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  • Each year in the United States,

    每年在美國

  • players of sports and recreational activities

    運動和休閒活動

  • receive between 2.5 and 4 million concussions.

    會產生約二百五到四百萬的腦震盪病患

  • How dangerous are all those concussions?

    這些腦震蕩到底有多危險?

  • The answer is complicated,

    這個問題答案相當的複雜

  • and lies in how the brain responds when something strikes it.

    跟據大腦如何回應當時的撞擊

  • The brain is made of soft fatty tissue, with a consistency something like jello.

    大腦是由柔軟的脂肪組織和像是果凍的黏稠液體所組成的

  • Inside its protective membranes and the skull's hard casing,

    在它的保護膜和頭蓋骨內

  • this delicate organ is usually well-shielded.

    這個脆弱的組織通常是被保護的很好

  • But a sudden jolt can make the brain shift

    但是突然一晃腦袋可能會移位

  • and bump against the skull's hard interior,

    和碰撞到頭蓋骨內側

  • and unlike jello, the brain's tissue isn't uniform.

    不像果凍,大腦的組織不是均勻的

  • It's made of a vast network of 90 billion neurons,

    它由廣闊網路的九百億條神經所組成

  • which relay signals through their long axons to communicate throughout the brain

    腦神經轉達神經信息通過它們的長軸突讓通訊遍及大腦

  • and control our bodies.

    才能控制我們的身體

  • This spindly structure makes them very fragile

    這個外表上單薄的結構使得他們他們非常容易損壞

  • so that when impacted, neurons will stretch and even tear.

    所以當受到衝擊,神經元會伸縮和甚至撕裂

  • That not only disrupts their ability to communicate

    這不僅會干擾它們的通訊能力

  • but as destroyed axons begin to degenerate,

    這不僅會干擾它們的通訊能力

  • they also release toxins causing the death of other neurons, too.

    他們會釋放毒素,造成其它的神經元也一起死亡

  • This combination of events causes a concussion.

    這些事件的組合造成腦震盪

  • The damage can manifest in many different ways

    這些傷害能夠很明顯,有許多不同的呈現方式

  • including blackout,

    包括暫時的意識喪失

  • headache,

    頭痛

  • blurry vision,

    視力模糊

  • balance problems,

    失去平衡

  • altered mood and behavior,

    改變心情和行為

  • problems with memory, thinking, and sleeping,

    記憶、思考和睡眠出現問題

  • and the onset of anxiety and depression.

    然後開始焦慮和沮喪

  • Every brain is different,

    每顆腦袋都不一樣

  • which explains why people's experiences of concussions vary so widely.

    這說明了為何人們經歷到的腦震盪如此不同

  • Luckily, the majority of concussions fully heal

    幸運地,大多數的腦震盪都會痊癒

  • and symptoms disappear within a matter of days or weeks.

    在數天或數週症狀會消失

  • Lots of rest and a gradual return to activity

    多休息和逐步回復活動

  • allows the brain to heal itself.

    能讓腦袋自我修復

  • On the subject of rest,

    至於休息這件事

  • many people have heard that you're not supposed to sleep

    大多數的人們所相信的是「你不應該去睡覺」

  • shortly after receiving a concussion because you might slip into a coma.

    受到腦震盪後去睡覺可能會陷入昏迷

  • That's a myth.

    無稽之談

  • So long as doctors aren't concerned there may also be a more severe brain injury,

    常久以來,醫生們不擔心睡覺可能會讓大腦受到更嚴重的傷害

  • like a brain bleed,

    像腦出血

  • there's no documented problem with going to sleep after a concussion.

    目前沒有文件指出受到腦震盪後跑去睡覺有問題

  • Sometimes, victims of concussion can experience something

    有些時候,腦震盪受害者會經歷一些

  • called post-concussion syndrome, or PCS.

    稱為腦震盪後症狀也就是 PCS

  • People with PCS may experience constant headaches,

    得到腦震盪症候群的人可能會經歷持續的頭痛

  • learning difficulties,

    學習障礙

  • and behavioral symptoms that even affect their personal relationships

    行為症狀甚至去影響他們的人際關係

  • for months or years after the injury.

    在發生傷害後,持續數個月或數年

  • Trying to play through a concussion, even for only a few minutes,

    若腦震盪後繼續活動就算只有數分鐘

  • or returning to sports too soon after a concussion,

    或太快回去運動

  • makes it more likely to develop PCS.

    使得它可能發展成為腦震盪症候群

  • In some cases, a concussion can be hard to diagnose

    在一些案例,腦震盪可能很難診斷出來

  • because the symptoms unfold slowly over time.

    因為症狀不是一直持續

  • That's often true of subconcussive impacts

    這時常發生於輕微腦部撞擊

  • which result from lower impact jolts to the head

    這種對腦部撞擊晃動比較輕

  • than those that cause concussions.

    比起引起腦震盪的撞擊

  • This category of injury doesn't cause noticable symptoms right away,

    這種傷害屬於不會產生立即可以注意到的

  • but can lead to severe degenerative brain diseases over time

    但是隨著時間,這可以導致嚴重的腦部退化疾病

  • if it happens repeatedly.

    如果它重複的發生的話

  • Take soccer players, who are known for repeatedly heading soccer balls.

    以足球員來說,他們不斷的頂球

  • Using a technique called Diffusion Tensor Imaging,

    使用「擴散張量影像」的技術

  • we're beginning to find out what effect that has on the brain.

    才能開始找出腦震盪對大腦的影響

  • This method allows scientists to find large axon bundles

    這個方法讓科學家找出大軸突束

  • and see how milder blows might alter them structurally.

    並觀測多少的輕微撞擊可能會造成結構上的改變

  • In 2013, researchers using this technique discovered

    在2013年,研究員使用這個技術發現

  • that athletes who had headed the ball most,

    那些最常使用頭部頂球的運動員們

  • about 1,800 times a year,

    大約每年一千八百次

  • had damaged the structural integrity of their axon bundles.

    它們的軸突束整體結構已經受到傷害

  • The damage was similar to how a rope will fail

    這種傷害有點類似,繩子斷掉的情況

  • when the individual fibers start to fray.

    一旦繩子中的纖維開始磨損

  • Those players also performed worse on short-term memory tests,

    這些運動員的短期記憶測試表現也較差

  • so even though no one suffered full-blown concussions,

    所以儘管沒有人受到完全腦震盪

  • these subconcussive hits added up to measurable damage over time.

    這些輕微撞擊隨著時間累積傷害

  • In fact, researchers know that an overload of subconcussive hits

    事實上,研究員已經知道腦部受到過多輕微撞擊

  • is linked to a degenerative brain disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy,

    與一種腦袋退化疾病有所關聯,就是「慢性創傷腦病變」

  • or CTE.

    或稱 CTE

  • People with CTE suffer from changes in their mood and behavior

    CTE 患者的心情和行為會出現變化

  • that begin appearing in their 30s or 40s

    於三十歲、四十歲開始出現症狀

  • followed by problems with thinking and memory

    症狀有思考和記憶出現問題

  • that can, in some cases, even result in dementia.

    在某些案例,這甚至會導致失智症

  • The culprit is a protein called Tau.

    凶手就是 Tau 蛋白質

  • Usually, Tau proteins support tiny tubes inside our axons called microtubules.

    通常 Tau 蛋白質會支撐我們軸突內的微管

  • It's thought that repeated subconcussive hits damage the microtubules,

    CTE 可以想成不斷重複輕微撞擊去傷害微管

  • causing the Tau proteins to dislodge and clump together.

    導致 Tau 蛋白質脫離並結塊

  • The clumps disrupt transport and communication along the neuron

    結塊會中斷神經元的訊息通訊能力

  • and drive the breakdown of connections within the brain.

    和破壞腦部神經元之間的連結

  • Once the Tau proteins start clumping together,

    當 Tau 蛋白質開始結塊

  • they cause more clumps to form

    他們會形成更多

  • and continue to spread throughout the brain,

    並繼續蔓延遍布腦部

  • even after head impacts have stopped.

    在頭部撞擊停止後,仍然一直持續著

  • The data show that at least among football players,

    數據顯示至少對美式足球員來說

  • between 50 and 80% of concussions go unreported and untreated.

    大約有百分之五十到八十的腦震盪沒有回報和接受治療

  • Sometimes that's because it's hard to tell

    有時候是因為,它比較難以分辨

  • a concussion has occurred in the first place.

    在剛發生腦震盪時

  • But it's also often due to pressure or a desire to keep going

    但也時常是因為想要繼續打下去的壓力或欲望

  • despite the fact that something's wrong.

    儘管實際情況已經有些不對勁

  • This doesn't just undermine recovery.

    這不只會破壞復原能力

  • It's also dangerous.

    同時也很危險

  • Our brains aren't invincible.

    我們的腦不是無敵的

  • They still need us to shield them from harm

    仍然需要我們去保護他們不受到傷害

  • and help them undo damage once it's been done.

    和當發生傷害時的回復

Each year in the United States,

每年在美國

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 腦震盪 撞擊 腦部 症狀 通訊

【TED-Ed】當您腦震盪時發生了什麼 (What happens when you have a concussion? - Clifford Robbins)

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    Aming Chiang 發佈於 2017 年 11 月 05 日
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