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  • Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course Literature,

    嗨,我是約翰.葛林,這裡是 Crash Course Literature

  • and today we continue our discussion of To Kill a Mockingbird.

    今天我們要繼續討論《梅岡城故事》

  • So the takeaway from last week’s video about Mockingbird was this: “You never really

    我們在上禮拜的影片從《梅岡城故事》學到:「如果你沒辦法站在某個人的角度考慮事情,

  • understand a person until you consider things from his point of view--until you climb into

    那你就無法了解一個人 — 直到你滲透他的皮囊內,好好在他體內走一遭。」

  • his skin and walk around in it.” And for me, at least, that’s one of the great pleasures

    至少對我來說,這是閱讀所帶來其中一項恩惠

  • of reading. We get to escape the strictures of our narrow lives and travel through time

    我們能夠跳脫自我生活的束縛,穿越時間與空間

  • and space, imagine the world from other people’s perspectives. And by accessing this wide range

    去想像以他人的角度所看見的世界

  • of human experience, we can understand that other people are really real and isn’t that

    透過廣闊的人們生命體驗,我們可以領悟他人是多麼真實,

  • an amazing thing to be able to do, or youre also eating Cheetos?!?

    不覺得這是多讚的一件事嗎?還是說你嘴裡還嚼著奇多?!

  • Downside, you stain all your books with Cheeto fingers, but it’s worth it!

    真糟糕,你讓所有書本都被你的奇多手指搞髒了,但這一切值得!

  • [Theme Music]

    [ 主題曲 ]

  • So some people argue that the empathy and understanding that we can get from reading

    所以有些人仍在爭論從閱讀就能感知同情心與諒解

  • is in fact, like, the point of all culture. In 1875, the English poet and critic Matthew

    這是正是全文化的重點所在。在 1875 年,英國詩人與評論家

  • Arnold argued that culture: "…seeks to do away with classes; to make the best that has

    馬修.阿諾德曾爭論說文化為「找出消除階級的辦法;

  • been thought and known in the world current everywhere; to make all men live in an atmosphere

    善盡利用現今世界各地既已被想過且已知的;讓全人類得以生活在

  • of sweetness and light." If that’s the point of culture, I’m not sure that weve done that well,

    甜美、光明的氛圍中。」假設這是文化的重點,我不確定我們有做到那麼理想

  • especially since in that quote, Matthew Arnold said, “menwhen I presume he meant, you know, people.

    特別引述馬修.阿諾德所言中的「人類」,容我擅自闡述他的見解,也就是「人們」

  • So To Kill a Mockingbird didn’t “do awaywith class structure, but it does critique

    所以說,《梅岡城的故事》並沒有「消除」社會階級,但它的確有批評

  • social and racial divisions in the American South. And like Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall

    在南美,社會與種族間的區隔。像是奇努阿.阿切貝的《生命中不可承受之重》

  • Apart, To Kill a Mockingbird is a story about the past, but it is also very much a product

    《梅岡城的故事》都是有關過去的故事,但裡頭所撰寫的內容同時也是

  • of the time in which it was written. All right, let’s go straight to the Thought Bubble today.

    書寫當下時代的產物。好的,我們來看看今日的對話框

  • So Lee wrote To Kill a Mockingbird in the 1950s—a decade of huge changes in the social

    李於 1950 年代開寫《梅岡城的故事》— 十年間美國的社會格局

  • landscape of the United States: Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus (precipitating

    產生巨大的變化:羅莎.帕克斯在公車上拒絕讓位 (促使了聯合抵制蒙哥馬利公車運動)

  • the Montgomery Bus Boycott). Riots broke out after two African-Americans were admitted

    兩位非裔美國人被阿拉巴馬大學錄取後

  • into the University of Alabama. And that was just in Lee’s home state! In Mississippi,

    暴動便開始了,而這還只是在李居住的州裡!在密西西比

  • Emmett Till, a 14 year old African-American boy, was killed for allegedly whistling at

    愛默特提爾,一位十四歲的非裔美國男孩,據說因為對著一位女白人吹口哨而被殺害

  • a white woman, and the Supreme Court decided thatseparate but equalschools are

    在 1954 年,最高法院裁定,布朗訴托皮卡教育局案中

  • inherently unequal in the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954. Congress passed a

    所制定「隔離平等政策」的學校,本身就是不平等的

  • Civil Rights Act in 1957 to support the integration of schools. In Arkansas, the governor used

    在 1957 年,國會通過了民權法案以支持學校整合

  • the National Guard to prevent nine African-American students from entering Little Rock High School,

    在阿肯色州,該州管轄者動用國民警衛隊來阻止九位非裔美國學生進入小城石高中

  • and President Eisenhower sent federal troops to integrate that school.

    而總統艾森豪威爾派了聯邦軍隊來整合那間高中

  • Lee reflects on her 1930s childhood from the perspective of the conflict-ridden 1950s.

    李從 1950 年代的衝突觀點反思她在 1930 年代的童年時光

  • So yes, Lee is nostalgic for the sweetness and light of her youth, for summer days playing

    李很懷念她那甜美又光明的青春歲月,像是在夏日中於戶外遊玩

  • outdoors, lemonade on front porches, reading on a father’s lap, but she’s also unflinching

    前門廊上的檸檬水、在父親的腿上看書,但她針對自己批評

  • in her critiques of the bitterness and ignorance that characterized social and race relations.

    社會與種族之間所產生的苦澀與無知也是相當無懼的

  • That combination of nostalgia and criticism makes Mockingbird both endearing and enduring.

    令人感到懷舊又伴隨批評的結合美學,讓《梅岡城的故事》成了受人鐘愛且永流傳的作品

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. So our hero and narrator, Scout, is confused by the hatred and violence

    謝謝我們的對話框,所以我們的英雄旁白,史考特,

  • she witnesses in her town. At the start of Mockingbird, Jem explains the social order

    對自己在城中目睹的仇恨與暴力感到困惑。在《梅岡城的故事》的一開始

  • of Maycomb: “The thing about it is, our kind of folks don’t like the Cunninghams,

    珍解釋了有關梅崗城的社會秩序:「是這樣的,這裡的人種都不喜歡坎寧海一家

  • the Cunninghams don’t like the Ewells, and the Ewells hate and despise the colored folks.”

    而坎寧海一家不喜歡艾薇一家,艾薇家的人憎恨又鄙視有色人種。」

  • Scout doesn’t like this, she argues that there is, “just one kind of folks. Folks.”

    史考特不喜歡她這樣解釋,她爭論:「只有一種人種。那就是人。」

  • Scout, I don’t wanna cast aspersions, but that’s literally the definition of communism.

    史考特,我無意誹謗你,但這就是所謂共產主義字面上的定義

  • But class is deeply entrenched in Maycomb; like, when Scout asks her Aunt Alexandra if

    但階級制度在梅崗城已根深蒂固,像是,史考特問她的姑姑,亞歷山德拉

  • she can invite a poor classmate named Walter Cunningham home, Alexandra tells her: “…you

    她可不可以邀請一位家境貧困、名叫華特坎寧海的同學來家裡玩。亞歷山德拉告訴她:

  • should be gracious to everybody, dear. But you don’t have to invite him home.” And

    「妳是該親切待人,親愛的,但妳不需要邀請他到家裡來。」

  • when Scout pressures further, Alexandra finally says: “… heistrash, that’s why

    接著史考特繼續逼問,亞歷山德拉終於說:「他 — 是 — 個 — 垃圾!

  • you can’t play with him. I’ll not have you around him, picking up his habits and

    這也是為什麼妳不能跟他玩在一起!我不準你在他身邊、養成他的習慣

  • learning Lord-knows-what.” But in the logic of the novel, Alexandra’s thinking isn’t

    天知道你會跟他學什麼!」但按照小說裡的邏輯,亞歷山德拉的想法並不只是心胸狹隘

  • just mean-spirited, it’s flat-out dangerous, because Scout and Jem have actually already hosted

    還是相當危險的,因為史考特和珍早就接待過華特坎寧海了 —

  • Walter Cunningham—a fact that saves Atticus from a beating and (briefly) saves the life of Tom Robinson.

    這讓亞惕避免被毆打,簡單來說,這完全救了湯姆羅賓森

  • Because, remember when a mob converges on the jail to lynch Tom, they find Atticus waiting

    記得暴民聚集在一個監獄對湯姆處以私刑時,他們發現亞惕在外頭等著

  • outside, right? Scout and Jem then arrive on the scene and when Scout innocently mentions

    對吧?史考特和珍到了現場,史考特天真地提到

  • to Mr. Cunningham, a leader of the group that wants to lynch Tom, that his son is “a real

    坎寧海先生,那群想對湯姆處以私刑的暴民的領頭,認為他的兒子是

  • nice boy,” a humbled Mr. Cunningham tells the mob to disperse. So it’s by not honoring

    「真正善良的男孩」,接著謙卑的坎寧海先生要暴民們離開,所以我們可以知道

  • the class structure of Maycomb that Scout is able to achieve a small measure of justice.

    史考特透過未遵從梅崗城的階級制度實踐了某種程度上的正義之舉

  • It’s also telling that it’s not Atticus, or any other member of their white upper middle

    這也同時說明不是亞惕,也不是其他中產階級制度的白人

  • class social order, who taught Scout how to pay young Walter Cunningham proper respect.

    有曾經教導史考特該如何給予年輕的華特坎寧海基本的尊重

  • It’s the family’s African-American housekeeper, Calpurnia, because in fact, Scout’s really

    而是一位非裔美國的管家,卡布妮亞

  • rude to Walter when he eats at her house. She asks Walterwhat the sam hill he was

    事實上華特到史考特家用餐時,史考特待華特相當無禮。華特在自己的食物上倒滿糖漿時

  • doingafter he pours syrup all over his food, and then Calpurnia summons Scout to

    她就對著史考特喊:「天殺的,你在幹嘛?」

  • the kitchen and lets her have it. Calpurnia explains that guests, no matter who they are,

    接著卡布妮亞把史考特叫到廚房去,並嚴厲指責她的行為。卡布妮亞說無論客人是誰

  • must be treated well and then tells Scout that if she is not going to behave, she won’t

    都要待人有禮,並告訴史考特如果她不這麼做,那卡布妮亞就不准她在餐桌上吃

  • eat at the table, she has to eat in the kitchen.

    她必須在廚房吃飯

  • And Scout really respects Calpurnia, who, by the way, is a fascinating character. Unlike

    史考特相當尊敬卡布妮亞,順道一提,她是一位相當迷人的角色

  • most African Americans in 1930s Alabama, Calpurnia reads, writes, she has excellent grammar.

    和 1930 年代在阿拉巴馬州的非裔美國人不同,卡布妮亞會閱讀寫作,她擁有卓越的文法造詣

  • And Scout notices that Calpurnia chooses to speak differently with white people than she

    史考特發現卡布妮亞選擇用不同於與白人講話的方式和非裔美國人講話

  • does with African-Americans. When Scout asks her about this, Calpurnia replies, “….Now

    當史考特問起這件事時,卡布妮亞回答:

  • what if I talked white-folkstalk at church, and with my neighbors? They’d think I was

    「...... 現在我如果在教堂和某一位白種人交談,和我的鄰居們?

  • puttinon airs to beat Moses.” And Scout’s awestruck by the notion that Calpurnialed

    他們會認為我在擺架子,像在挑戰摩西。」史考特對卡布妮亞的觀念感到極度敬佩

  • a modest double lifeThe idea that she had a separate existence outside our household

    「她過著最適中的雙重生活 ... 認為自己在家外有個不同的身份

  • was a novel one, to say nothing of her having command of two languages.” This is again

    是相當新奇的想法,更別說她還精通兩種語言。」

  • a moment of Scout learning to imagine others complexly, which, after all, is her real education.

    這也是史考特再次學會複雜地思考他人立場的瞬間,畢竟,這才是她真正的教育

  • So Calpurnia’s “double lifeis a textbook example of what W.E.B. Du Bois called a “double-consciousness

    因此卡布妮亞的「雙重生活」成了教科書中的範例,是 W.E.B. 杜波伊斯所撰的名書

  • in his famous book The Souls of Black Folk (published in 1903). Du Bois describesdouble-consciousness

    《黑人的靈魂》(於 1903 年出版) 所提及的「雙重意識」。杜波伊斯將「雙重意識」描述成

  • as thesenseof always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring

    「一種感知,總是透過他人觀點看待己身

  • one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels

    以全世界那可笑的鄙視與同情的標準來衡量自己的靈魂。一個個體悟出了

  • his two-ness,—an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings;

    他的雙重身分 — 一位美國公民,也是位黑人;兩種靈魂、兩種想法、兩種不甘的奮鬥;

  • two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.”

    兩種交戰般的理想,生在這黑皮的軀體裡,獨自尋著不被粉碎的力量。」

  • And Calpurnia is acutely aware of how she looks in the eyes of others. She has internalized

    卡布妮亞則相當清楚自己在他人眼裡是怎樣的人

  • the racism of whites as well as the classism inside her own community, and she treads carefully

    她已經將白人的種族主義以及社區內的階級制度內化,她也在這兩者的世界走得謹慎小心

  • in both worlds. And she’s also a woman, so she has to navigate gender expectations.

    她也是個女人,所以她必須導正性別角色

  • Like although Calpurnia usually allows Scout to wear overalls, she dresses her up for church.

    像是卡布妮亞雖然常常讓史考特自行穿搭,但在上教堂時,她會為史考特著裝

  • And I think that gesture represents more than professional pride. It also demonstrates how

    而我認為姿態比職業正氣象徵更多意義

  • deeply ingrained ideals of Southern femininity are in Calpurnia’s life: it’s one thing,

    這也顯示出,南方對於女性氣質的理想是多麼地在卡布妮亞的人生中根深蒂固:

  • and certainly this heroism shouldn’t be dismissed, to allow a girl toact like

    這是其中一件事,還有她做的一件英勇事蹟不該被遺忘,那就是她允許一個女孩

  • a boyat home. But when it comes to her church and her community, Calpurnia ultimately

    在家裡可以「像個男孩一樣」,但提到教會與她的社區

  • forces Scout to conform to the gender roles that we discussed last week.

    卡布妮亞最後還是會強迫史考特服從我們上禮拜討論的性別角色

  • So that’s one way that race and gender discrimination manifested itself in Maycomb. Another is the

    所以這一個在梅崗城中所表現的種族與性別歧視的方式

  • experience of Tom Robinson. Despite being proven innocent beyond a shadow of a doubt, Tom is

    另一個是湯姆羅賓森的經驗。儘管湯姆的嫌疑已經被證實是無辜的,他還是被判死刑

  • sentenced to death. So how is Scout supposed to make sense of that? Well for this, we turn to Atticus Finch.

    所以,史考特如何理出頭緒?這一點,我們得回到亞惕.芬鵸這個人身上

  • He’s sort of a Gregory Peck -- oooh. It’s time for the open letter.

    他有點像是葛雷哥萊.畢克 ... 噢!現在是我們拆信的時候了

  • Oh, look at that, it’s the movie tie-in edition of my own book, The Fault in Our Stars.

    看看這個,這是我的書,電影封面版本,《生命中的美好缺憾》

  • An open letter to movie adaptations. I just want to state, for the record, that this was

    一封致改編電影的公開信,作為紀念說明一下,這可是梅雷迪斯的點子

  • Meredith’s idea. It’s not like I need Crash Course to inform you that the paperback

    我不需要透過 Crash Course 告訴你們這本書的平裝版

  • edition of my book is now available for just $12.99.

    現在只要 12.99 元就能入手

  • Dear Movie Adaptations, Why are you so often so bad?

    親愛的電影改編,你為什麼這麼糟糕呢?

  • The standard narrative is that movie adaptations are bad because you can’t fit a whole novel

    標準敘述是:電影改編之所以糟糕,是因為一部電影容納不下一整部小說

  • into a movie. But one, that doesn’t explain Where the Wild Things Are, which is, like,

    但是第一,這不適用於《野獸家園》,因為它只有 32 頁的篇幅

  • 32 pages long. And two, you will rarely in American literature come across a more interesting

    以及第二,你很少能從美國文學找到

  • and complex book than To Kill a Mockingbird, which had, like, the greatest movie adaptation of all time!

    比《梅岡城的故事》更有趣和複雜的書了,他可是擁有有史來最棒的電影改編!

  • I think it’s ultimately because movie people know that they need to make something that

    我想追根究柢是因為電影人都知道他們需要做出某些東西才能

  • will appeal to millions and millions of people, whereas books don’t have to have that broad

    吸引數百萬民眾,而書本則不需要如此廣泛的觀眾群

  • of an audience. Because let’s face it, not that many people read them.

    我們就面對現實吧,不是很多人會看書

  • But, Movie Adaptations, when youre good, and I think I’ve been lucky enough to get

    但是電影改編的話,如果是很棒的改編,我想我也夠幸運能成為其中一位

  • a good one, youre not obsessed with getting the broadest possible audience, youre obsessed

    你就不需要固執地譁眾取寵,你只要專心於做好一部電影就好

  • with trying to make a good movie. So more of that, and less pandering with gratuitous

    因此有更多這樣的改編電影,就會減少為求迎合

  • sex scenes and explosions.

    而拍攝無賞的性愛和爆破畫面

  • Oh Stan, always pandering with explosions. Best Wishes, John Green.

    噢,史丹就會被爆破畫面吸引。附上最誠摯的祝福,約翰.葛林上

  • Right, but Atticus is magnanimous. I mean, he waves at old Mrs. Dubose, the morphine

    但亞惕是相當有肚量的人,他會對杜波斯夫人揮手致意

  • addict who screams insults at Jem and Scout. Like although Atticus knows that Mrs. Dubose

    這位女人對嗎啡上癮,會對傑姆和史考特大吼侮辱,雖然亞惕知道杜波斯夫人對自己

  • doesn’t approve of his own actions, he still recognizes that she has, quote, “real courage”—something

    的行為毫無贊同,但他仍承認這個女人有「真正的勇氣」—

  • he defines as, “…when you know youre licked before you begin but you begin anyway

    他將其定義:「 ... 在你開始前你就知道你會被鞭打,但無論如何你還是會開始做

  • and you see it through no matter what.” Real courage, seeing it through even when

    而且無論如何都會堅持到底。」 真正的勇氣,就是即使知道自己會失敗,你仍然貫徹始終

  • you know youre doomed, like the Demi Moore Scarlet Letter adaptation. They knew it was

    像是《真愛一生》的改編電影,他們知道結果會很糟

  • gonna suck, but they just kept going. No one knows who Demi Moore is anymore, Stan. We

    但他們依然堅持,再也沒人在乎黛咪.摩爾是誰了,史丹,我們得更新參考資料了

  • gotta update our references. Did Mila Kunis make any terrible movie adaptations?

    蜜拉.庫妮絲拍過任何一部糟糕的改編電影嗎?

  • Meredith has informed me that Mila Kunis is also old.

    梅雷迪恩告訴我蜜拉.庫妮絲也老了

  • But this is precisely the kind of courage that Atticus displays when defending Tom Robinson.

    但當亞惕為湯姆.羅賓森辯護也清楚展現了一種勇氣

  • Like before the trial, Atticus tells his brother that he knows he is alreadylicked”:

    像是在開庭前,亞惕告訴他的兄弟說他知道他已經被「鞭打」:

  • You know what’s going to happen as well as I do.” But Atticus still defends Tom

    「你知道我做了之後會發生什麼事。」但亞惕依然為湯姆積極地辯護

  • passionately, although to be fair, it’s not that difficult to argue in court that

    雖然為了公平,一個男人的左手臂受了傷

  • a man with a damaged left arm would have had a difficult time punching someone on the right

    是很難朝他們其中一個人的右臉重擊下去的,這點在庭上也不難爭辯

  • side of their face. Now that was his job, but outside the courtroom, he also holds an

    現在這正是他的工作,但在法庭外,他必須在湯姆的地牢附近

  • all-night vigil near Tom’s cell. Atticus is fighting for more than abstract principles

    通宵守夜,亞惕是在爭取一個不單是抽象道義的社會正義

  • of social justice. He wants to serve as an example that will prevent his children from,

    他想成為一個例子,能夠防止他的孩子

  • quote, “catchingracism, which he calls, “Maycomb’s usual disease.”

    引述他的話,「染上」種族主義,他就是這麼稱呼的:「梅岡城就是個通病。」

  • Astoundingly, Atticus even has compassion for Bob Ewell, the drunkard who beat (and

    更令人驚訝的是,亞惕甚至對鮑伯.艾薇有同情心,那個人會打 (可能強暴過)

  • likely raped) his own daughter, Mayella. I mean, Ewell successfully pinned this on Tom

    自己的親生女兒,梅耶拉。我的意思是,艾薇成功地將這一切嫁禍給湯姆.羅賓森

  • Robinson, knowing full well that a conviction would lead to the death penalty. And Ewell

    他也完全知道這定罪就是死罪

  • stalked Tom’s wife, spit in Atticusface, and threatened, then later attacked, Jem and Scout.

    艾薇還跟蹤湯姆的妻子,吐口水在亞惕臉上並威脅他,接著又攻擊珍和史考特

  • And when Jem’s a little incredulous that Atticus is able to empathize with Ewell,

    而當珍對亞惕同情艾薇有些懷疑時

  • Atticus replies, “Jem, see if you can stand in Bob Ewell’s shoes for a minute. I destroyed

    亞惕回他:「珍,看看你能否站在鮑伯.艾薇的角度想,假設他一開始就有想做什麼

  • his last shred of credibility at that trial, if he had any to begin with. [….] So if

    我可是粉碎了他在審判上的最後一絲可信度 ... [….]

  • spitting in my face and threatening me saved Mayella Ewell one extra beating, that’s

    所以如果朝我臉吐口水還有威脅我能拯救梅耶拉艾薇逃過那麼一次毆打

  • something I’ll gladly take. He had to take it out on somebody and I’d rather it be

    那這是我樂意承擔的,他需要往某個人身上發洩

  • me than that houseful of children out there.” That may seem like almost over-the-top in

    我寧可那個人是我,也不要是那群孩子。」看起來是言過其實的英雄主義

  • terms of heroism, but let’s remember this is a Southern Gothic novel. It has to have its knight.

    但我們得記住這是南哥特式小說。它需要一位騎士

  • All right, let’s close today with Atticusline that gives the novel its title: “it’s

    好的,我們今天就以亞惕對這本小說下的標題結束:

  • a sin to kill a mockingbird.” When Scout asks Miss Maudie why, she learns: “Mockingbirds

    「殺了知更鳥是有罪的。」當史考特問默迪小姐為什麼時,她得知:

  • don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don’t eat up people’s gardens,

    「知更鳥不做什麼,就只會唱歌讓我們享受。牠們不會在人們的花園大開吃戒

  • don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us.

    不在玉蜀黍倉庫裡築巢,牠們什麼都不會做,只為我們唱出心聲

  • That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” So who’s the mockingbird in this novel?

    這就是為什麼殺了知更鳥是有罪的。」所以在這本小說誰是知更鳥呢?

  • Is it the elusive Boo Radley, confined to the nest of his home, but generous in his

    是那被限制在家中,但對分鵸的孩子們百般疼愛

  • love for the Finch children? Is it Tom Robinson, whose kindness to Mayella Ewell was literally

    難以捉摸的阿瑟布芮德嗎? 還是對梅拉耶.艾薇的善意實際上為自己的死期

  • the death of him? Is it the author herself, singing her heart out about the imperfect

    的湯姆羅賓森? 還是作者本人,唱出她那座

  • gardens of her youth? Or is it Scout herself, whose education in empathy is also an education

    少年時期不完整的花園之心聲?或是史考特自己,對同情心的教育同時也是

  • in race, class, and gender oppression? (It could also be Katniss Everdeen.)

    種族、階級,還有性別壓迫的教育? ( 可能也是凱妮絲艾佛汀 )

  • But regardless of how you answer that question, To Kill a Mockingbird leaves us with a timeless

    但無論你的答案是什麼,《梅崗城的故事》會給你一個永恆的主旨:

  • takeaway: it requires courage to try on the proverbial shoes of others, to try to walk

    嘗試他人眾所周知的立場以及觀點都是需要勇氣的