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  • Hi there, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course Literature and today we're going to continue

    大家好,我是約翰葛林。你們正在收看Crash Course Literature。今天我們要繼續

  • our discussion of this guy, J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.

    討論這號人物:JD沙林傑的麥田捕手

  • So Holden Caulfield is often dismissed by teenagers for being a whiny little Nathaniel

    霍頓考菲常常被青少年視為一個就像「紅字」裡的奈森一樣的中二屁孩

  • Hawthorne, who hates his life but never does anything to change it.

    討厭自己的人生但又不做任何改變

  • Mr. Green, Mr. Green! All the kids in school say he resembles me

    葛林老師!葛林老師!所有學校裡的人都說他很像我

  • Ughhh, and he does me from the past. And frankly the idea that your third rate, first world

    好拉他真的很像,過去的我。老實說,這種看起來不重要的人生問題

  • problems can be the subject of great literature is a bit difficult to swallow. Also how many

    能夠成為文學中的重要主題可能會讓你覺得有些奇怪,還有,要我講多少次

  • times do I have say it, no hats in class! Especially people hunting hats!

    不准上課戴帽子!尤其是獵人帽!

  • This is where, if you're the kind of person who thinks that books should be read with

    我先發個聲明,如果你是那種認為書必須和作者

  • their authors in mind, it becomes relevant that J.D. Salinger saw more combat in World

    一併閱讀的人,那麼告訴你JD沙林傑比任何一個美國人

  • War Two than almost any other American. The great American war novels of that generation;

    看到更多二次大戰。當時關於美國戰爭的書籍

  • Catch 22, Slaughterhouse 5, The Naked and the Dead, were all written by men who saw

    像「第22條軍規」、「第五號屠宰場」和「裸者與死者」都是由經歷過戰爭的恐懼感

  • far less of war's horror, than J.D. Salinger did. He was on Utah Beach on D-Day. At the

    遠遠少於沙林傑的作者寫的。諾曼第登陸時他在猶他海邊

  • Battle of the Bulge and he was one of the first Americans to enter a liberated concentration

    他經歷過突出布之役,也是其中一個去過解放集中營的美國人

  • camp. And yet Salinger returned home and wrote not about war, but about Holden Caulfield

    然而沙林傑回家之後並非寫關於戰爭的作品,而是關於霍頓考菲

  • bumming around New York City. So you see you can say that the stakes aren't high in this

    一個人在紐約市閒晃。所以你可以說在這本書中的格局不夠高

  • novel, but as Salinger well knew the cruel and phony world of adults doesn't just treat

    但是沙林傑知道太多在殘酷和假掰的成人世界中不只是對

  • people like Holden Caulfield poorly, it kills them.

    像霍頓考菲這樣的人不友善,它甚至會殺了他

  • [Theme Music]

    所以其實很容易就把霍頓考菲這個角色

  • So it's easy enough, and extremely common, to conflate Holden Caulfield the character

    和沙林傑視為一體。唯一一次沙林傑考慮此小說的改編

  • with J.D. Salinger the man. The only time Salinger seriously considered an adaptation

    是改編成一個舞台劇,而他自己演出霍頓考菲

  • of the novel, for instance, it was as a play in which he would play Holden Caulfield even

    即使當時沙林傑已經三十幾歲了。霍頓考菲對年輕女生著迷

  • though by then Salinger was in his thirties. Holden Caulfield is obsessed with young women

    而且對自己的性向認同產生衝突感;JD沙林傑交往且娶過

  • and has a deeply conflicted relationship with their sexuality; J.D. Salinger dated and married

    許多比他年輕十幾歲的女人。但總而言之,我並不覺得用小說

  • many women who were decades younger than him. But ultimately I don't think it's that interesting

    分析它的作家有那麼有趣。然而,想像如果你才剛從一個可怕的戰役

  • to use a novel to analyze its author; however, imagine that you've just come home from a

    回家。你看過戰爭且經歷過集中營,而且你已經

  • horribly destructive war. You've seen combat and you've seen concentration camps and you've

    失去那個大多數幸運的我們不會失去的純真。如同我們上週談的

  • lost innocence in a way that most of us thankfully never will. As we discussed last week, the

    麥田捕手的經典句便是緊抓純真,你了解

  • traditional line on 'Catcher' is that it's a book about clinging to innocence; you know,

    彼得潘拒絕長大,克莉絲想要變成自己的女兒

  • Peter Pan refusing to grow up, Kris Jenner thinking she can be one of her daughters,

    川普花大錢投資在最爛的假髮上。而那種嘗試想要

  • Donald Trump investing his fortune in the least believable wig ever. And that trying

    留住一切、想要一切維持一定的狀態是愚蠢的,而且將通往瘋狂的狀態

  • to keep everything the same and everyone innocent is a fool's errand and only leads to madness.

    而書中很多地方可以支持這個論點:他即使很想要歷史博物館

  • And there's a lot in the text to support that - how much he loves nothing ever changing

    永遠不變,即使較喜歡想像珍凱勒格是個糟糕的西洋棋手

  • at the Natural History Museum, how he prefers imagining Jane Gallagher as a terrible Checkers

    而不是一個性對象,或是他多麽想當一個麥田中的捕手。而即使霍頓

  • player than as a sexual being or how he wants to be a catcher in the rye. And while Holden

    守護純真的慾望強到幾乎使它達到瘋狂狀態,在他身上仍舊散發一絲英勇氣概

  • is driven mad by this desire to preserve innocence, there's also something kind of heroic about

    我是說,就算麥田捕手的目標根本達不到,但至少可以說

  • it. I mean, the catcher in the rye might be on a hopeless mission, but at least it's arguably

    是一個崇高的目標。就像大亨小傳的蓋茲比或羅密歐一樣,孩童真的值得被我們保護

  • a noble one, like Gatsby's, or Romeo's. I mean, children do deserve our protection,

    而在戰爭或其他地方沙林傑常常看到或遭遇到有時這個假掰的世界

  • and in war and elsewhere Salinger often saw and sometimes was a victim of that phony adult

    會欺負那些柔弱或害怕的人

  • world that preys on the weak and the frightened.

    而在閱讀這本書後,書中最後一幕特別有趣

  • And in this reading, the final scene of the book is particularly interesting. Let's go

    讓我們進入思想泡泡:現在霍頓的妹妹非比騎在

  • to the Thought Bubble: So Holden's little sister Phoebe is riding

    旋轉木馬上(算是純真的小孩子遊樂設施)、她說她已經年紀太大

  • the carousel - an innocent kid activity if ever there was one - she says she's too big,

    但霍頓說服他才不會。霍頓自己顯然才是年紀太大,所以他只是在一旁看

  • but Holden convinces her otherwise. He's definitely too big though, so he just watches. And as

    而當旋轉木馬開始轉時。非比就像其他孩子一樣,一直在試著抓住那個金環,而霍頓當時說:

  • the carousel spins, Phoebe, like all the other kids, keeps reaching for this gold ring; and Holden says:

    「我有點擔心她會從那他媽的馬上摔下來,但我沒有說任何事或做任何事

  • "I was sort of afraid she'd fall off the goddamn horse, but I didn't say anything or do anything.

    對小孩來說,如果他們想要抓那個金環,你必須讓他們抓

  • The thing with kids is, if they want to grab the gold ring, you have to let them do it,

    你不能勸她不要,如果他們跌倒,他們就會跌倒。但是如果叫他們不要做的話不是件好事。」

  • and not say anything. If they fall off, they fall off, but it's bad if you say anything to them."

    結束後,非比試著讓霍頓騎上去,但他拒絕了,然後

  • The ride finishes, Phoebe tries to get Holden to ride it, but he declines, and then it starts

    開始下雨。她便拿起霍頓的紅色獵帽(一個很神奇的物品,如果真的存在的話)

  • raining, and she puts Holden's red hunting cap (an enchanted object if ever there was

    然後戴在他頭上。這幕通常被解讀為純真和轉變的象徵,

  • one) on his head. This scene is usually read as being about innocence and change, which

    也是我們上週所提的,但那個紅色獵帽是重點。他告訴我們

  • is how we read it last week, but that red hunting cap is vital. He tells us that he

    那頂帽子是他把擊劍隊器具遺忘在地鐵後立刻買的,那是一個他非常脆弱的時刻

  • got the hat soon after leaving the fencing equipment on the subway - an intensely vulnerable

    而它無疑地給他自信。比方說,他在寫

  • moment - and it obviously gives him confidence. He wears it, for instance, when writing the

    阿利的作文時戴著它。但他同時也讓自己充滿自我意識,為了不要看起來可疑而拿下它

  • essay about Allie's glove, but he's also self-conscious about it, taking off so as not to look suspicious,

    而且只在「我知道不會遇到我認識的人」的時候戴上。然後

  • and only putting it on when, quote: "I knew I wouldn't meet anyone that knew me." And

    在最後面,非比將那獵帽戴在他頭上,就好比說:「這個東西如果可以帶給你自信

  • there at the end, Phoebe puts the hunting cap on him, as if to say: "this thing gives

    而讓你可以在雨中看清楚世界,並且使你可以持續在大人世界裡

  • you the confidence you need to keep the rain out of your eyes and go on living with some

    帶有一點尊嚴地生存下去的話,那麼你就戴上吧!」

  • semblance of integrity in the adult world? So wear it."

    謝拉,思想泡泡。所以簡單來說,以一個很隱晦的方式,非比

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. So in short, in a very quiet and subtle way, Phoebe empathizes

    產生對霍頓的同理之情。這是很令人驚訝的,因為在整本小說裡從來沒有任何人

  • with Holden, which is striking mostly because no one has empathized with him in the entire

    同理他。霍頓卻是非常具同理心的:記得他寫給他的老師

  • novel. Holden can be tremendously empathetic: remember that he writes to his teacher telling

    請他不要因為把它當掉而覺得愧疚嗎?但是從他的朋友到他的老師到修女到

  • him not to feel bad about failing him? But from his friends to his teachers to nuns to

    妓女到計程車司機,霍頓從來不覺得自己被傾聽。JD沙林傑,顯然地

  • prostitutes to cabbies, Holden never feels like he's being heard. J.D. Salinger is, of

    出了名的不想讓人知道他出名:他在六零年代早期就停止出版

  • course, most famous for not wanting to be famous: he stopped publishing in the early

    並且過了極度有隱私的生活。在麥田捕手中重要一段,霍頓寫說:

  • 1960s and lived an intensely private life. In a famous passage from 'Catcher', Holden says:

    「真的讓我很有感受的書是那種當你結束閱讀他的時候,你希望

  • "What really knocks me out is a book that, when you're all done reading it, you wish

    那本書的作者是你的很好的朋友,然後你可以在任何時候打給他

  • the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the

    只要你想要的話。」

  • phone whenever you felt like it."

    簡單來說,就是一個同理於你的作家。順帶一提,跟蹤一位作家

  • An author, in short, that empathizes with you. Just as an aside, it's never a good idea

    不是個好主意,即使他常常在推特PO文也一樣。反正就是...不要到他家拉

  • to try to track down an author; even if he tweets a lot, still, don't come to his house.

    沙林傑就是像那種作家一樣:百萬人,包括我,閱讀完麥田捕手後

  • Salinger was that kind of author for millions of people, including me. We read 'The Catcher

    覺得這本書真的很深入地了解我們,但是霍頓不知道

  • in the Rye' and feel like the book understands us in deep and improbable ways, but what Holden

    但沙林傑了解的是:書不代表作者。你可能

  • Caulfield didn't understand and Salinger did is that a book is not its author. You may

    希望自己可以想打就打給作家(我再說一次,最好不要),但是

  • wish that you could call up the author whenever you felt like it, and again - don't, but the

    真正的歸屬認同並不是從作家來的,而是從書本文字中。而這就是為什麼

  • real comfort is found not in the author, but in the text. And this is where it becomes

    書中有兩個霍頓在敘述故事:先有一個十六歲的霍頓

  • relevant that there are in fact two Holdens in this story: there's the 16-year old Holden

    當時經歷的各種事,然後還有十七歲正在敘述這個故事的霍頓

  • the story is happening to, and the 17-year old Holden who is telling us about it.

    那個事情正發生在他身上的霍頓在使他人聆聽他講話的方面很糟,事實上

  • The Holden the story is happening to sucks at getting people to listen to him; in fact,

    所有書中的人,霍頓在內,都太執迷於自己的事物而無法聽任何人講話

  • everyone in the book, including Holden, is way too self-involved to listen to anybody.

    雖然公平來說,他們那麼執迷是因為...噢,又是開信時間了嗎?

  • Although the be fair, they're self-involved because -- oh, it's time for the open letter?

    一封寫給「執迷於自我」的信。但首先,我們先看看神秘抽屜中是什麼東西

  • An open letter to the phrase "self-involved." But first let's see what's in the secret compartment today.

    噢,是一個旋轉木馬!它一直在繞圈、一直繞圈。你真的很有象徵共鳴性

  • Oh, it's a carousel! Just keeps going around and around...you are extremely symbolically resonant,

    但我還有一封信必須傳遞。而且這個節目不是只談旋轉木馬,這個節目談的是我

  • but I've got an open letter to deliver. And this show ain't about carousels, it's about me.

    親愛的執迷於自我:不然還要執迷於誰?

  • Dear self-involved, Whose 'self' would I otherwise be involved

    想想看如果不是只想到自己,而是花所有時間

  • with? Let's imagine that instead of thinking about myself I spent all my time thinking

    想想別人現在在做什麼、在想什麼,你知道這叫什麼嗎?

  • about some other person and what they're doing and how they feel right now, you know what

    偷窺狂!除非那個人是班乃迪克康柏拜區,如果是這樣的話是叫做

  • that's called? - CREEPERING! Unless the person is Benedict Cumberbatch, then that's called

    Tumblr。好啦,講自我執迷。155,000

  • Tumblr. Here's the thing, self-involved - 155,000

    個人今天會死掉。如果我承受那155,000個人的死且悲傷程度就像

  • people are going to die today. If I felt the loss of all 155,000 of those people as intensely

    我承受...班乃迪克的死好了,的痛苦程度的話,那我不就

  • as I would feel the loss of, say, Benedict Cumberbatch, then I would be Herman Melville

    要瘋了!人們會自我執迷是因為假如我們同理全人類的話

  • crazy. People are self-involved because if we empathized with all human beings equally

    我們永遠沒有辦法把事情做好

  • we would never be able to get anything done.

    重點是就算知道你永遠會是你自己人生

  • The challenge is in understanding that while you'll always be the central character in

    的主角,其他人也很重要,而同理他們更重要

  • your own narrative, other people matter too and empathizing with them is hugely important.

    總之,自我執迷,我對你沒有意見,但你不用那麼過頭

  • In short, self-involved, I don't have a problem with you exactly, but you don't have to go all fountain-head-y about it.

    愛你的,約翰葛林

  • Best wishes, John Green

    所以那位事情正發生在身上的霍頓無法讓任何人聽他說話,除了

  • So the Holden the story is happening to can't get anyone to listen to him other than his

    他妹妹和一個潛能變態者。但一年後,他找到一個方法寫出自己的故事

  • sister and a probable creeper. But a year later, he's found a way to write about his

    並且得到我們的關注。透過像紅色獵帽一樣,我們理解他,並且能夠

  • story and make us care. Through things like the red hunting cap, we understand him and

    聽他說話。而就算他的挑戰不是在猶他海灘或在許特根森林

  • we can listen to him. An even though his battles aren't fought on Utah Beach or in thertgen

    我們還是在乎那些挑戰。那就是語言的奇蹟,尤其是有效的、抽象的語言

  • Forest, we care about them. That's the miracle of language, especially effective, figurative

    那頂獵帽、被動詞態、歷史博物館、旋轉木馬

  • language. The hunting cap, the passive voice, the Natural History Museum, the carousel:

    這些都通往霍頓的經驗。這就是他讓我們進入他的腦袋

  • all these things are ways into Holden's experience. That's how he gets into our brains and lets

    並從他眼中看世界的方法。在形容非比在旋轉木馬上一直繞圈一直繞圈

  • us see the world through his eyes. After describing Phoebe going around and around

    之後,霍頓寫道:「天阿,我真希望你們在現場。」但我們真的在!

  • on that carousel, Holden writes, "God, I wish you could have been there." But we are there!

    當學生抱怨要批判性的閱讀它,要寫這些「英文作業的東東」

  • When students complain about reading critically, about having to do all this "English-class-stuff",

    他們就會忘記這些。那些英文課要寫的東東是發展同理心的一步。而對於霍頓來說

  • that's what they're forgetting. All that English class stuff is a way into empathy; for Holden

    和對我們全部來說,這是讓我們聆聽且被聆聽的方式。謝謝收看,我們下週見

  • and for all of us, it's a way to hear and be heard. Thanks for watching. I'll see you next week.

    Crash Course是由史丹穆勒發行及執導,劇本編輯監督是由美樂蒂丹可

  • Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller, the script supervisor is Meredith

    我們的製作人是丹尼卡強生,節目是我們的,然後動畫

  • Danko, our associate producer is Danica Johnson, the show is written by me and our graphics

    是由思想泡泡團隊製作

  • team is Thought Bubble.

  • Every week instead of cursing, I use the name of writers I like - or, Nathaniel Hawthorne

  • - you can suggest other writers in comments where you can also ask questions about today's

  • video that will be answered by our team of literature experts.

  • I'm just kidding, Nathaniel Hawthorne, I love you. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and

  • as we say in my home town: don't forget to be awesome.

Hi there, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course Literature and today we're going to continue

大家好,我是約翰葛林。你們正在收看Crash Course Literature。今天我們要繼續

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B1 中級 中文 CrashCourse 作家 作者 同理心 閱讀 戰爭

霍爾登、JD和紅帽--《麥田守望者》第二部:英語文學速成班#7。 (Holden, JD, and the Red Cap- The Catcher in the Rye Part 2: Crash Course English Literature #7)

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    黃齡萱 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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