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  • Two to six percent of people self-identify as

    有百分之二到六的人自認為

  • having predominantly homosexual attractions

    有同性戀傾向

  • and, while there are many social and political theories on why,

    許多社會學及政治學理論解釋了同性戀的生成原因

  • what does science say? Is being gay genetic and,

    究竟科學如何解讀?同性戀是否與基因有關?

  • if so, do we all have a gay gene?

    若答案為肯定,是否每個人都有同性戀基因?

  • In the nineties, two studies using the human genome project

    90年代,有兩項以人類染色體進行的研究

  • found that gay men have a higher number of homosexual relatives compared to heterosexual men

    研究發現比起異性戀,同性戀者有更多同性戀親戚

  • and that gay siblings have similar linkages

    另外,同性戀者的兄弟姊妹

  • on their X chromosome, showing a high level of genetic heritability.

    X染色體上有相似的區間,顯示出高度基因遺傳性

  • A more recent study of four hundred and nine gay siblings

    近期一項針對409名同性戀手足的研究

  • also found linkages in a specific region

    也發現X染色體上有相似的特定區段

  • of the X chromosome labelled Xq28

    該區段標記為 Xq28

  • and in another region of chromosome 8.

    另一在8號染色體上的區段也與此相關

  • Furthermore a 2014 analysis of fifty years of research

    此外,2014年有人分析了一項歷經50年的研究

  • found gay men are more likely to have gay brothers compared to straight men

    發現同性戀男性比起直男,更可能有同性戀兄弟

  • and lesbian women are more likely to have

    而同性戀女性更可能有

  • lesbian sisters, further suggesting the traits are

    同性戀姊妹,進一步顯示同性戀

  • genetically linked and passed on.

    與基因有相關聯

  • But, if homosexuality is, in fact, genetic,

    但是,若同性戀確實與基因有關

  • doesn't this create a paradox?

    那會不會產生矛盾?

  • While some gay people, still have children,

    雖然有些同性戀者還是有小孩

  • overall they have 80% less children than heterosexuals, so

    但整體來說,他們的小孩數量比異性戀少了 80%

  • wouldn't the genes not be passed down and eventually die out?

    這些基因有無可能沒往下遺傳,最後就消失了?

  • Well, a recent UCLA study used epigenetics

    最近一項UCLA(加州大學洛杉磯分校)的研究以表遺傳學的角度

  • to propose that everyone has a gay gene,

    提出每個人都有同性戀基因

  • but it's whether or not the attachment of a methyl group to specific

    但這和附加在DNA某特定區域的甲基團

  • regions of DNA is triggered and turns it on.

    是否被觸發、進而啟動同性戀基因有關

  • Epigenetics is the study of how your environment

    表遺傳學研究環境如何

  • can chemically modify your genes.

    以化學的方式改變您的基因

  • Like, how a queen ant's nutrition and pheromones

    就像蟻后體內的營養和信息素(費洛蒙)

  • can chemically alter an ant embryo to either produce

    能以化學方式改變螞蟻胚胎,同時繁殖出

  • a soldier or worker ant

    兵蟻或工蟻

  • based on what's needed for the colony.

    這一切端視整個蟻群所需

  • The UCLA study used gay and straight male twins

    UCLA透過研究同性戀與非同性戀的男性雙胞胎

  • and found that a specific methylation pattern was closely linked to sexual orientation.

    發現某特定的甲基化結構與性別取向息息相關

  • The model was able to predict the sexuality of men with 70% accuracy,

    並能預測男性的性取向,準確率達70%

  • but this data used a small subset of people,

    但此數據來自少數子集內的人

  • and there is some controversy around the research.

    整個研究也存在爭議

  • Ultimately, a specific gay gene has not been found, but scientific evidence

    最終並沒有發現特定的同性戀基因,但科學證據

  • does suggest that human sexual orientation

    的確指出人類的性別取向

  • is strongly linked to genetics and tightly regulated at the molecular level.

    與基因具強烈關聯,並受分子層面緊密控制

  • It's even been found that giving birth to a son

    研究甚至發現,生下男孩後

  • increases the odds of homosexuality in the next son

    下一個兒子是同性戀的機率

  • by 33% relative to the baseline population.

    會增加33%,此數據與人口基數有關

  • If an older brother is from a different mother, there is no effect seen.

    假如是同父異母的哥哥,就沒有影響

  • This has led some researchers to believe that male pregnancy

    這項結果讓研究人員相信懷上男寶寶

  • triggers a biological mechanism that affects the mother's successive births.

    會觸發某種生物機制,影響媽媽的下一胎

  • A meta-analysis also found that

    一項整合分析也發現

  • statistically, homosexual men

    以統計來看,同性戀男性

  • have more older brothers than heterosexual men.

    有哥哥的機率比異性戀男性高

  • Another study found that women exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero

    另一項研究發現,女性子宮若睪丸激素量多

  • have higher rates of being not straight.

    寶寶有更高機率成為非異性戀

  • So, why does this happen?

    所以,這到底是怎麼一回事?

  • The gay uncle hypothesis suggests that gay members of a family that don't reproduce

    同性戀叔叔假設解釋,家族中同性戀成員就算不生育

  • still increase the prevalence of their family's genes in future generations

    仍會增加家族後代的同性戀基因

  • by helping to provide resources for offspring that they're related to.

    因為他們的後代會接觸到更多和同性戀相關的事物

  • After all, it's not just survival of the fittest individual,

    畢竟,這不僅只是適者生存

  • but the fittest family.

    還關係到整個家族

  • Studies also show that there are lower levels of hostility

    研究還指出,同性戀男性敵意較低

  • and higher levels of emotional intelligence,

    有較高的情商

  • compassion and cooperation in gay men,

    更富有同理心及合作精神

  • which may also increase altruism and survival in human groups.

    如此也讓他們在人群中更具利他性及生存能力

  • Another hypothesis suggests that genes from homosexuality

    另一項假設提出同性戀者的基因

  • are ultimately coding for attraction

    讓他們更具吸引力

  • meaning female relatives of gay men who share the same gene

    這表示與同性戀男性享有相同基因的女性親戚

  • will also have stronger attractions to men,

    對男性也更有吸引力

  • providing an evolutionary advantage.

    提供了演化上的優勢

  • And, studies have shown that these females have more babies on average.

    此外,研究顯示這些女性平均來說有更多小孩

  • The same would be true of lesbians and their straight male relatives.

    同樣的情形也出現在女同性戀和他們的直男親戚

  • The famous scientist E.O. Wilson once said

    著名的科學家 E.O. Wilson曾說

  • "Homosexuality gives advantages to the group.

    「同性戀給整個群體帶來優勢

  • A society that condemns homosexuality condemns itself."

    社會譴責同性戀也就是在譴責自己。」

  • Historically, science has not been kind to the queer community.

    歷史上,科學界對同性戀族群並不友善

  • In the past, it was generally accepted that the

    過去普遍認為

  • brains and bodies of homosexuals were presumed to be

    同性戀者的大腦和身體

  • of lower status, with a popular belief that homosexual behaviour

    較低等,並深信同性戀行為

  • was a result of defective development.

    是發育上的缺陷所造成

  • Even some LGBTQ2S people fear that scientific research

    甚至有些LGBTQ2S人士害怕科學研究

  • could "other" the community

    可能會把他們變成「另類」族群

  • and be used to exploit or hurt people.

    讓他們受到剝削或傷害

  • Even from the available research, it's clear that most

    從現行的研究來看,大多數的

  • studies only focus on gay men and neglect other groups.

    研究僅針對同性戀男性,卻忽略了其他族群

  • But more research on the genetic and epigenetic factors of homosexuality

    不過與同性戀有關的基因及表遺傳學研究越多

  • will decrease homophobic laws around the world

    就能減少世界上因「恐同」而生的法律

  • by further proving that being gay is not a choice.

    並進一步證明同性戀是無法選擇的

  • But, could we ever genetically get rid of homosexuality?

    不過我們能從基因上根除同性戀嗎?

  • Watch our second video where we discuss if it's possible and the implications

    請收看第二集影片,我們將討論其可能性及

  • of continued study into this field.

    該領域未來的研究方向

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.

    歡迎訂閱本頻道收看更多科普影片,每週四見

Two to six percent of people self-identify as

有百分之二到六的人自認為

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 同性戀 基因 研究 男性 異性戀 染色體

每個人都有同志基因嗎? (Does Everybody Have A Gay Gene?)

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    韓澐 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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