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  • This is Monsanto’s RoundUp.

    這是孟山都(Monsanto)的年年春(RoundUp,註:嘉磷塞除草劑)

  • It’s in cookies, breads, corn, crackers, chips, breakfast cereals, and beer.

    它在餅乾、麵包、玉米、炸洋芋片、早餐麥片和啤酒裡面都有

  • The list goes on, and on, and on.

    還有很多其他的食物也含有年年春

  • The active ingredient in RoundUp is called glyphosate, and it’s used by backyard gardeners

    年年春裡面的活性物質是嘉磷塞,它廣泛被園丁

  • and industrial farmers alike to kill invasive weeds.

    和工業化農業的農夫使用,用來除去雜草

  • And whether glyphosate is harmful to humans or not

    無論嘉磷塞是否對人體有害

  • is something of a 66 billion dollar question

    它可是一個關乎66億產值的事情

  • But first: What is glyphosate?

    但首先我們得先知道,究竟什麼是嘉磷塞呢?

  • Commercial: There’s never been a herbicide like it before.

    廣告:這是史無前例的除草劑

  • Glyphosate was originally introduced in 1974 by Monsanto.

    嘉磷塞最早在1974年被孟山都的化學家研發

  • Its use in American agriculture has soared nearly tenfold since Monsanto introduced the

    在孟山都於1996年引進第一批基因改造的抗嘉磷塞種子後

  • first genetically-modified RoundUp Ready seeds in 1996.

    嘉磷塞在美國農業的使用量翻了十倍

  • Glyphosate is now used in more than 160 countries, with more than 1.4 billion pounds applied per year.

    現在超過160個國家有使用,每年的產量超過14億磅

  • And while Monsanto lost patent protection over glyphosate herbicides in 2000, the company

    雖然孟山都年年春的專利保護在2000年就過期了

  • still has about 40 percent of the 8 billion dollar global herbicide market because of

    但這家公司仍在全球80億的除草劑市場上擁有40%的市佔率

  • what is called thevirtuous cycle”:

    而這是由它帶來的「良性循環」所造成的

  • Monsanto sells its genetically modified RoundUp-ready seeds to produce cotton, corn and other commodities

    孟山都賣他們基因改造的「抗嘉磷塞」棉花、玉米和其他作物的種子給農夫

  • to make them resistant to glyphosate’s herbicidal effects.

    讓這些作物對於嘉磷塞的除草藥效產生抗藥性

  • More sales of the GMO seeds beget more use of Roundup; more herbicide use drives up demand

    更多的基因改造種子帶來更多的年年春需求

  • for Monsanto's GMO seeds.

    而當更多的年年春被賣出時,就會帶來更多的基因改造種子的需求

  • For 25 years that cycle has enjoyed an unblemished run in our crops, soil, and food.

    25年來,這樣的循環在我們的作物、泥土和食物中無懈可擊的運轉著

  • Until now.

    一直到現在

  • Now Monsanto has its own invasive species creeping in: doubt.

    現在孟山都研發出自己的入侵種:懷疑

  • On its website, Monsanto says glyphosate isabout half as toxic as table salt and more

    在孟山都的網站上,他自稱嘉磷塞的毒性只有食鹽的一半

  • than 25 times less toxic than caffeine."

    且比咖啡因還少25倍

  • More than 1,000 farmers and herbicide applicators stricken with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma disagree.

    但超過1000位患有非何杰金氏淋巴瘤的農夫及年年春使用者強烈反對

  • Hundreds of plaintiffs with cancer have filed a class-action lawsuit against the company.

    數以百計的罹癌受害者都已經對孟山都提出集體訴訟

  • In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, known as IARC, determined glyphosate

    在2015年,國際癌症研究機構(簡稱 IARC)

  • to be a “probable carcinogen.”

    指出嘉磷塞是「可能的致癌物質」

  • Remember that 66 billion dollars?

    還記得那66億產值嗎?

  • That’s where this comes in. It’s how much Bayer is offering to buy Monsanto for, but

    這就是問題的癥結點了。66億是拜耳公司願意買下孟山都的價值

  • if glyphosate is thought of as cancer-causing, it may back out of the deal completely.

    但如果嘉磷塞被斷定出是致癌物質,那拜耳可能會打退堂鼓

  • But what would life without glyphosate look like?

    但若沒有了嘉磷塞,會變成怎麼樣?

  • According to Bloomberg agriculture expert Christopher Perrella, it wouldn’t be pretty.

    根據彭博的農業專家 Christopher Perrella 的說法,情況大概不會太好

  • The alternative would be a step back.

    其他的替代品會造成更多問題

  • And it would definitely affect farmers, income, their profitability, the way they do business.

    而且它必定會影響農夫的收入及利潤、他們現在耕作及營運的方式

  • Eventually filters down to the consumer in terms of higher prices for meatsfor all food products.

    漸漸的就會間接影響到消費者,因為肉的價格——以及所有食品的價格都會提高

  • The question now, after the EPA's own hand-picked experts have also voiced concerns, is what

    在美國國家環境保護局內部的專家也提出質疑後,剩下的問題是

  • the Trump EPA will do about it.

    川普的環境保護局會怎麼做?

  • But with administrations from Clinton to Bush to Obama promoting GMOs, it seems unlikely

    但是從克林頓、布希到歐巴馬的行政機關都推從基改食品

  • Trump’s EPA will be any different.

    看來川普的環境保護局也不會做出太大的改變

This is Monsanto’s RoundUp.

這是孟山都(Monsanto)的年年春(RoundUp,註:嘉磷塞除草劑)

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    Tina Hsu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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