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  • Melanie Klein was a highly creative and original Viennese Jewish psychoanalyst who discovered

    梅萊妮.克萊恩是一位充滿創意、原創性的 維也納猶太裔精神分析學家

  • the work of Freud at the age of 32 and devoted her life to enriching and nuancing it in intriguing

    她在32歲時接觸了佛洛伊德的理論, 並終生致力於以吸引人且有價值的方法

  • and valuable ways.

    豐富、細緻化佛洛伊德的理論

  • Born in 1882, Klein was held back by her father from her desire to become a doctor and had

    生於1882年,克萊恩原本想當醫生,但爸爸不允許

  • been pushed by her family into a loveless marriage with a coarse, unpleasant man with

    還被迫與一個她不愛的無趣男人結婚

  • whom she had nothing in common. She was bored, sexually frustrated and mentally unwell.

    他們沒有任何共通點, 克萊恩在婚姻中感到無趣、性冷感、精神不濟

  • Psychoanalysis saved her. She left her husband, read everything she could, attended lectures,

    是精神分析拯救了她。 她離開丈夫,盡可能地研讀理論、修習課程,

  • and started publishing papers of her own.

    而後開始發表自己的學術論文

  • She soon departed from Freud in an area that most other analysts had overlooked: the analysis

    她很快就與佛洛依德的理論分道揚鑣, 提出了一個大多數學者都忽略的領域:

  • of children.

    兒童精神分析

  • Freud had been sceptical that children could ever be analysed properly, their minds being

    佛洛伊德懷疑是否能夠對兒童進行精神分析,

  • in his view too unformed to allow for a perspective on the unconscious.

    他認為孩童的大腦尚未成熟到可接受精神分析的程度。

  • But Klein now argued that an analyst could get a useable view into a child’s inner

    但克萊恩認為,可以透過孩童玩玩具的過程中,

  • world through studying how they played with toys. She therefore equipped her consulting

    了解他們的內在世界。她成為一位兒童精神分析師,

  • room with small horses, figurines and locomotives and established herself as a child psychoanalyst,

    在諮商室裡放置許多小馬、小人偶、小玩具。

  • first in Berlin and then in London, where she settled in 1926 and remained for the rest

    一開始在柏林,後來1926年移居英國、直到終老。

  • of her life. In her work with children, Klein wanted to

    在她的臨床經驗中,

  • understand how human beings evolve from the primitive pleasure-seeking impulses of early

    克萊恩想了解, 人類的思想是如何從嬰兒時期純粹滿足原始慾望

  • infancy to the more mature adaptations of later lifeand in particular, she wanted

    進化到成年後成熟的思考。

  • to know what might go wrong on this journey, giving rise to the neurotic adaptations of

    她尤其想知道,其中是否發生了什麼差錯, 造成成年之後的各種精神疾病。

  • adults.

    在她1932出版的《兒童精神分析》一書中, 她描述了小小孩面臨的困難的心理狀態。

  • In her 1932 book The Psychoanalysis of Children she described the difficulty of the young

    脆弱、依賴成人、無法理解周遭發生了什麼事

  • infant’s situation.

    克萊恩認為,小小孩無法知道,周圍的人類實際上是

  • Weak, utterly at the mercy of adults, unable to grasp what is happening, the infant cannot

    擁有獨立思考與認知的人。

  • in Klein’s descriptiongrasp that people around it are in fact people, with

    出生幾周的小孩,甚至不認為母親是母親。

  • their own alternative reality and independent points of view.

    據克萊恩的說法,母親只是一對神出鬼沒的乳房,

  • In the early weeks, the mother is not even ‘a motherto her child, she isto

    有著無法預測又令人痛苦的隨機性。

  • come to the crux of the issuejust a pair of breasts which appear and disappear with

    嬰兒對母親的感受, 只有強烈的痛苦,以及強烈的快樂。

  • unpredictable and painful randomness.

    當乳房出現在嬰兒眼前,並分泌乳汁時,

  • In relation to this mother, all the infant experiences are moments of intense pain and

    嬰兒就會感受到一種原始的平靜與滿足。

  • then equally intense pleasure. When the breast is there and the milk flows, a primordial

    這種感覺中洋溢著安定、感激與親切,

  • calm and satisfaction descends upon the infant: it is suffused with feelings of well-being,

    這種關係會持續到成人的戀愛關係。

  • gratitude and tenderness (feelings that will, in adulthood, be strongly associated with

    但是當乳房因為不明原因消失時, 嬰兒會感到飢餓、憤怒、恐懼、想報復。

  • being in love, a moment where breasts continue to play a notable role for many). But when

    克萊恩認為,這使得嬰兒採取一種原始的防衛機制, 以避免陷入無法忍受的焦慮。

  • the breast is for whatever reason it is missing, the infant feels starving, enraged, terrified

    嬰兒會將母親分裂為兩種不同的乳房,

  • and vengeful.

    好乳房與壞乳房

  • This, thought Klein, leads the infant to adopt a primitive defence mechanism against what

    嬰兒非常討厭壞乳房, 他會啃咬攻擊這個邪惡的物體。

  • would otherwise be intolerable anxiety. Itsplitsthe mother into two very different

    相反地,好乳房則會被敬仰為完全善良溫和的存在。

  • breasts: a ‘good breastand a ‘bad breast’.

    隨著健康的發展,會逐漸修復這個分裂。

  • The bad breast is hated with a passion; the infant wants to bite, wound and destroy this

    孩童漸漸發現世界上沒有完全獨立的好乳房, 也沒有完全獨立的壞乳房。

  • object of unholy frustration. But the good breast is revered with an equally thorough

    兩個都是母親的一部份, 母親兼容了正面與負面、快樂與沮喪、

  • though more benign intensity.

    愉悅與痛苦。

  • With time, in healthy development, thissplitheals. The child will gradually perceive that

    此時兒童已經發展到克萊恩理論中的關鍵狀態:

  • there is in truth no entirely good and no entirely bad breast, both belong to a mother

    矛盾狀態

  • who is a perplexing mixture of the positive and the negative: a source of pleasure and

    能對某人事物產生矛盾狀態,是精神發展的重要突破,

  • frustration, joy and suffering.

    對克萊恩來說,是兒童進化到成人的重要里程碑。

  • The child discovers a key idea in Kleinian psychoanalysis: the concept of

    但這個狀態不一定會發生,也不是一勞永逸,

  • AMBIVALENCE

    健康兒童只能慢慢體會「意圖」與「影響」的關鍵區別

  • To be able to feel ambivalent about someone is, for Kleinians, an enormous psychological

    「母親意圖如何」與「小孩對母親的感受」之間的區別

  • achievement and the first marker on the path to genuine maturity.

    這種複雜的心理狀態,克萊恩稱為

  • But it isn’t inevitable or assured. Only slowly can a healthy child grasp the crucial

    憂鬱心理位置

  • distinction between intention and effect, between what a mother may have wanted for

    兒童在這段時期發現,現實比先前想像中複雜得多。

  • it and what the child might have felt at her hands nevertheless.

    善惡好壞是糾纏難分的,

  • These complicated psychological reactions belong a phase that Klein called

    母親或是其他人並不需為每一件錯誤負責。

  • THE DEPRESSIVE POSITION

    幾乎沒有全然的善或全然的惡,

  • a moment of soberness and melancholy when the growing child takes on board (unconsciously)

    所有的事物都是善惡的複合體

  • the idea that reality is more complicated and less morally neat than it had ever previously

    這對嬰兒來說很難接受 -- 克萊恩將這個狀態用來解釋

  • imagined: the mother (or other people generally) cannot be neatly blamed for every setback;

    孩童恍神時那深邃嚴肅的眼神,

  • almost nothing is totally pure or totally evil, things are a perplexing, thought-provoking

    在這些時刻,孩童思考著成人世界好壞矛盾的哲學議題

  • mixture of the good and bad

    不幸地,並非所有人都能度過這項憂鬱心理狀態

  • This is hard to take andfor Kleinexplains the serious faraway look that may sometime

    有些人無法修復矛盾好壞的分割,這種狀態克萊恩稱為

  • enter the eyes of children during daydreams. These small beings look oddly wise and grave

    偏執-類分裂心理位置

  • at such moments; they are, somewhere deep inside, cottoning on to the moral ambiguity

    這項障礙會持續許多年,甚至到成年期。這些不幸的人

  • of the real adult world.

    無法忍受任何一點矛盾或模糊,執著地維持這份無知

  • Unfortunately, in Klein’s analysis, not everyone makes it to the depressive position,

    他們愛恨分明,必須尋找代罪羔羊或把人理想化

  • some get stuck in a mode of primitive splitting she termed

    在感情關係裡,他們會先不顧一切地付出, 但到了某些時刻,他的伴侶無可避免地

  • THE PARANOID-SCHIZOID POSITION

    會做出某些令他們失望的事, 他們會瞬間再也無法對任何事有所感

  • For many years, even into adulthood, these unfortunate people will find themselves unable

    這些不幸的人很可能會不斷找尋新的戀人, 尋找完全的善、完全的美,

  • to tolerate the slightest ambivalence: keen to preserve their sense of their own innocence,

    但重蹈覆轍地,不知情的伴侶總會破壞他們的完美憧憬

  • they must either hate or love. They must seek scapegoats or idealise. In relationships,

    我們不必然要完全相信克萊恩理論的所有論點,

  • they tend to fall violently in love and thenat the inevitable moment when a lover

    但這個理論依然有其價值,提供了一個 不尋常卻有用的「成年」的定義

  • in some way disappoints themswitch abruptly and become incapable of feeling anything anymore.

    我們往往以一種簡化的觀點看待人:

  • These unfortunates are likely to move from candidate to candidate, always seeking a vision

    只看「他能為我做什麼?」 -- 能餵我奶、給我錢、讓我開心

  • of complete satisfaction, which is repeatedly violated by an unwitting error on the lover’s

    而忽略了人更複雜深層的內在。 這樣的傾向會對親密關係、乃至人生的各種情感

  • part.

    帶來許多痛苦

  • We don’t have to believe in the literal truth of Klein’s theory to see that it has

    透過梅萊妮.克萊恩的分析,我們能了解成長過程中

  • value for us as an unusual but useful representation of what it means to be a proper grown-up.

    親密關係體現的矛盾複雜的人性 -- 而我們始終還在成長

  • The impulse to reduce people

    以及這過程很可能伴隨而來的悲傷,甚至憂鬱。

  • into what they can do for us (give us milk, make us money, keep us happy), rather than

  • what they are in and of themselves (a multifaceted being), this can be painfully observed in emotional

  • life generally.

  • With Melanie Klein’s help, we learn that coming to terms with the ambivalent complex nature of all

  • relationships belongs to the business of growing up (a task were never quite done with)

  • and is likely to leave us a little sad, if not for a time quite simply depressed.

Melanie Klein was a highly creative and original Viennese Jewish psychoanalyst who discovered

梅萊妮.克萊恩是一位充滿創意、原創性的 維也納猶太裔精神分析學家

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 乳房 嬰兒 母親 精神 兒童 狀態

心理治療 - 梅蘭妮-克萊恩 (PSYCHOTHERAPY - Melanie Klein)

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    Jamie Wei 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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