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  • Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course Literature,

    嗨,我是約翰.葛林,這裡是 Crash Course Literature

  • and today we continue our discussion of To Kill a Mockingbird.


  • So the takeaway from last week’s video about Mockingbird was this: “You never really


  • understand a person until you consider things from his point of view--until you climb into

    那你就無法了解一個人 — 直到你滲透他的皮囊內,好好在他體內走一遭。」

  • his skin and walk around in it.” And for me, at least, that’s one of the great pleasures


  • of reading. We get to escape the strictures of our narrow lives and travel through time


  • and space, imagine the world from other people’s perspectives. And by accessing this wide range


  • of human experience, we can understand that other people are really real and isn’t that


  • an amazing thing to be able to do, or youre also eating Cheetos?!?


  • Downside, you stain all your books with Cheeto fingers, but it’s worth it!


  • [Theme Music]

    [ 主題曲 ]

  • So some people argue that the empathy and understanding that we can get from reading


  • is in fact, like, the point of all culture. In 1875, the English poet and critic Matthew

    這是正是全文化的重點所在。在 1875 年,英國詩人與評論家

  • Arnold argued that culture: "…seeks to do away with classes; to make the best that has


  • been thought and known in the world current everywhere; to make all men live in an atmosphere


  • of sweetness and light." If that’s the point of culture, I’m not sure that weve done that well,


  • especially since in that quote, Matthew Arnold said, “menwhen I presume he meant, you know, people.


  • So To Kill a Mockingbird didn’t “do awaywith class structure, but it does critique


  • social and racial divisions in the American South. And like Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall


  • Apart, To Kill a Mockingbird is a story about the past, but it is also very much a product


  • of the time in which it was written. All right, let’s go straight to the Thought Bubble today.


  • So Lee wrote To Kill a Mockingbird in the 1950s—a decade of huge changes in the social

    李於 1950 年代開寫《梅岡城的故事》— 十年間美國的社會格局

  • landscape of the United States: Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus (precipitating

    產生巨大的變化:羅莎.帕克斯在公車上拒絕讓位 (促使了聯合抵制蒙哥馬利公車運動)

  • the Montgomery Bus Boycott). Riots broke out after two African-Americans were admitted


  • into the University of Alabama. And that was just in Lee’s home state! In Mississippi,


  • Emmett Till, a 14 year old African-American boy, was killed for allegedly whistling at


  • a white woman, and the Supreme Court decided thatseparate but equalschools are

    在 1954 年,最高法院裁定,布朗訴托皮卡教育局案中

  • inherently unequal in the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954. Congress passed a


  • Civil Rights Act in 1957 to support the integration of schools. In Arkansas, the governor used

    在 1957 年,國會通過了民權法案以支持學校整合

  • the National Guard to prevent nine African-American students from entering Little Rock High School,


  • and President Eisenhower sent federal troops to integrate that school.


  • Lee reflects on her 1930s childhood from the perspective of the conflict-ridden 1950s.

    李從 1950 年代的衝突觀點反思她在 1930 年代的童年時光

  • So yes, Lee is nostalgic for the sweetness and light of her youth, for summer days playing


  • outdoors, lemonade on front porches, reading on a father’s lap, but she’s also unflinching


  • in her critiques of the bitterness and ignorance that characterized social and race relations.


  • That combination of nostalgia and criticism makes Mockingbird both endearing and enduring.


  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. So our hero and narrator, Scout, is confused by the hatred and violence


  • she witnesses in her town. At the start of Mockingbird, Jem explains the social order


  • of Maycomb: “The thing about it is, our kind of folks don’t like the Cunninghams,


  • the Cunninghams don’t like the Ewells, and the Ewells hate and despise the colored folks.”


  • Scout doesn’t like this, she argues that there is, “just one kind of folks. Folks.”


  • Scout, I don’t wanna cast aspersions, but that’s literally the definition of communism.


  • But class is deeply entrenched in Maycomb; like, when Scout asks her Aunt Alexandra if


  • she can invite a poor classmate named Walter Cunningham home, Alexandra tells her: “…you


  • should be gracious to everybody, dear. But you don’t have to invite him home.” And


  • when Scout pressures further, Alexandra finally says: “… heistrash, that’s why

    接著史考特繼續逼問,亞歷山德拉終於說:「他 — 是 — 個 — 垃圾!

  • you can’t play with him. I’ll not have you around him, picking up his habits and


  • learning Lord-knows-what.” But in the logic of the novel, Alexandra’s thinking isn’t


  • just mean-spirited, it’s flat-out dangerous, because Scout and Jem have actually already hosted

    還是相當危險的,因為史考特和珍早就接待過華特坎寧海了 —

  • Walter Cunningham—a fact that saves Atticus from a beating and (briefly) saves the life of Tom Robinson.


  • Because, remember when a mob converges on the jail to lynch Tom, they find Atticus waiting


  • outside, right? Scout and Jem then arrive on the scene and when Scout innocently mentions


  • to Mr. Cunningham, a leader of the group that wants to lynch Tom, that his son is “a real


  • nice boy,” a humbled Mr. Cunningham tells the mob to disperse. So it’s by not honoring


  • the class structure of Maycomb that Scout is able to achieve a small measure of justice.


  • It’s also telling that it’s not Atticus, or any other member of their white upper middle


  • class social order, who taught Scout how to pay young Walter Cunningham proper respect.


  • It’s the family’s African-American housekeeper, Calpurnia, because in fact, Scout’s really


  • rude to Walter when he eats at her house. She asks Walterwhat the sam hill he was


  • doingafter he pours syrup all over his food, and then Calpurnia summons Scout to


  • the kitchen and lets her have it. Calpurnia explains that guests, no matter who they are,


  • must be treated well and then tells Scout that if she is not going to behave, she won’t


  • eat at the table, she has to eat in the kitchen.


  • And Scout really respects Calpurnia, who, by the way, is a fascinating character. Unlike


  • most African Americans in 1930s Alabama, Calpurnia reads, writes, she has excellent grammar.

    和 1930 年代在阿拉巴馬州的非裔美國人不同,卡布妮亞會閱讀寫作,她擁有卓越的文法造詣

  • And Scout notices that Calpurnia chooses to speak differently with white people than she


  • does with African-Americans. When Scout asks her about this, Calpurnia replies, “….Now


  • what if I talked white-folkstalk at church, and with my neighbors? They’d think I was

    「...... 現在我如果在教堂和某一位白種人交談,和我的鄰居們?

  • puttinon airs to beat Moses.” And Scout’s awestruck by the notion that Calpurnialed


  • a modest double lifeThe idea that she had a separate existence outside our household

    「她過著最適中的雙重生活 ... 認為自己在家外有個不同的身份

  • was a novel one, to say nothing of her having command of two languages.” This is again


  • a moment of Scout learning to imagine others complexly, which, after all, is her real education.


  • So Calpurnia’s “double lifeis a textbook example of what W.E.B. Du Bois called a “double-consciousness

    因此卡布妮亞的「雙重生活」成了教科書中的範例,是 W.E.B. 杜波伊斯所撰的名書

  • in his famous book The Souls of Black Folk (published in 1903). Du Bois describesdouble-consciousness

    《黑人的靈魂》(於 1903 年出版) 所提及的「雙重意識」。杜波伊斯將「雙重意識」描述成

  • as thesenseof always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring


  • one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels


  • his two-ness,—an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings;

    他的雙重身分 — 一位美國公民,也是位黑人;兩種靈魂、兩種想法、兩種不甘的奮鬥;

  • two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.”


  • And Calpurnia is acutely aware of how she looks in the eyes of others. She has internalized


  • the racism of whites as well as the classism inside her own community, and she treads carefully


  • in both worlds. And she’s also a woman, so she has to navigate gender expectations.


  • Like although Calpurnia usually allows Scout to wear overalls, she dresses her up for church.


  • And I think that gesture represents more than professional pride. It also demonstrates how


  • deeply ingrained ideals of Southern femininity are in Calpurnia’s life: it’s one thing,


  • and certainly this heroism shouldn’t be dismissed, to allow a girl toact like


  • a boyat home. But when it comes to her church and her community, Calpurnia ultimately


  • forces Scout to conform to the gender roles that we discussed last week.


  • So that’s one way that race and gender discrimination manifested itself in Maycomb. Another is the


  • experience of Tom Robinson. Despite being proven innocent beyond a shadow of a doubt, Tom is


  • sentenced to death. So how is Scout supposed to make sense of that? Well for this, we turn to Atticus Finch.


  • He’s sort of a Gregory Peck -- oooh. It’s time for the open letter.

    他有點像是葛雷哥萊.畢克 ... 噢!現在是我們拆信的時候了

  • Oh, look at that, it’s the movie tie-in edition of my own book, The Fault in Our Stars.


  • An open letter to movie adaptations. I just want to state, for the record, that this was


  • Meredith’s idea. It’s not like I need Crash Course to inform you that the paperback

    我不需要透過 Crash Course 告訴你們這本書的平裝版

  • edition of my book is now available for just $12.99.

    現在只要 12.99 元就能入手

  • Dear Movie Adaptations, Why are you so often so bad?


  • The standard narrative is that movie adaptations are bad because you can’t fit a whole novel


  • into a movie. But one, that doesn’t explain Where the Wild Things Are, which is, like,

    但是第一,這不適用於《野獸家園》,因為它只有 32 頁的篇幅

  • 32 pages long. And two, you will rarely in American literature come across a more interesting


  • and complex book than To Kill a Mockingbird, which had, like, the greatest movie adaptation of all time!


  • I think it’s ultimately because movie people know that they need to make something that


  • will appeal to millions and millions of people, whereas books don’t have to have that broad


  • of an audience. Because let’s face it, not that many people read them.


  • But, Movie Adaptations, when youre good, and I think I’ve been lucky enough to get


  • a good one, youre not obsessed with getting the broadest possible audience, youre obsessed


  • with trying to make a good movie. So more of that, and less pandering with gratuitous


  • sex scenes and explosions.


  • Oh Stan, always pandering with explosions. Best Wishes, John Green.


  • Right, but Atticus is magnanimous. I mean, he waves at old Mrs. Dubose, the morphine


  • addict who screams insults at Jem and Scout. Like although Atticus knows that Mrs. Dubose


  • doesn’t approve of his own actions, he still recognizes that she has, quote, “real courage”—something


  • he defines as, “…when you know youre licked before you begin but you begin anyway

    他將其定義:「 ... 在你開始前你就知道你會被鞭打,但無論如何你還是會開始做

  • and you see it through no matter what.” Real courage, seeing it through even when

    而且無論如何都會堅持到底。」 真正的勇氣,就是即使知道自己會失敗,你仍然貫徹始終

  • you know youre doomed, like the Demi Moore Scarlet Letter adaptation. They knew it was


  • gonna suck, but they just kept going. No one knows who Demi Moore is anymore, Stan. We


  • gotta update our references. Did Mila Kunis make any terrible movie adaptations?


  • Meredith has informed me that Mila Kunis is also old.


  • But this is precisely the kind of courage that Atticus displays when defending Tom Robinson.


  • Like before the trial, Atticus tells his brother that he knows he is alreadylicked”:


  • You know what’s going to happen as well as I do.” But Atticus still defends Tom


  • passionately, although to be fair, it’s not that difficult to argue in court that


  • a man with a damaged left arm would have had a difficult time punching someone on the right


  • side of their face. Now that was his job, but outside the courtroom, he also holds an


  • all-night vigil near Tom’s cell. Atticus is fighting for more than abstract principles


  • of social justice. He wants to serve as an example that will prevent his children from,


  • quote, “catchingracism, which he calls, “Maycomb’s usual disease.”


  • Astoundingly, Atticus even has compassion for Bob Ewell, the drunkard who beat (and

    更令人驚訝的是,亞惕甚至對鮑伯.艾薇有同情心,那個人會打 (可能強暴過)

  • likely raped) his own daughter, Mayella. I mean, Ewell successfully pinned this on Tom


  • Robinson, knowing full well that a conviction would lead to the death penalty. And Ewell


  • stalked Tom’s wife, spit in Atticusface, and threatened, then later attacked, Jem and Scout.


  • And when Jem’s a little incredulous that Atticus is able to empathize with Ewell,


  • Atticus replies, “Jem, see if you can stand in Bob Ewell’s shoes for a minute. I destroyed


  • his last shred of credibility at that trial, if he had any to begin with. [….] So if

    我可是粉碎了他在審判上的最後一絲可信度 ... [….]

  • spitting in my face and threatening me saved Mayella Ewell one extra beating, that’s


  • something I’ll gladly take. He had to take it out on somebody and I’d rather it be


  • me than that houseful of children out there.” That may seem like almost over-the-top in


  • terms of heroism, but let’s remember this is a Southern Gothic novel. It has to have its knight.


  • All right, let’s close today with Atticusline that gives the novel its title: “it’s


  • a sin to kill a mockingbird.” When Scout asks Miss Maudie why, she learns: “Mockingbirds


  • don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don’t eat up people’s gardens,


  • don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us.


  • That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” So who’s the mockingbird in this novel?


  • Is it the elusive Boo Radley, confined to the nest of his home, but generous in his


  • love for the Finch children? Is it Tom Robinson, whose kindness to Mayella Ewell was literally

    難以捉摸的阿瑟布芮德嗎? 還是對梅拉耶.艾薇的善意實際上為自己的死期

  • the death of him? Is it the author herself, singing her heart out about the imperfect

    的湯姆羅賓森? 還是作者本人,唱出她那座

  • gardens of her youth? Or is it Scout herself, whose education in empathy is also an education


  • in race, class, and gender oppression? (It could also be Katniss Everdeen.)

    種族、階級,還有性別壓迫的教育? ( 可能也是凱妮絲艾佛汀 )

  • But regardless of how you answer that question, To Kill a Mockingbird leaves us with a timeless


  • takeaway: it requires courage to try on the proverbial shoes of others, to try to walk