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  • Few individuals have influenced the world and many of today's thinkers like Plato.

    很少有人像柏拉圖那樣 影響了今日的世界和許多當代的思想家

  • One 20th century philosopher even went so far

    一位 20 世紀的哲學家甚至形容

  • as to describe all of Western philosophy as a series of footnotes to Plato.

    所有的西方哲學 都是柏拉圖學說的註腳

  • He created the first Western university

    他創立第一所西方的大學

  • and was teacher to Ancient Greece's greatest minds,

    也是古希臘很多偉大思想家的老師

  • including Aristotle.

    學生包括亞里士多德

  • But even one of the founders of philosophy wasn't perfect.

    但即使身為哲學奠基者之一 他並不完美

  • Along with his great ideas,

    除了他的偉大學說

  • Plato had a few that haven't exactly stood the test of time.

    柏拉圖有一些說法 未能真的通過時間的考驗

  • So here are brief rundowns of a few of his best and worst ideas.

    接下來快速介紹幾個 他最棒和最差的理念

  • Plato argued that beyond our imperfect world

    柏拉圖辯說 在我們不完美的世界之外

  • was a perfect unchanging world of Forms.

    是個完美不變的「理型」世界

  • Forms are the ideal versions of the things and concepts we see around us.

    理型是我們觀看周遭事物 和概念的理想版本

  • They serve as a sort of instruction manual to our own world.

    類似我們世界的使用指南

  • Floating around the world of Forms is the ideal tree,

    理型世界的周圍漂浮著完美之樹

  • and the ideal YouTube channel,

    和完美的 YouTube 頻道

  • and even the ideal justice,

    甚至是完美的正義

  • or ideal love.

    或完美的愛

  • Our own reality is comprised of imperfect copies of ideal Forms.

    我們的現實世界 是由不完美的理型複本所組成

  • Plato argued that philosophers should strive to contemplate

    柏拉圖辯稱哲學家應該努力思考

  • and understand these perfect Forms

    並理解這些完美的理型

  • so that they may better navigate our misleading reality.

    或許能在這誤導的現實裡導航

  • While it may seem silly,

    雖然看似愚蠢

  • the disconnect between the world as it appears

    但世界表象與其背後真相之間的落差

  • and the greater truth behind it

    是最惱人的一個哲學問題

  • is one of philosophy's most vexing problems.

    長久以來有很多人探討這個主題

  • It's been the subject of thousands of pages by theologians,

    包括神學家、哲學家

  • philosophers,

    和劇作家等

  • and screenwriters alike.

    因而提出像是這樣的問題: 為得到真理,我們該信任自己的感性

  • It raises questions like should we trust our senses to come to the truth

    或是理性?

  • or our own reason?

    柏拉圖認為答案是理性

  • For Plato, the answer is reason.

    單單理性就至少提供我們 思考理型的潛力

  • It alone provides us with at least the potential to contemplate the Forms.

    但柏拉圖自己的理性並非總成功

  • But reason didn't always pan out for Plato himself.

    當他尋覓人類在動物間的擺放位置時

  • When he sought to situate humankind amongst the animals,

    把我們與鳥類擺在一塊兒

  • he lumped us in with birds.

    「無羽毛的兩足動物」 是他的正式命名

  • "Featherless bipeds" was his official designation.

    犬儒學派的戴奥基尼斯 對這個定義十分不滿

  • Diogenes the Cynic, annoyed by this definition,

    帶著一隻拔了毛的雞 衝進柏拉圖的教室

  • stormed into Plato's class with a plucked chicken,

    大聲宣佈: 「看哪,這是柏拉圖所謂的人類。」

  • announcing, "Behold. Plato's man."

    我們回來看柏拉圖的一些偉大理念

  • But back to a few good ideas.

    柏拉圖是史上最早的政治理論家之一

  • Plato is one of the earliest political theorists on record,

    與亞里士多德 同被視為政治學的奠基人

  • and with Aristotle, is seen as one of the founders of political science.

    他認為統治者與其他專家沒什麼差別

  • He reasoned that being a ruler was no different than any other craft,

    不論是製陶工人或是醫生

  • whether a potter or doctor,

    只有熟練掌握所需技能的人 才適合領導

  • and that only those who had mastered the craft were fit to lead.

    統治是一項思考理型的技藝

  • Ruling was the craft of contemplating the Forms.

    在《理想國》裡,他想像一個 終極目標是正義的烏托邦

  • In his Republic, Plato imagined a utopia where justice is the ultimate goal.

    柏拉圖的理想城市 尋求每個各別部分和諧共處

  • Plato's ideal city seeks a harmonious balance between its individual parts

    且應由哲學家國王所統治

  • and should be lead by a philosopher king.

    柏拉圖早在千年以前

  • Millennia before his time,

    就認為女人具有同等的能力 可以統治這個模範城市

  • Plato also reasoned that women were equally able to rule in this model city.

    可惜柏拉圖對於女性的觀點並不一致

  • Unfortunately, Plato was inconsistent with women,

    他在別處把她們比做孩童

  • elsewhere likening them to children.

    他還認為女人的子宮 是個活生生的動物

  • He also believed that a woman's womb was a live animal

    會在女性身體裡遊走 並引致疾病

  • that could wander around in her body and cause illness.

    這個愚蠢的想法 也被柏拉圖那一代的人奉為圭臬

  • This bad idea, also espoused by other contemporaries of Plato,

    很不幸地影響了幾百年的歐洲醫學

  • was sadly influential for hundreds of years in European medicine.

    此外,他認為社會上的人 應該分類成三類:

  • Furthermore, he thought that society should be divided into three groups:

    生產者

  • producers,

    戰鬥者

  • the military,

    和統治者

  • and the rulers,

    而有個高尚的謊言

  • and that a great noble lie should convince everyone to follow this structure.

    應能說服每個人遵從這結構

  • The noble lie he proposed

    他提出的高尚謊言是

  • was that we're all born with gold, silver, or a mixture of brass and iron

    我們生而有著金、銀 或銅鐵的混合物

  • in our souls,

    存在靈魂裡

  • which determine our roles in life.

    進而決定了我們人生所要擔當的角色

  • Some thinkers have gone on to credit the idea of the noble lie

    有些思想家甚至認為他的高尚謊言

  • as a prototype for 20th century propaganda,

    正是 20 世紀政治宣傳的雛型

  • and the philosopher king as inspiration for the dictators that used them.

    他的「哲學家國王」想法 啟發獨裁者利用它

  • Should a few bad ideas

    這些少數的差勁理念

  • tarnish Plato's status as one of the greatest philosophers in history?

    應該動搖柏拉圖身為史上 最偉大哲學家之一的地位嗎?

  • No!

    當然不!

  • Plato gave the leaders and thinkers who came after him a place to start.

    柏拉圖給後世的領袖 和思想家一個起始點

  • Through the centuries,

    多個世紀以來

  • we've had the chance to test those ideas through writing and experience,

    我們得以從寫作和經驗中 測試那些想法

  • and have accepted some while rejecting others.

    接受了一些,而駁回其他的

  • We are continuing to refine, amend, and edit his ideas

    我們持續改進、修正和編輯他的想法

  • which have become foundations of the modern world.

    後來成為現代社會的基礎

Few individuals have influenced the world and many of today's thinkers like Plato.

很少有人像柏拉圖那樣 影響了今日的世界和許多當代的思想家

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 柏拉圖 哲學家 完美 統治 理性

TED-Ed】柏拉圖最好(和最壞)的想法--慧眼識珠。 (【TED-Ed】Plato’s best (and worst) ideas - Wisecrack)

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    小爸 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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