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  • You've been stranded thousands of miles from home with no money or possessions.

    你被困在離家鄉好幾千里之外的地方,身無分文。

  • Such a predicament would make many people despair and curse their awful fate.

    這般窘境會讓許多人感到絕望甚至咒罵自己的悲慘命運。

  • But for Zeno of Cyprus, it became the foundation of his life's work and legacy.

    對塞普勒斯的齊諾而言,這成為造就他人生的事業及傳奇的基礎。

  • The once wealthy merchant lost everything when he was shipwrecked in Athens around 300 BCE.

    他曾是位富商,卻在西元前300年的雅典發生船難失去了一切。

  • With not much else to do, he wandered into a book shop, became intrigued by reading about Socrates, and proceeded to seek out and study with the city's noted philosophers.

    無所事事之餘,他走進書店,對蘇格拉底的書籍產生濃厚興趣,開始尋找並跟隨多位著名哲學家學習。

  • As Zeno began educating his own students, he originated the philosophy known as Stoicism, whose teachings of virtue, tolerance, and self-control have inspired generations of thinkers and leaders.

    芝諾開始開班授徒時開創斯多葛學派崇尚德行、寬恕、自律啟蒙往後許多思想家和領袖。

  • The name Stoicism comes from the Stoa Poikile, the decorated public colonnade where Zeno and his disciples gathered for discussion.

    「斯多葛」源自 Stoa Poikile (希臘文),有裝飾的室外列柱,也是芝諾和其學徒聚首討論的地方。

  • Today, we colloquially use the word stoic to mean someone who remains calm under pressure and avoids emotional extremes.

    今日,我們常把「斯多葛」形容在壓力下仍保持淡定的人並避免極端的情緒。

  • But while this captures important aspects of Stoicism, the original philosophy was more than just an attitude.

    雖然這是斯多葛主義的主要觀點但原本的哲學思想不只是種態度。

  • The Stoics believed that everything around us operates according to a web of cause and effect, resulting in a rational structure of the universe, which they called logos.

    斯多葛主義者認為我們身邊的所有事物都存在因果連結,形成宇宙間的理性結構,他們稱作「邏各斯」。

  • And while we may not always have control over the events affecting us, we can have control over how we approach things.

    即便我們不能總是決定事情的發生,但我們能夠決定如何面對它。

  • Rather than imagining an ideal society, the Stoic tries to deal with the world as it is while pursuing self-improvement through 4 cardinal virtues.

    有別於幻想一個理想社會斯多葛主義者嘗試解決現行世界的問題同時透過四種德行達到自我進步。

  • Practical wisdom: the ability to navigate complex situations in a logical, informed, and calm manner.

    實用智慧:能以理性、明智、冷靜的態度,釐清複雜情況。

  • Temperance: the exercise of self-restraint and moderation in all aspects of life.

    節欲:在生活各方面履行自我約束以及中庸之道

  • Justice: treating others with fairness even when they have done wrong.

    公正:即使別人做錯事也公正無私的對待他們。

  • And courage: not just in extraordinary circumstances, but facing daily challenges with clarity and integrity.

    再來是勇氣:並非只在特定狀況表現,而是以明理和正直態度面對每日的挑戰。

  • As Seneca, one of the most famous Roman Stoics wrote, "Sometimes, even to live is an act of courage."

    塞內卡,一位著名羅馬斯多葛主義者寫道:「有時候,就連生活也是種勇氣的展現。」

  • But while Stoicism focuses on personal improvement, it's not a self-centered philosophy.

    但即便斯多葛主義強調自我成長它不是以自我為中心的哲學思想。

  • At a time when Roman laws considered slaves as property, Seneca called for their humane treatment and stressed that we all share the same fundamental humanity.

    當時羅馬法律視奴隸為財產塞內卡為奴隸爭取人道對待強調人民皆有平等的基礎人權。

  • Nor does Stoicism encourage passivity.

    斯多葛主義也不鼓勵被動行為

  • The idea is that only people who have cultivated virtue and self-control in themselves can bring positive change in others.

    其思想為唯有陶冶品德且自我控制的人可以帶給他人正面的改變。

  • One of the most famous Stoic writers was also one of Rome's greatest emperors.

    一位知名斯多葛主義作家也曾是羅馬最偉大的皇帝之一。

  • Over the course of his 19-year reign, Stoicism gave Marcus Aurelius the resolve to lead the Empire through two major wars, while dealing with the loss of many of his children.

    他在位 19 年中斯多葛主義賦予馬可·奧里略雄心壯志,率領羅馬帝國經歷兩次重大戰爭,同時他不斷經歷喪子之痛

  • Centuries later, Marcus's journals would guide and comfort Nelson Mandela through his 27-year imprisonment during his struggle for racial equality in South Africa.

    幾世紀後,馬可的《沉思錄》安慰並指引曼德拉總統度過他在監獄裡的 27 年為了南非種族平等奮鬥。

  • After his release and eventual victory, Mandela stressed peace and reconciliation, believing that while the injustices of the past couldn't be changed, his people could confront them in the present and seek to build a better, more just future.

    曼德拉出獄和取得最後的勝利之後,他倡導和平及和諧認為即便過往的不公不義無法改變,他的人民仍可以在今日面對他們尋求建立更美好、更正義的未來。

  • Stoicism was an active school of philosophy for several centuries in Greece and Rome.

    過去幾世紀以來,斯多葛主義已成為哲學顯學盛行於希臘及羅馬。

  • As a formal institution, it faded away, but its influence has continued to this day.

    雖已不再是正式制度然而其影響仍持續至今。

  • Christian theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas, have admired and adopted its focus on the virtues, and there are parallels between Stoic Ataraxia, or tranquility of mind, and the Buddhist concept of Nirvana.

    基督教神學家,如多瑪斯·阿奎那崇敬並且採用斯多葛主義關於德行的思想,此外,表示心神安寧的「斯多葛安寧」與佛教的「涅槃」概念也有相通。

  • One particularly influential Stoic was the philosopher Epictetus who wrote that suffering stems not from the events in our lives, but from our judgements about them.

    其中一個有影響力的斯多葛主義家是愛比克泰德寫下「痛苦並非來自事件本身,而是來自我們對事件的看法」

  • This has resonated strongly with modern psychology and the self-help movement.

    此名言與現代心理學有著強大的共鳴以及自助運動

  • For example, rational emotive behavioral therapy focuses on changing the self-defeating attitudes people form about their life circumstances.

    例如,理性情緒行為療法著重消除自卑的態度,源自人們的生活遭遇。

  • There's also Viktor Frankl's logotherapy.

    還有維克多·弗蘭克的意義治療

  • Informed by Frankl's own time as a concentration camp prisoner, logotherapy is based on the Stoic principle that we can harness our will power to fill our lives with meaning, even in the bleakest situations.

    源於自己曾待在集中營而受到啟發,意義治療是以斯多葛主義為根基,認為我們能夠善用意志力使生活充滿意義,即便遭遇窘境也不怕。

You've been stranded thousands of miles from home with no money or possessions.

你被困在離家鄉好幾千里之外的地方,身無分文。

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C1 高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 斯多葛 主義 理性 哲學 態度

【TED-Ed】斯多葛主義的哲學 (The philosophy of Stoicism - Massimo Pigliucci)

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    gotony5614.me97 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 29 日
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