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  • Hello.

    哈囉

  • My name is Emma, and in today's video I am going to teach you how to be better at conversation and speaking. Okay?

    我是 Emma,在今天的影片,我要教你們如何增進英文對話和口說

  • So, in this video I'm going to teach you about how to become better at conversation with a technique.

    所以在這影片中,我會教你們一個技巧來增進你們的英文對話

  • We call the technique "F-O-R-D" or "FORD."

    我們稱這個技巧為「 F- O- R- D 」或是「 FORD 」

  • This technique will really help you if you're shy, if when you meet people for the first time you don't know what to say,

    如果你們是個害羞的人,或是第一次與他人見面,而不知道要說些什麼時,這個技巧對你們會很有幫助

  • if you feel very uncomfortable at parties or in meetings or any social events.

    或是如果在派對、會議、或其他的社交活動中覺得不自在時

  • This is a great technique.

    這會是一個極好的技巧

  • Even if you're amazing at socializing, this video can still really help you even improve more than what you already can do.

    就算你們是個社交高手,這影片仍然會讓你們更進一步地增進自己的英文能力

  • So let's get started.

    所以我們一起來看看吧

  • Okay, so the first thing I want to talk about is we use FORD as a way of small talk.

    首先, FORD 這個技巧是用來 small talk 的

  • So, what is small talk? Okay?

    small talk 是什麼意思呢?

  • Small talk is the type of conversation we have with people we don't know well or strangers.

    Small talk 是一種我們與他人,不太熟的或是陌生人,彼此之間的對話形式

  • So, you might make small talk with your neighbours, you might make small talk with your boss,

    所以你們可能會跟鄰居閒聊,你們也可能會跟老闆閒聊

  • with your colleagues, maybe if you're, you know, going to a coffee shop you might make small talk with the store clerk.

    或是和同事,或是可能你去一間咖啡店時,會跟店員閒聊

  • So, you make small talk with people you don't know well and it's just a way to make people

    你們與不熟的人閒聊,這種閒聊的方式會讓人

  • feel comfortable in conversation and to create a connection with people.

    感到放鬆,並且與他們有所連結

  • A lot of conversation is small talk.

    有很多對話方式都是屬於閒聊

  • If anyone has ever talked to you about the weather, sports, you know, all sorts of different topics -

    如果有人跟你們聊過天氣、運動,各種不一樣的主題,

  • these are usually small talk topics.

    這些通常就是屬於閒聊的主題

  • So, again, you might make small talk at parties, in elevators, at meetings,

    所以再說一次,你們可能會在派對、電梯、會議中閒聊

  • even if you're taking English classes, you will probably make small talk there as well.

    即使你們在上英文課時,也可能會在課堂中閒聊

  • So, how do we get good at small talk?

    所以我們要如何變得擅長閒聊呢?

  • What do we talk about when we don't know what to talk about?

    我們要在不知道要聊什麼的時候,該聊些什麼呢?

  • Well, that's where FORD comes in.

    恩,這就是使用 FORD 的時機

  • FORD is a technique which will help you know what to talk about when you really have no idea.

    FORD 能幫助你在不知道要聊什麼的時候,想到話題可以聊

  • So maybe this has been you before.

    這位可能就是過去的你

  • Okay? Maybe this is you: "What should I talk about? Ah."

    你可能會說:「我該講些什麼?痾...」

  • Or, you know, maybe it's just a bunch of question marks.

    或是就可能會出現一堆問號

  • "I don't know what to say."

    「我不知道要說些什麼」

  • It's totally silent. It's awkward.

    非常安靜,很彆扭

  • So, how can we fix this situation?

    所以我們要怎麼改善這個情況呢?

  • Well, FORD stands for four things.

    FORD 代表四件事情

  • "F" stands for "family."

    「F」指的是「家人」

  • You can talk about family, and I'm going to give you some great questions

    你們可以聊到家人,我會給你們幾個很好的問題

  • you can use to ask about somebody's family.

    你可以問的,有關他的家庭的問題

  • "O" stands for "occupation" or" job."

    「O」指的是「職業」或是「工作」

  • I'm going to give you some great questions about occupation that

    我會給你們幾個很好的工作問題

  • you can ask somebody you don't know well to keep the conversation going.

    可以用來問不熟的人,並持續你們的對話

  • "R" stands for "recreation," this is like hobbies, sports, movies, Netflix, TV. Okay?

    「R」指的是「消遣」。就像是嗜好、運動、電影、Netflix、電視

  • So I'm going to give you some great questions for hobbies or recreation.

    所以我會給你們幾個很好的嗜好或是消遣的問題

  • And finally, "D" stands for "dreams."

    而最後「D」指的是「夢想」

  • This is when you ask somebody about their future goals or, you know, something they want to do.

    這是你們問他人對未來的計畫,或是他們想要做的事情

  • This does not...

    這字不是指...

  • Dreams does not mean when you go to sleep, if you have some weird dream and you share it with somebody.

    Dreams 不是指你們睡覺時,夢到奇怪的夢,跟他人分享那種夢

  • I'm not talking about that.

    我說的不是那個意思「Dreams (夢)」

  • I'm talking about your dreams in life.

    我說的是你們對生活的期許

  • What are your goals? Okay?

    你們有什麼樣的目標?

  • So using the FORD technique will make you better at small talk.

    所以用 FORD 這個技巧可以提升你們的閒聊能力

  • So, now let's look at some specific questions you can ask when you're socializing with somebody

    我們現在來看幾個具體的問題,可以在與他人社交時問的

  • who you don't know that well.

    跟那些不熟悉的人可以聊到的

  • Okay, so again, the "F" in FORD stands for "family."

    所以 FORD 裡的「F」代表的是「家人」

  • Family is a great thing to talk about, but remember to keep it light and easy. Okay?

    家人是一個很好聊的主題,不過記得要讓對話保持一個輕鬆以及無壓力的

  • You want to talk about things people are comfortable with.

    你想與他人聊會讓他們自在的話題

  • So don't ask them any private questions, you know, like:

    所以不要問任何私人的問題,就像是:

  • "Oh, is it true so-and-so cheated on so-and-so?"

    「哦,某某某劈腿某某某是真的嗎?」

  • No, no, no. Keep it light, simple, and easy.

    千萬不要這樣,保持一個輕鬆、簡單、無壓力的聊天方式

  • And also share about your own family, too. Okay?

    也不要忘記分享你們自己的家人

  • That's also very important.

    這點也是很重要

  • You don't want to sound like the FBI interrogating somebody.

    你們不會想聽起來像個 FBI 一樣地質詢著某人

  • You want to have a conversation, so each time they say something, you can say something about yourself.

    你們想要有個對話,所以每一次他們分享某事,你也可以說一些關於你自己的事情

  • So keep it kind of balanced.

    維持一種平衡的關係

  • Okay, so one easy question you can talk about: "Where are you from originally?"

    你們可以問一個簡單的問題:「你們來自哪裡?」

  • Okay? "Where are you from?

    「你們哪裡來的?

  • Are you from Toronto?

    你是從多倫多來的嗎?

  • Are you from Tokyo?

    你是從東京來的嗎?

  • Are you from Istanbul?

    你是從伊斯蘭堡來的嗎?

  • Where are you from?"

    你來自哪裡?」

  • This question is great because you can really talk about the difference between your cities and,

    這個問題非常好,因為你們可以聊彼此城市的不同、還有

  • you know, maybe some of your experiences growing up.

    你們的成長歷程

  • Similarly: "Where did you grow up?"

    類似的問題像是:「你們在哪裡長大的?」

  • A lot of people have moved a lot, so maybe they were born in this city, then they moved

    很多人會一直搬家,所以他們可能之前是在這個城市出生的,然後出生後他們就搬到

  • to Mexico, and then they moved here.

    墨西哥,然後再搬回這裡

  • So that's also another interesting question.

    所以這也是另一個有趣的問題

  • "Do you still have family there?

    「你們還有家人在那邊嗎?

  • Do you still have family in Tokyo?

    你們還有家人在東京嗎?

  • Do you still have family in Istanbul?" Okay?

    你們還有家人在伊斯坦堡嗎?」

  • "How did you meet your boyfriend?," "How did you meet your girlfriend?,"

    「你們是怎麼跟男朋友認識的?」、「你們是怎麼跟女朋友認識的?」

  • "How did you meet your husband/your wife/your partner?"

    「你們是怎麼認識老公/老婆/另一半的?」

  • Okay? Even your friend.

    甚至是你們的朋友也可以

  • So this is a great question because it makes the other person tell a story.

    所以這是一個很好的問題,因為這可以讓他人講一個故事

  • You know, and usually the stories are quite interesting.

    故事總是都很有趣的

  • You know, so this will make the conversation a bit longer which is good.

    所以這會延長你們之間的對話,這樣很好

  • "Do you have any brothers or sisters?,"

    「你們有兄弟姊妹嗎?」

  • "Do you come from a big family or a small family?" Okay?

    「你們家是一個大家庭還是小家庭?」

  • This is a great opener, because then people can talk about their cousins, their aunts,

    這是一個很好打開話題的方式,因為之後他們會提到他們的堂表兄弟姊妹、姑姑、

  • their uncles, what it's like to grow up in a big family.

    叔叔、還有在大家庭中長大的感受

  • Or maybe they grew up in a small family.

    或是他們是在小家庭長大的

  • And you can compare your stories.

    然後你們就可以對比自己的故事

  • If you grew up in a small family, maybe you always wondered what it was like to grow up in a big family, or vice versa.

    如果你是在小家庭長大的,可能總會想如果出生在大家庭會怎樣,反之亦然

  • So it's a great way to show similarities and differences.

    所以這是一個很好的方式來看出相似處和相異處

  • "How is your family?"

    「你的家人過得怎麼樣?」

  • So if you've met the person before, you can ask them this.

    如果你們彼此之間見過面了,你可以問他們這個問題:

  • "How's your family?

    「你的家人還好嗎?

  • How are they doing?"

    他們過得好嗎?」

  • If the person has children, people love talking about their kids usually: "How are your children?" Okay?

    如果那個人有孩子,人們總是愛聊自己的孩子:「你的小孩還好嗎?」

  • "How are your children doing?

    「你們的孩子過得如何?

  • How old are your children?"

    你們的孩子幾歲了?」

  • These questions are really good to ask.

    這些問題都是非常好的

  • Finally, some people might not have children or maybe, you know...

    最後有些人可能沒孩子,就

  • Maybe they have different types of family.

    也有可能他們有著不同的家庭環境

  • Maybe you're on an elevator with somebody and you see they have a dog.

    你們可能和他人在電梯中,看到他們有養一隻狗

  • People also love talking about their pets, and pets are family, too, so feel free to ask about:

    人們也總是愛聊他們的寵物,因為寵物就像是家人一樣,所以就自然地問:

  • "What's your dog's name?

    「你們的狗叫什麼?

  • How old's your dog?"

    你們的狗幾歲了?」

  • You know, all of this... All of these are really good questions to ask.

    就這些都是很好的問題

  • Okay, so now let's look at the "O" which stands for "occupation."

    現在我們來看看「O」,指的是「職業」

  • Okay, so "O," "occupation."

    「O」指的是「職業」

  • What is occupation?

    什麼是 occupation ?

  • Well, usually when we talk about occupation, we're talking about jobs or careers, or sometimes even education.

    恩,通常我們講到 occupation 指的就是工作或是職涯,或有時會指的是教育

  • It's pretty much what you're doing to either make money or, you know, towards a career,

    基本上就是你們賺錢的方法,或是你為職涯鋪路所做的事情

  • although it doesn't always have to be.

    雖然也不一定是如此

  • So, we like to talk about occupation because people know about what they're doing; they

    所以我們喜歡聊到職業,因為人們知道他們在做些什麼,他們

  • know about their job, they know about what they're studying.

    知道他們的工作,他們知道他們在研讀什麼

  • So it's good because it makes the person comfortable with a comfortable topic.

    這很棒,因為這對他人會是一個輕鬆自在的主題

  • So, again, that's the purpose of small talk.

    不要忘記,這就是閒聊的目的

  • We're trying to keep the person feeling comfortable.

    我們是要讓他人感覺到自在

  • Now, the question I like to ask people the most is not: "What is your job?" because sometimes

    「你的工作是什麼?」這問題不是我最愛問他人的,因為有時候

  • people don't have a job or sometimes they're between jobs.

    他人沒有在工作,或是有時候他們待業中(be between jobs 較為婉轉)

  • Sometimes...

    有時候...

  • It happened to me once, the person had just lost their job that day, and it was a very

    我之前遇過一次,那個人那天才剛失業,那時候氣氛變得很

  • awkward, not comfortable discussion after that.

    尷尬,之後的閒聊都不是很自在

  • So what I prefer to ask people is: "What's," so: "What is"

    所以我比較喜歡問人:「 What's 」也就是「 What is 」

  • or "What's keeping you busy these days?"

    或是「你們這幾天在忙些什麼呢?」

  • This way, this gives the person the freedom to talk about what they really want to talk about.

    這樣的方式可以讓他人選擇他們想聊到的事情

  • Maybe they have a lot to say about work, maybe they don't have a job so maybe they'd rather

    他們可能會想要一直聊工作,不過他們也可能沒有工作,所以他們寧願

  • talk about a project they're working on or something interesting they're doing with their time.

    聊他們目前要做的計畫或是做了哪些有趣的事情

  • Or, you know, if they're in school maybe they want to talk about their course.

    或是如果他們在讀書,可能就會想要提到他們上的課程

  • So I think this is actually the best small talk question:

    所以我認為這確實是個最好的閒聊問句:

  • "What's keeping you busy these days?"

    「這幾天你們在忙些什麼呢?」

  • And after they, you know, talk about what's keeping them busy, you can ask a follow-up question:

    他們回答他們最近在忙些什麼事情之後,你們就可以問些相關的問題:

  • "Oh. That's interesting!

    「哦,那真是有趣!

  • How did you get involved with that?"

    你們怎麼會想做那件事情呢?」

  • Or: "How did you get started in that?"

    或是「你們怎麼開始去做那件事情的呢?」

  • You know, if it's work: "How did you get involved in that

    如果是工作的話,可以再問:「你怎麼會

  • with that company?" Okay?

    在那間公司工作呢?」

  • So this is a good follow-up question.

    所以這是一個很好的追問問題

  • You can also, if they are talking about their job, you can ask them:

    你們可以問他們,如果他們在聊自己的工作時:

  • "How long have you been in your field?"

    「你們在那個領域多久了?」

  • You know, maybe they've been doing what they're doing for five years or 10 years. Okay?

    就他們可能已經在那領域做了五或十年了

  • So you can ask more questions about their job.

    所以你們可以問更多關於他們工作的問題

  • "What's the best part of your job?"

    「你們最喜歡工作的哪一部分?」

  • Or if they're a student: "What's the best part of, you know, your course?

    或如果他們是學生:「你們覺得你們的課程哪部分是最好的?

  • What do you like the best?" Okay?

    你們最喜歡哪個課程?」

  • So it's good to get people to talk about what they really like.

    讓人們有機會講他們喜歡的事物是很好的

  • Okay, this is very, very important: In Western culture, we do not like talking about money.

    這非常非常重要:在西方文化中,我們不喜歡聊到金錢

  • In other cultures, it's okay, but in Western culture, it's considered impolite or a little rude.

    在其他文化是可以,但在西方文化中,這是被視為不禮貌或是有點無理的

  • So, if somebody tells you: "Oh, yes, you know, I'm a doctor," and you really want to know:

    所以如果有人告訴你:「哦,我是一位醫生」,然後你們真的想知道的話就會問:

  • "Well, how much money do you make?" you cannot ask that.

    「是哦,那你賺多少錢?」,你們不要問這種問題

  • Okay? So no questions on money, no questions on salary.

    所以沒有金錢和薪水的問題

  • Even if you really want to know, you can't really ask that.

    就算你們真的非常想知道,你們就是千千萬萬不行問

  • So, again: No talk on money or salary.

    記得:不行聊到金錢和薪水

  • Okay, great.

    好了

  • So now let's look at the "R" from FORD, "recreation."

    現在我們來看 FORD 裡的「R」,指的是「休閒」

  • Okay, so recreation.

    關於休閒

  • When we talk about recreation, what we're really talking about is things we do for fun, usually

    我們聊到休閒時,我們就是在聊我們覺得好玩的事情,通常指的是

  • hobbies, interests, anything you really like to do for fun.

    嗜好、興趣、任何你真的覺得好玩的事情

  • So, the key here is when you talk about recreation what you're really trying to do is you're

    所以這邊的重點就是,當你聊到休閒,你就是要試著去

  • trying to find similarities with the other person.

    找到與他人的相似處

  • Okay? So, you know, for example, if you like soccer or football,

    所以你們知道的,例如,如果你們喜歡足球 (football 為英式用法)

  • does the other person like that, too?

    另外那個人也喜歡嗎?

  • If you really like Game of Thrones and you're, you know, really watching it all the time,

    如果你真的很喜歡看《權力遊戲》,隨時都在看

  • does this other person have that similarity?

    另外那個人也有相同的興趣嗎?

  • Are they the same?

    是一樣的興趣嗎?

  • How are you similar?

    你們有什麼共同點?

  • So this is great for really bringing people together.

    所以這是一個與他人有所連結的好方式

  • A lot of the times people really like talking about their interests and hobbies, so this

    很多時候,人們真的都很喜歡聊到他們自己的興趣和嗜好,這樣的話題

  • can get somebody to open up.

    可以讓他人開啟話匣子

  • Okay, so the question I would ask is: "So, what do you do for fun?" Okay?

    所以我會問的問題是:「你們平常休閒時喜歡做什麼?」

  • This leaves it wide open, and the person might say:

    這樣的問題是開放性的,那個人可能會回:

  • "Oh, you know, I like sailing. I love watching soccer. I'm a huge soccer fan." Okay?

    「哦,你們知道的,我喜歡航行。我喜歡看足球賽,我是個足球迷。」

  • And then you can ask them a bunch of follow-up questions and keep the conversation going.

    然後你們就可以接續地問他們更多問題,讓這樣的對話持續下去

  • You can ask them: "Do you play any sports?,"

    你們可以再問他們:「你們喜歡做什麼運動?」

  • "Have you seen any good movies recently, or any good TV shows?"

    「你們最近有看到好電影嗎?或是好的電視劇嗎?」

  • I know in Canada, people really like talking about Netflix, as well as, you know, different TV shows and movies.

    我知道在加拿大,人們都非常喜歡講到 Netflix ,還有不同的電視劇和電影

  • It comes up a lot in conversation, so, you know, if you're in Canada

    這樣的話題時常出現在對話中。所以如果你在加拿大,

  • this is a really good one to use, and I think US and many other places, too.

    這是一個很實用的話題,我想在美國或是很多其他地方也是

  • You can also ask another follow-up question:

    你也可以問另一個延伸問題:

  • "Oh, you know, you like snowboarding.

    「哦,你喜歡滑雪,

  • How did you become interested in that?

    你們怎麼會對那運動有興趣?

  • Tell me the story.

    跟我說這個故事吧

  • How did you become interested in snowboarding?"

    你們是怎麼對滑雪有興趣的?」

  • You can talk about music: "Did you hear Radiohead's new album?

    你們可以聊到音樂:「你們聽過電台司令(英國牛津的搖滾樂)的新專輯嗎?

  • Did you hear Drake's new album? Taylor Swift?" Okay?

    你們聽過德瑞克的新專輯了嗎?還是泰勒絲的?」

  • So you can talk about music.

    所以你們可以聊到音樂

  • There's so many different things you can talk about.

    有很多不同的事情你們都可以聊到

  • One tip about this, though, think about...

    這邊倒是有個小技巧,想想看...

  • Remember I said you want to share about yourself, you want to talk about yourself, too?

    記得我剛說過你也想要分享你自己,聊聊自己的事情,對吧?

  • When you talk about recreation, make sure you're not taking over the conversation. Okay?

    當你們聊到休閒時,小心不要讓對話都圍繞在你身上

  • For example, if you love soccer and somebody asks you these questions,

    例如,如果你喜歡足球,有人問你這些問題,

  • make sure you don't keep the focus on soccer for the next hour. Okay?

    確定你沒有在接下來的一小時都在講足球

  • Make sure that there's a...

    確定在對話中...

  • It's a conversation, you're both asking each other questions and, you know, pay attention to the cues.

    這是一個對話,你們彼此都要問對方問題,就還要注意到對方發出的小暗示

  • Maybe somebody wants to talk a little bit about something, but not for the whole time. Okay?

    或許那個人想要講一下某件事情,但可能只想提一下而已

  • So when you talk about recreation, it's really good, but also pay attention to what you're saying about yourself.

    所以當你們在聊休閒時,這是非常好的,但是也要注意你分享的事情

  • All right, so now the last one is "D."

    好了,現在我們來看最後一個「D」

  • "D" stands for "dreams." Okay?

    「D」指的是「夢想」

  • So let's talk a little bit about: What questions can we ask about dreams?

    我們來講講:關於夢想有哪些問題是我們可以問的?

  • Okay, so dreams.

    恩,關於夢想

  • When I talk about dreams, what I'm really talking about is motivations and goals.

    當我聊到夢想,我指的是動機和目標

  • What do you want to do in your life? Okay?

    你的人生想要達到什麼?

  • So, again, I am not talking about the dreams you have when you sleep.

    再提醒一次,我說的不是你們睡覺時的夢 (dreams)

  • Usually those don't make the greatest small talk.

    通常這種話題不會是最好的話題

  • So these are your goals in life. Okay?

    所以這指的是你們生活中的目標

  • So, one thing I wanted to say before we get into these questions is small talk can be

    所以這裡有一件事情我想先說,就是這些閒聊的問題可以是

  • a great opportunity to learn about other people. Okay?

    了解其他人很好的方式

  • So, I recommend smile during small talk because that will make that connection.

    所以我建議可以在閒聊的時候多微笑,因為微笑能增進彼此間的關係

  • Listen, you know, instead of being so focused on stress and:

    傾聽,與其一直擔心著,緊張於

  • "Oh my god, what if I make a mistake with my English?"

    「哦,我的天啊,萬一我英文用錯了怎麼辦?」

  • Or, you know: "Oh no, there's a silence."

    或者是:「喔不,沉默了」

  • Sometimes it's nice just to focus on what the other person is saying.

    有時候單純專注地聽著其他人講的話是很不錯的

  • Learn about the other person. Okay?

    認識一下其他人

  • What motivates them?

    什麼東西會激勵他們?

  • What gets them up in the morning?

    什麼事情讓他們有動力起床?

  • What is their...?

    他們有什麼...?

  • You know, what are their dreams?

    他們有什麼夢想呢?

  • These can be very interesting things to learn about.

    這些會是很有趣的事情

  • So, smile, listen, and learn.

    所以要微笑、傾聽,並且了解

  • Okay, so when we talk about dreams you can talk about short-term dreams or long-term dreams.

    我們聊到夢想,你們可以聊近來的目標或長期的夢想

  • For example, the summer: "Any plans for the summer?

    例如,像是夏天時:「夏天有什麼計畫嗎?

  • Are you going anywhere this summer?

    這個夏天你有要去哪個地方呢?

  • What are you going to do this summer?"

    你這個夏天要做些什麼呢?」

  • So that's kind of a short-term goal or dream.

    這種就是近來的目標或是夢想

  • I find people love talking about travel, so I find that when you talk about travel, it

    我發現人們都愛聊旅行,所以當你在聊旅行時

  • can really open up conversation.

    這個話題很能打開人們的話匣子

  • So: "If you could travel anywhere in the world, where would you go?"

    「如果你可以到任何地方旅行,你會去哪裡?」

  • You know: "What are your top three countries to visit?

    也就是說:「你最想去哪三個國家呢?

  • Have you been to any countries before?

    你們之前有去過其他國家嗎?

  • Is this your first trip?"

    這是你第一次出國旅行嗎?」

  • People really like talking about where they want to travel, what they want to see, and what they want to do.

    人們總是很愛聊到他們想去哪裡旅行,他們想看些什麼,以及他們想做些什麼

  • It really excites them.

    他們對這類話題非常有興趣