids in our

    所提倡的: 盡我們所能的去發現追縱太陽系中所有的行星

  • Solar System as we can.

        

  • People are constantly making up their own disasters: Nibiru, Mayan Calendar Doomsday

    人類不斷的在編造災難的故事 :Nibiru(神祕行星),馬雅預言世界未日

  • Prophecies, all kinds of stuff that isn't real. Well, folks, there's no need for that

    這些都是真的,他們並沒有必要去編造這些東西

  • nonsense, this is a very real danger facing our civilization.

    這是,這是對我們人類的一大威脅

  • Unlike Donald Rumsfeld: We know what we don't know. Every telescope ever made over all of

    不同於"Donald Rumsfeld"(美國國防部長),我們知道我們所不知道的,所有的

  • recorded time has found only about 10-20 percent of the total asteroids we know are out there

    望遠鏡目前只有發現20%我們目前所知道所有行星

  • and we've only found about 4,700 potentially hazardous ones (AKA PHA's) - asteroids that

    和我們只知道4700個對我們有潛在威脅會撞擊我們的行星

  • can hit us.

        

  • That's only about half of the PHA's that are in the solar system.

    在我們太陽系中,他們(PHA俱有潛在威脅的小行星)只佔了一半

  • So there's a lot of work to do and we need to get on it. Duck and cover is not an option.

    所以我們有很多事情需要著手去進行,"逃避"和"掩飾"並不是我們的選項

  • If you're interested in learning more, I would encourage you to look into the b612 foundation,

    如果你有興趣知道更多 ,我會鼓勵你去"b612 基金會"查詢更多的資料

  • they are planning to launch a space telescope known as Sentinel in 2018 whose sole purpose

    他們打算發射太空望遠鏡,唯一的目地就是

  • is to look for potentially hazardous asteroids. I'll give you more information on that as

    去搜尋對我們有威脅的行星,我會給你更多的還沒公開的資訊

  • things unfold, but this is a private enterprise, one that definitely needs our support.

    但這是一個私人的組織,無疑的絕對需要我們的幫助

  • I can't think of a more important problem in astronomy that needs solving, and we totally

    我可以想像有很多天文的事情需要被解決,同時我們

  • have the ability to prevent this. If we get struck by an asteroid, we have only ourselves

    也有能力去預防,當我們如果被隕石襲擊 ,我們只能怪自已

  • to blame.

        

  • Next, conveniently (and in the "not a minute too soon" category), the day before all this

    接下來,看起來有點太晚出現,在殞石造成混亂的前幾天

  • asteroid/meteor hubbub, scientists from University of California at Santa Barbara have proposed

    加州聖塔芭芭拉的一些科學家們提出

  • a system to vaporize asteroids that threaten the Earth.

    一個可把威脅地球的隕石汽化的方法

  • The system is called DE-STAR, or Directed Energy Solar Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation

    名稱為”DE-Star” 或是”太陽能直射探勘計畫”

  • - a very awkwardly acronym-ed satellite which they claim is a realistic means of mitigating

    呵..非常奇怪縮寫名字的衛星聲稱可以實實在在減少

  • potential threats posed to the Earth by asteroids and comets.

    小行星和彗星所有可能構成對地球的威脅

  • DE-STAR is designed to harness the power of the sun and convert it into a massive array

    DE-STAR 利用太陽的能量並且獎他轉換成巨大能量的雷射

  • of laser beams that can destroy, or evaporate, asteroids posing a potential threat to Earth.

    可以直接摧毀,或汽化任何隕石對地球的威脅

  • Another handy feature is that it is equally capable of changing an asteroid's orbit –– deflecting

    另一項有用的特點是可以提供改變隕石軌道的能力

  • it away from Earth, or into the Sun –– and may also prove to be a valuable tool for assessing

    把隕石偏轉遠離地球,或是撞向太陽。而且可以提供有用的工具

  • an asteroid's composition, enabling lucrative, rare-element mining. And it's entirely based

    進入探勘含有豐富稀有元素的隕石結構。而這一切

  • on current technology.

    我們現代的科技都可以做得到

  • Now, to me that last part is more realistic. If we can detect a PHA early enough to give

    對我來說最後這個部分比較真實。 如果我們可以分析隕石撞擊的時間早一點

  • us, say a year's notice, then we don't have to deflect it all that much to get it to miss

    例如提早一年發現,我們不需要花太大力氣來使隕石不要擊中我們。

  • us, which means we don't have to expend as much energy. A tiny deflection early on becomes

    指的就是我們不用發射太大的能量。隕石偏轉早一點的話

  • a larger one over time.

    可以隨著時間變成大距離的偏向。

  • If we wait too long, then the required changes to the orbit are much larger and will require

    如果我們發現的太晚,那就需要很大的能量來改變隕石的軌道。

  • a lot more energy.

        

  • In developing the proposal, they calculated the requirements and possibilities for DE-STAR

    再發展此計畫的同時,科學家計算出”DE-STAR”的各種尺寸

  • systems of several sizes, ranging from a desktop device to one measuring 10 kilometers, or

    從桌子般大到10公里或是直徑六公里大小的裝置。

  • six miles, in diameter. The larger the system, the more it can do.

    愈大的系統,可以做得更多。

  • For example, DE-STAR 2 –– at 100 meters in diameter, about the size of the International

    舉例來說,”DE-STAR2” 100公尺的直徑,大約一個

  • Space Station –– could "start nudging comets or asteroids out of their orbits".

    國際太空站的大小,可以輕推彗星,或隕石離他他原有的軌道。

  • But DE-STAR 4 –– at 10 kilometers in diameter, about 100 times the size of the ISS –– could

    但是”DE-STAR4” ,10公里直徑,大約100倍太空站的大小

  • deliver 1.4 megatons of energy per day to its target, enough to obliterate an asteroid

    但是”DE-STAR4” ,10公里直徑,大約100倍太空站的大小

  • 500 meters across in one year.

    一顆500公尺的小行星。

  • A system that size would be able to move an asteroid the size of 2012 DA14 in about an

        

  • hour.

    這樣大小的裝置可以在一個小時之內移開2012 DA14大小的隕石。

  • So how practical is this?

    所以到底有多少可行性?

  • They claim this is not some far out idea. They say, "Our proposal assumes a combination

    他們宣稱這並不是一個天馬行空的想法。

  • of baseline technology –– where we are today –– and where we almost certainly

    所有提案結合了我們所有現代科技

  • will be in the future, without asking for any miracles,".

    與某些快要達成的未來科技,而不期盼有任何奇蹟出現。

  • Well that's always a good thing.

    這的確是個好消息。

  • They say that recent and rapid developments in highly efficient conversion of electrical

    科學家說由於最近光電轉換效能快速的發展

  • power to light allow such a solution now, when just 20 years ago it would not have been

    才有辦法提出這樣的解決方案。但在20年前是完全不可能

  • realistic.

    實現的。

  • And that, is Just like downtown.

    而且就像他們說的,一切都沒問題的

  • Well, that's it for this week Space Fans, thank you for watching, and as always, Keep

    好的,這就是這禮拜的”宇宙迷”,感謝您的收看。而且記得

  • Looking Up!

    向上看

Hello Space Fans and welcome to another edition of Space Fan News.

宇宙迷大家好,歡迎收看新的一集節目

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慧星撞地球(俄羅斯)大解密 - Meteor Over Russia; 2012 DA14 Flies By; New System to Vaporize Asteroids

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