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  • In the early hours of August 13, 1961,

    1961年8月13日凌晨。

  • East German construction workers flanked by soldiers and police

    東德建築工人在阿兵哥和警察的簇擁下前進。

  • began tearing up streets and erecting barriers throughout the city of Berlin

    開始在柏林市內撕毀街道和設置障礙物。

  • and its surroundings.

    及其周圍環境。

  • This night marked the beginning of one of history's most infamous dividing lines,

    這個夜晚標誌著歷史上最臭名昭著的分界線之一的開始。

  • the Berlin Wall.

    柏林牆。

  • Construction on the wall continued for the next decade

    在接下來的十年裡,城牆的建設仍在繼續

  • as it cut through neighborhoods,

    當它穿過街區時。

  • separated families,

    離散家庭;

  • and divided not just Germany, but the world.

    並且不僅分裂了德國,還分裂了世界。

  • To understand how we got to this point,

    要了解我們是如何走到這一步的。

  • we have to go back to World War II.

    我們必須回到第二次世界大戰。

  • America, Britain, and France

    美英法

  • joined forces with the Soviet Union against the Axis Powers.

    與蘇聯聯手對抗軸心國。

  • After they defeated Nazi Germany,

    在他們打敗納粹德國之後。

  • each of the victorious nations occupied part of the country.

    每一個戰勝國都佔據了部分國土。

  • The division was meant to be temporary,

    師的意思是暫時的。

  • but the former allies found themselves at odds

    昔日盟友不和

  • over their visions for post-war Europe.

    在他們對戰後歐洲的設想上。

  • While Western powers promoted liberal market economies,

    在西方大國推行自由市場經濟的同時。

  • the Soviet Union sought to surround itself with obedient Communist nations,

    蘇聯試圖用聽話的共產主義國家來包圍自己。

  • including a weakened Germany.

    包括被削弱的德國。

  • As their relations deteriorated,

    隨著他們關係的惡化。

  • the Federal Republic of Germany was formed in the West

    德意志聯邦共和國在西德成立。

  • while the Soviets established the German Democratic Republic in the East.

    而蘇聯則在東部建立了德意志民主共和國。

  • The Soviet satellite countries restricted Western trade and movement,

    蘇聯衛星國家限制了西方的貿易和流動。

  • so a virtually impassable border formed.

    所以形成了一個幾乎無法通行的邊界。

  • It became known as the Iron Curtain.

    它被稱為鐵幕。

  • In the former German capital of Berlin, things were particularly complicated.

    在前德國首都柏林,情況特別複雜。

  • Although the city lay fully within the East German territory of the GDR,

    雖然這座城市完全在東德的東德境內。

  • the post-war agreement gave the allies joint administration.

    戰後協議給了盟國聯合管理的權利。

  • So America, Britain, and France created a Democratic enclave

    所以美英法三國建立了一個民主飛地

  • in Berlin's western districts.

    在柏林'的西區。

  • While East Germans were officially banned from leaving the country,

    雖然東德人被正式禁止出國。

  • in Berlin, it was simply a matter of walking,

    在柏林,這只是一個步行的問題。

  • or riding a subway, streetcar or bus,

    或乘坐地鐵、街車或公車。

  • to the Western half,

    到西半部。

  • then traveling on to West Germany or beyond.

    然後前往西德或更遠的地方。

  • This open border posed a problem for the East German leadership.

    這種開放的邊界給東德領導層帶來了一個問題。

  • They had staked a claim to represent the Communist resistance against Hitler

    他們聲稱代表共產黨抵抗希特勒的力量

  • and portrayed Western Germany as a continuation of the Nazi regime.

    並把西德描繪成納粹政權的延續。

  • While the U.S. and its allies poured money into West Germany's reconstruction,

    當美國及其盟友向西德的重建投入資金時'。

  • the Soviet Union extracted resources from the East as war reparations,

    蘇聯從東方提取資源作為戰爭賠償。

  • making its planned economy even less competitive.

    使其計劃經濟的競爭力更低。

  • Life in East Germany passed under the watchful eye of the Stasi,

    東德的生活在斯塔西的監視下度過。

  • the secret police whose wiretaps and informants monitored citizens

    祕密警察

  • for any hint of disloyalty.

    任何不忠誠的暗示。

  • While there was free health care and education in the East,

    雖然東方有免費的醫療和教育。

  • the West boasted hire salaries,

    西方吹噓的僱傭工資。

  • more consumer goods,

    更多的消費品。

  • and greater personal freedom.

    和更大的個人自由。

  • By 1961, about 3.5 million people, nearly 20% of the East German population,

    到1961年,約350萬人,佔東德人口的近20%。

  • had left, including many young professionals.

    已經離開,包括許多年輕的專業人員。

  • To prevent further losses,

    為了防止進一步的損失。

  • East Germany decided to close the border, and that's where the Berlin Wall came in.

    東德決定關閉邊界,這就是柏林牆的作用。

  • Extending for 43 kilometers through Berlin,

    延伸43公里穿過柏林。

  • and a further 112 through East Germany,

    並且進一步在東德境內延伸了112公里。

  • the initial barrier consisted of barbed wire and mesh fencing.

    最初的屏障由鐵絲網和網狀圍欄組成。

  • Some Berliners escaped by jumping over the wire

    一些柏林人跳過鐵絲網逃過一劫

  • or leaving from windows,

    或從窗口離開。

  • but as the wall expanded, this became more difficult.

    但隨著牆體的擴大,這一點變得更加困難。

  • By 1965, 106 kilometers of 3.6-meter-high concrete barricades had been added

    到1965年,增加了106公里3.6米高的水泥路障。

  • topped with a smooth pipe to prevent climbing.

    頂上用光滑的管子,防止攀爬。

  • Over the coming years, the barrier was strengthened with spike strips,

    在接下來的幾年裡,用釘條加固了屏障。

  • guard dogs,

    警犬。

  • and even landmines,

    甚至地雷。

  • along with 302 watchtowers and 20 bunkers.

    以及302個瞭望塔和20個地堡。

  • A parallel fence in the rear set off a 100-meter area called the death strip.

    後面的平行柵欄襯托出一個100米的區域,稱為死亡地帶。

  • There, all buildings were demolished and the ground covered with sand

    在那裡,所有的建築物都被拆除了,地面上鋪滿了沙子。

  • to provide a clear line of sight for the hundreds of guards

    為數百名衛兵提供清晰的視線。

  • ordered to shoot anyone attempting to cross.

    命令射殺任何試圖越境的人。

  • Nevertheless, nearly 5,000 people in total managed to flee East Germany

    然而,總共有近5,000人設法逃離了東德。

  • between 1961 and 1989.

    1961年至1989年期間。

  • Some were diplomats or athletes who defected while abroad,

    有的是在國外叛逃的外交官或運動員。

  • but others were ordinary citizens who dug tunnels,

    但其他人都是挖地道的普通市民。

  • swam across canals,

    遊過運河。

  • flew hot air balloons,

    飛了熱氣球。

  • or even crashed a stolen tank through the wall.

    甚至將一輛偷來的坦克撞破牆壁。

  • Yet the risk was great.

    然而風險很大。

  • Over 138 people died while attempting escape.

    超過138人在試圖逃跑時死亡。

  • Some shot in full view of West Germans powerless to help them.

    有些人在西德人無力幫助他們的情況下被槍殺。

  • The wall stabilized East Germany's economy by preventing its work force from leaving,

    隔離牆阻止了東德的勞動力離開,穩定了東德的經濟'。

  • but tarnished its reputation,

    卻玷汙了它的名聲。

  • becoming a global symbol of Communist repression.

    成為共產黨鎮壓的全球象徵。

  • As part of reconciliation with the East,

    作為與東方和解的一部分。

  • the Basic Treaty of 1972 recognized East Germany pragmatically

    1972年基本條約》對東德的承認是實事求是的。

  • while West Germany retained its hope for eventual reunification.

    而西德則保留了最終統一的希望。

  • Although the Eastern regime gradually allowed family visits,

    雖然東方政權逐漸允許探親。

  • it tried to discourage people from exercising these rights

    它試圖阻止人們行使這些權利;

  • with an arduous bureaucratic process and high fees.

    官僚程序繁瑣,費用高昂。

  • Nonetheless, it was still overwhelmed by applications.

    儘管如此,它仍然被申請所淹沒。

  • By the end of the 1980's,

    到20世紀80年代末'年代。

  • the liberalization of other Eastern Bloc regimes

    其他東歐國家政權的自由化;

  • caused mass demonstrations for free travel and demands for democracy.

    引起了要求自由旅行和要求民主的民眾示威。

  • On the evening of November 9, 1989,

    1989年11月9日晚上,

  • East Germany tried to defuse tension by making travel permits easier to obtain.

    東德試圖通過使旅行許可更容易獲得來化解緊張局勢。

  • But the announcement brought thousands of East Berliners

    但這個消息讓成千上萬的東柏林人

  • to the border crossing points in the wall,

    牆的過境點。

  • forcing the surprised guards to open the gates immediately.

    迫使驚訝的守衛立即打開大門。

  • Rejoicing crowds poured into West Berlin

    歡慶的人群湧入西柏林。

  • as people from both sides danced atop the wall.

    當雙方的人在城牆上跳舞時。

  • And others began to demolish it with whatever tools they could find.

    而其他人則開始用他們能找到的任何工具拆除它。

  • Although the border guards initially tried to maintain order,

    雖然邊防軍最初試圖維持秩序。

  • it was soon clear that the years of division were at an end.

    很快,多年的分裂就結束了。

  • After four decades, Germany was officially reunified in October 1990.

    40年後,德國於1990年10月正式統一。

  • And the Soviet Union fell soon after.

    而蘇聯很快就垮臺了。

  • Today, parts of the wall still stand as a reminder

    今天,部分牆體仍在提醒著我們

  • that any barriers we put up to impede freedom,

    我們設置的任何障礙都會妨礙自由。

  • we can also break down.

    我們也可以分解。

In the early hours of August 13, 1961,

1961年8月13日凌晨。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 東德 西德 蘇聯 柏林 德國

【TED-Ed】柏林圍牆落下與起來 (The rise and fall of the Berlin Wall - Konrad H. Jarausch)

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