字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 As an Australian Canadian 身為澳洲加拿大人， the Fahrenheit temperature scale has always seemed a bit arbitrary to me. 華氏溫度 似乎有點隨意。 I mean why does water freezes at 32 degrees? 我的意思是為什麼水 在 32度 凍結。 Why that integer and what exactly does 0 represent? 為什麼是這個整數，而 0 又代表什麼？ According to many sources 根據許多來源， the Fahrenheit scale was defined by setting 0 degrees 華氏溫度 的定義是讓 0度 equal to the temperature of the ice salt and water mixture 等於 鹽冰和水混合物 的溫度 And a hundred degrees being roughly equal to human body temperature. 100度 大約等於人體溫度。 But that isn't true. 但這是不對的。 The real story is much more interesting and scientific. 事實更加有趣而且科學 August 14th, 1701 was almost certainly the worst day 1701年 8月14日， 幾乎是最糟糕的一天 in the life of 15 year-old Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. 加布里埃爾·華倫海特（華氏） 在15歲時， On that day, both of his parents died suddenly from mushroom poisoning. 那一天，他的父母突然因為 蘑菇中毒 死亡。 And he was sent from Poland where he lived 他從 波蘭 （他的家鄉） to Amsterdam to become an apprentice bookkeeper. 去到 阿姆斯特丹 成為一個學徒簿記員。 But Fahrenheit couldn't stand his apprenticeship and 可是華氏不能承受 ran away so many times that his employer put out a warrant for his arrest. 不停逃跑 使得他的雇主 發出了逮捕令。 Traveling from city to city around Europe, 在歐洲旅行， he became fascinated with scientific instruments 他迷上了科學儀器， and in particular, thermometers. 特別是溫度計。 In 1708, possibly seeking help with the warrant, 在 1708年， 或許是由於逮捕令 而尋求幫助， Fahrenheit met with the mayor of Copenhagen, 華氏會見了 哥本哈根市長， who happened to be the famous astronomer Ole Rømer. 也就是著名的天文學家 Ole Rømer。 Rømer is known for observing the eclipses of Jupiter's moons Rømer 以觀察 木星月亮的月食 而聞名， and realizing that variations in the timing of those eclipses 並發現這些月食時間的變化 was caused by the time it took light to reach Earth. 是因為 光到達地球的時間 而異。 In other words, he found a way 換句話說，他找到了一種準確測量光速的辦法。 to accurately measure the finite speed of light. 但是，與這個故事更有關聯的是， But, more pertinent to this story, 在1702年，Rømer 因為腿斷了不能离家。 in 1702, Rømer was housebound after breaking his leg. 為了打發時間，他設計了一個 全新的溫度標準 And to pass the time, he devised a brand-new temperature scale 水的冰點 是 7.5度 with the freezing point of water at 7.5 degrees 而體溫是 22.5度。 and body temperature at 22.5 degrees. 現在，這可能是奇怪的 直到你認為 Rømer 想要讓 Now, this might seem odd until you consider that Rømer wanted 水的沸點為 60度。 the boiling point of water to be 60 degrees. 作為一個天文學家，他習慣把事物分成 60 份。 As an astronomer, he had experience dividing things by 60. 以這個標準 So if you take this scale, 分成一半， 分成一半， 再分成一半 divide it in half, in half again and in half once more, 你會發現水的冰點在八分之一 you find the freezing point of water one eighth up the scale, 人類的體溫在 八分之三 and human body temperature three eighth up the scale. 在 1708年 的會面時， So at their meeting in 1708 華氏 知道了 Rømer 的溫標並使用， Fahrenheit learned of Rømer's temperature scale and adopted it as his own, 做了些調整，因為他認為它 adjusting it slightly because he found it "因為小數點而 不夠方便和優美。" "inconvenient and inelegant on account of fractional numbers". 所以他把他們調成了 8 和 24。 So he scaled them up to 8 and 24. 這就是原始的 華氏溫標。 And this is the original Fahrenheit scale. 他用這個溫標做了些溫度計 He produced thermometers for some time using this scale. 但是後來， But then at some later point, 華氏把溫標乘上 4, Fahrenheit multiplied all numbers on the scale by 4 設置冰點到現在熟悉的32度和 體溫至96度。 setting freezing point to the now-familiar 32 and body temperature to 96. 不清楚為什麼他這樣做。 It's unclear exactly why he did this. 他可能只是想要更精確的測量。 He may just have wanted finer precision in his measurements. 但我認為有他有更好的理由。 But I think there was a better reason. 華氏 是一個優秀的儀器製造商。 You see, Fahrenheit was an excellent instrument maker. 他的溫度計非常準確 His thermometers agreed with each other precisely 在每個人都不知道的時候， at a time when that was unheard of. 他率先在溫度計使用水銀， He pioneered the use of mercury as a measuring liquid, 優點是它的沸點高於酒精 which has the benefit of a much higher boiling point than the alcohol 被用於大多數其他的溫度計。 used in most other thermometers at the time. 因為這些成就， And for these accomplishments 他被引進了 英國皇家學會。 he was inducted into the British Royal Society. 我們知道他讀了牛頓，波义耳和胡克的作品， And we know that he read the works of Newton, Boyle, and Hook, 在那裡他會有這個想法 in which he would have come across the idea 溫度的提升可對應 that one degree increase in temperature could correspond to 液體的體積的提升。 a specific fractional increase in the volume of the measuring liquid. 今天，華氏 溫度升高一度 And today, a one degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature 正好增加水銀體積 一萬分之一。 increases the volume of mercury by exactly one part in 10,000. 這只是一個巧合嗎？ Is this just a coincidence? 好吧，我們可能永遠不會知道 因為 Well, we'll probably never know for sure because 作為儀器製造商，華氏對他的方法非常保密。 as an instrument maker Fahrenheit was very secretive about his methods. 但我認為這數據強烈建議 這種情況。 But I think the data strongly suggest that this was the case. 所以 0度在 華氏和 Rømer 的溫標代表什麼？ So, what exactly did zero represent on the scales of Fahrenheit, and Rømer? 根據許多來源，它是鹽冰和水混合物 的溫度。 By many accounts, it's the temperature of salt ice and water mixture. 唯一的問題是這些混合物有不同的描述 The only problem is there are different descriptions of these mixtures 而且他們都沒有達到它們應有的溫度。 And none of them actually produces the temperature they're supposed to. 更有可能，我認為他們在冬天選擇了最冷的溫度， More likely, I think they picked the coldest temperature in winter 把它設置為零， set that as zero 然後用冰和鹽水洗滌 校準成新的溫度計。 and later used ice and brine to calibrate new thermometers. 在那個時候，華氏溫度計 是最好的溫度計。 In his day, the Fahrenheit thermometer was the best you could get. 但現在，他的只用在 開曼群島， But now his scale is only used regularly in the Cayman Islands, 巴哈馬，伯利茲......哦，和美國。 Bahamas, Belize— oh, and the United States of America. 也許這是時候 我們使用全球都在用的溫標 - So maybe it's time we all adopted the global scale of temperature: 攝氏，順便說一下， 不是由攝氏發明的。 Celsius, which by the way, wasn't invented by Celsius at all. 嘿! 這期有點不一樣。 Hey! So that was something a little bit different. 這視頻是由 Marcello Ascani 做的動畫。 This video was animated by Marcello Ascani. 我有在影片描述 加了他的頻道鏈接。 I've got a link to his channel in the description. 你知道，我變得迷上了溫度標度 You know, I became really fascinated with temperature scale 在我看到原本的 攝氏溫度計。 after I saw the original Celsius thermometer. 你可以在這裡看到視頻。 You can see that video here. 此視頻由 Patreon 的觀眾 Now, this video was supported in part by viewers like you on Patreon, 和 audible.com 支持, and by audible.com, - 有声书 的领先提供商 有成千上万的标题 a leading provider of audiobooks with hundreds of thousands of titles in 所有領域的文學， all areas of literature, 包括小說，非小說 和期刊。 including fiction nonfiction and periodicals. 這個頻道的觀眾 And for viewers of this channel, Audible 提供30天免費試用 Audible offers a free 30-day trial 在那裡你可以下載書。 where you can download any book of your choosing. 只要到 audible.com/veritasium. Just go to audible.com/veritasium. 我有一本書要推薦給你， And I have a book that I would recommend to you. 叫做 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 作者： Thomas S. Kuhn. It is called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn. 這是科學歷史和哲學的經典。 This is a classic in the history and philosophy of science. 它會讓你以不同的方式來看科學 And it'll make you see science in a different way 因為它顯示了 科學不只是一個過程 because it shows us that science is not just one process 而是有不同革命 but there are actually revolutions that take place 和大發現。 when big discoveries are made. 這真的改變了我對科學的思考 And that really changed my thinking about science - 在我在十年前看這本書時。 when I first read this book ten years ago. 所以你可以到 audible.com/veritasium So you can check it out by going to audible.com/veritasium 免費下載 並嘗試 Audible 的服務。 downloaded for free and try out the Audible service. 我要感謝 Audible 的支持 和感謝你的收看。 I want to thank Audible for supporting me and I want to thank you for watching.