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  • Hi I’m Mike Rugnetta, this is Crashcourse Mythology, and today were wrapping up creation

    哈囉!我是麥克‧如格內塔 歡迎收看《神話速成班》

  • myths.


  • Over the past four episodes weve seen the universe created from nothing, via the actions

    在前面四集當中, 我們見識到宇宙怎麼從無至有

  • of earth mothers, sky fathers, and of course, vomiting supreme beings.

    在天父、地母、嘔吐的至高神 他們的手中所創造出來。

  • Weve seen creation used to explore the relationships between parents and children

    我們見識到用來探討親子關係、 兩性關係的創世神話...

  • and between men and women.


  • And snakes.

    最後這一集,我們要來探討在大自然中, 人與動物的關係。

  • And on that note, today, were going to examine the earthly interconnection between

    唷!圖特,來個 High Five 吧!

  • humans and animals.


  • High five, Thoth!


  • What?


  • Yes, I know humans are animals.


  • You know what I mean.


  • INTRO Before we get into the creation myths, let’s


  • start with a little scientific mythology about man’s best friend.

    我們先來看一則科學界的神話。 是跟人類最好的朋友有關的。

  • Of course, I mean dogs.


  • Sorry Thoth.


  • Dogs were, if not the first, then among the first domesticated animals, and they play


  • an important role in mythology.


  • Romulus?


  • Remus?


  • I’m looking in your direction.


  • One of the stories that we tell about the domestication of dogs is that it started when


  • early hunter gatherers chose to tame and then breed some of the less aggressive wolves in


  • order to increase the hunterscapacity to capture game.


  • Eventually, these cross and interbred wolves became dogs.


  • Who’s a good boy?


  • Who’s a good boy?


  • Thats Right!

    這個說法聽起來很有道理, 但是有個問題。

  • Any canine that didn’t bite off your hand is a good boy!

    布萊恩‧黑爾與凡妮莎‧伍茲在《國家地理雜誌》 裡發表的一篇文章,將整個理論

  • It’s a nice story and it seems to make sense, but there are problems with it.

    翻轉過來,提出有些科學家認為 是野狼先接近人類的,

  • In an article in National Geographic, Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods argue that some scientists


  • are flipping this narrative on its head and saying that it was wolves that sought out

    實際上,人類主動去捕捉野狼 並訓練牠們來替自己做事反而比較不合理。

  • humans, rather than the other way around.


  • It doesn’t make much sense for humans to try to capture wolves and get them to work

    這也就是為什麼他們很有可能是 摧毀古代生物群的元兇。

  • for us.


  • Early hunter gatherers were pretty good at hunting, which is why they might have been


  • to blame for the destruction of megafauna in the prehistoric world.

    黑爾與伍茲所說的科學家認為 狼群接近人類反而比較合理。

  • Also, why would humans want to share the spoils of the hunt with a wolf?


  • Theyre hungry.


  • Like the wolf.


  • Hare and Woods explain that scientists think it is more likely that wolves approached humans,


  • probably by scavenging around their garbage pits.


  • These would have been the friendliest wolves; aggressive ones would have been killed by


  • anxious humans.


  • So, it was the friendly wolves that, over many generations, were bred into the loveable


  • vacuum hating rapscallions that we know and love.


  • Don’t ask me about cats, though.


  • I got nothing there.


  • Are cats even really domesticated?

    依照慣例,我們又回到了猶太/基督教的 聖經《創世紀》裡面的創世神話,

  • I feel like theyre hiding something.

    在第一章裡面,神創造好天地、星辰、 以及所有的動物之後,他說:

  • There’s some plot.

    「我們要照著我們的形像, 按著我們的樣式造人,

  • Theyre up to something.

    使他們管理海裡的魚、 空中的鳥、地上的牲畜、

  • Let’s return, as we so often do, to the Judeo-Christian Biblical story of creation


  • from Genesis.

    神就照著自己的形像造人, 乃是照著他的形像造男造女。」

  • In Chapter One, after creating the heavens and the earth and the stars and all the animals:

    「神說:『看哪,我將遍地上 一切結種子的菜蔬,

  • God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion


  • over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over


  • all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.”


  • So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female

    並各樣爬在地上有生命的物, 我將青草賜給他們作食物。』

  • he created them.”


  • (Gen 1 26-27) … And God said, “Behold I have given you every plant yielding seed


  • which is upon the face of all the earth and every tree with every seed in its fruit; you

    在《創世紀》的第二章裡, 神給人類治理萬物的權柄。

  • shall have them for food.


  • And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps


  • on the earth, everything that has breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.”

    「神說:『那人獨居不好, 我要為他造一個配偶幫助他。』

  • And it was so.

    神用土所造成的野地各樣走獸, 和空中各樣飛鳥,

  • (Gen 1 29-30).

    都帶到那人面前看他叫甚麼, 那人怎樣叫各樣的活物,那就是他的名字。」

  • Sounds like more gardening to me, surprise surprise.


  • In the second chapter of Genesis, God grants humans control over the other earthly creatures


  • in a slightly different way.

    兩個版本的創世神話裡, 都把人類放在動物世界的頂端,

  • In this version, God creates man before the animals.


  • Then the LORD God said, “It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him


  • a helper fit for him.”

    第二個版本中,用雙管齊下的方式, 確立人類治理萬物的權力。

  • So out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air,

    首先,讓人類比動物先被造出來, 就先贏在了起跑點上。

  • and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called

    其次,第一個人類又獲得了命名萬物的特權, 更確立了人類比動物優越的地位。

  • every living creature, that was its name.”


  • (Gen 2 18-19) Isn’t that nice?

    尤其是河馬。 「希波波他摩斯」

  • Giraffes and sharks and biting flies were made just to help us.

    但並非所有的神話都有 這種人與禽獸的階級分別。

  • Both creation stories set up a clear hierarchy in the animal world with human beings at the

    在許多美洲原住民部落的創世神話中, 是動物幫忙創造了世界。

  • top given the power to do whatever they want with all animals below them.

    牠們創世過程中通常是以導師、 甚至是關鍵角色的身份出現。

  • Basically, theyre our interns.

    在現今美國西南方的部落當中, 他們的創世神話是

  • The second version of the story affirms human control over animals in two ways.

    我們目前還沒探討到的創世神話模式: 「闢地神話」

  • First, by having man created prior to the animal kingdom, humans are granted literal

    這類的故事中,原本居住在地底世界的人類 或最後變成人類的生物,

  • primacy.

    被引導至一系列的地中世界,最後來到 如今所謂「大地」的地表世界。

  • Then, their power is increased over animals by the first man receiving the privilege of

    霍皮族流傳的神話中,各種動物 (包括「蜘蛛奶奶」和一隻花栗鼠)

  • naming them.

    幫忙找到了通往天空之地的入口: 希葩普霓 (Sipapuni)。

  • And, I mean, he did a pretty good job.


  • Especially with hippopotamus.

    納瓦霍族的闢地神話中, 人類(同時也是某種昆蟲)

  • But not all myths about humans and animals employ this strict hierarchy.

    在燕子的幫助下穿過希葩普霓 來到地表世界。

  • In a number of creation stories from Native American tribes animals are partners in creation,


  • often acting as guides or even as the key participants in creating the earth.


  • The tribes of what is now the Southwestern United States have creation stories that follow


  • a model we haven’t yet seen, the emergence myth.

    在經過之前的嘔吐、死亡, 這樣的情景不能不說是一股清流。

  • In these stories, humans or creatures that become humans are led from an original underground

    另一種創世神話也有動物作幫手,叫做: 「大地發掘者」

  • world into a series of interim worlds until they emerge into the surface world that is

    美國東北方森林裡的易洛魁印第安人 就有個很好的例子。

  • recognizably earth.


  • In a Hopi version of this story, various animals including the Spider Grandmother, and a chipmunk

    從前,人類住在天上, 也就是現在我們稱為天堂的所在。

  • help to find the entry hole or sipapuni, to the land beyond the sky.


  • Apparently, there is one of these entry ways in the Grand Canyon.

    在村莊中有一棵大樹, 樹上長滿了玉米,是全村的食物來源。

  • In a Navajo version of the emergence story, the people, who are also sort of insects,

    大酋長的朋友做了一個夢, 他按照夢的情景,告訴大酋長

  • fly through the sipapuni into the higher world, assisted by swallows.


  • I like these myths.


  • Humans working with nature!


  • Literally rising towards creation!


  • It’s just a nice breath of fresh air, almost literally, after all the vomiting and death


  • that weve had so far.


  • Another type of creation story featuring animal helpers is called the earth diver myth.


  • A good example comes from the Iroquois Indians of the Northeastern Woodlands of the United

    掉進了這個世界。 此時,這個世界只是一片汪洋。

  • States.


  • Let’s dive into Thoughtbubble.


  • A long time ago, humans lived up in the sky in what we now consider heaven.


  • The daughter of their great chief became very sick, and they were unable to cure her.


  • In the village was a great tree on which grew the corn that had fed all the people.

    一段時間後,水鳥群累壞了, 就問誰能頂替牠們。

  • One of the chief’s friends had a dream in which he was told to tell the chief to lay

    大烏龜頂替了牠們的,扛起了女孩。 但牠也是會累,沒辦法永遠扛下去。

  • his daughter beside the tree and dig it up.


  • The chief did as the dream said.


  • While this was going on an angry young man came along.


  • The angry young man didn’t have the best bedside manner.

    越堆越多、越來越大, 最後就成了承載萬物的大地。

  • He pointed out the tree provided the fruit which fed the people, and gave the sick daughter


  • a push with his foot.


  • She fell through the hole that had been left when the tree had been dug up.


  • The young woman fell into this world, which at the time was all water.

    圖特,這是圖得。 圖得...圖特...

  • On this water floated ducks, and geese and all the other water birds.

    還有很多沒說到的,但是這則神話 包含了「大地發掘者」神話的關鍵要素。

  • As there was no earth on this water at the time, there was no place for the falling woman


  • to land, so the birds joined their bodies together into a sort of duck island, where


  • the falling woman landed.


  • After some time, the birds grew tired and asked who would care for the woman.


  • The Great Turtle took the woman, and when he grew tired he asked who would take care


  • of her.


  • They decided to prepare land on which she would live-- the earth.

    牠們也有自己的情緒。和我們一樣 會累、會對單調的工作感到無聊。

  • The Toad, after some convincing, dove to the bottom of the primal sea, and collected soil


  • which was placed on the broad carapace of the Great Turtle.


  • It increased in size until it provided the land to accommodate all the living creatures.


  • Thanks Thoughtbubble.


  • And nice work, water birds.

    而且還救了人類的祖先、 建立了我們的家。

  • Also, Toad.


  • Thoth, meet Toad.


  • So there’s a lot more to the myth than this, but it captures the key elements of the earth

    因為有動物才有這個世界, 所以對動物心存感恩是很重要的。

  • diver story.

    這些美洲原住民神話很複雜, 在閱讀的時候,要記得...

  • Although it has some things in common with other creation myths weve seen, especially


  • the idea that the world began as water, the relationship between human beings and animals

    它們是有生命的故事。 在口耳相傳之下不斷得變化。

  • it’s quite different.

    不像其他創世神話白紙黑字寫好了, 比較沒有太多的變化。

  • For one thing, far from being dumb creatures waiting to be named and tamed by a man, these


  • animals can talk, think, deliberate and plan.

    我們還能觀察到美洲原住民 看待人類與大自然、與動物之間的關係

  • Animal empowerment!


  • They also have emotions similar to the ones we feel, especially getting tired and bored


  • of a tedious task.


  • Think about this the next time you watch a horse pull a cart, or youre trying to entertain

    對於這點,兩位神話學教授 伊娃‧德里與瑪格麗特‧迪維尼認為:

  • your cat by waving that feathery thing in front him.

    「這樣的特權被解釋成給予 信徒對大自然肆意妄為的權利。」

  • I’m telling you: theyre gettinfed up.


  • Even more important than being given real agency in this creation story, it’s the

    美洲原住民將世界視為成就使命之所在。 成就使命不是靠統治,而是要維持平衡。

  • animals who both save humansprogenitors, and create our home.

    自己與其他人類保持平衡、也與 其他動物、外在世界同樣保持平衡。」

  • Without the helpful turtle and the brave toad, there would be no land to live on, and also

    有些人可能會想說:「等等,這聽起來像是 對美洲原住民的刻板印象。

  • no earth to grow food.


  • The creation of the world requires animals and thus it is crucially important to be grateful


  • to them.


  • These Native American myths are very intricate and when you read themand you should


  • it’s important to remember that they are very different from many of the other


  • creation stories because they are living stories, communicated by way of a constantly evolving


  • oral tradition, unlike more or less stable literary texts.

    把宇宙當作共容共存的所在, 比激烈鬥爭、尖酸刻薄的故事好太多了。

  • Still, one of the interpretive take-aways from these emergence and earth diver stories


  • is that Native Americans perceive a different relationship between animals and nature and

    謝謝收看。 我們下週見。

  • humans than people from other traditions.

  • According to the biblical tradition, human beings have a special relationship with God

  • who prefers them to all other creatures.

  • According to mythology professors Eva Thury and Margaret Devinney, “This privilege has

  • been interpreted by some as giving believers the right to dispose of nature as they please.”

  • On the other hand, according to these scholars, “Native Americans view this worldas

  • the place where their destinies will be fulfilled, not by domination but by maintaining a balance

  • achieved by living in harmony with themselves and other humans as well as with animals and

  • the exterior world.”

  • Now some of you might be saying, wait, this sounds like a stereotypical view of Native

  • Americans, like they have some mystical connection with nature and that we should look to them

  • for a way to understand how better to live in harmony with it.

  • And you would be right, that is a cultural stereotype, one that has often been uncritically

  • linked with an idea of Native Americans as primitive.

  • But, I will say, maybe in comparison to the other stories weve heard, with all the

  • vomiting, and wars, and eating of children, it’s kind of nice think of the universe

  • as a place of collaboration, and not one of acrimony.

  • Except that jerk who kicked that lady down the hole.

  • Thanks for watching.

  • See you next episode.

Hi I’m Mike Rugnetta, this is Crashcourse Mythology, and today were wrapping up creation

哈囉!我是麥克‧如格內塔 歡迎收看《神話速成班》


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B1 中級 中文 CrashCourse 神話 人類 動物 美洲 原住民

人類與自然和創造。神話學速成班#6 (Humans and Nature and Creation: Crash Course Mythology #6)

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    黃齡萱 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日