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  • Americans love their independence...

    美國人最愛自主了

  • a nation of pioneers living out from under the eye of government ...

    美國這個國家,就是由當時一群不受政府控管的拓荒者所建立的

  • (except for all the government).

    (至於當時的政府由誰來管嘛...)

  • As such, unlike many other countries, Americans don't have a national ID card...

    因為這樣的一個原因,美國人不像世界上大多數國家的人一樣,有所謂的「身分證」

  • ...and even the idea of creating one is a political hot topic every election cycle.

    而創制「身分證制度」這個話題,也會在每一輪選舉上面被拿出來冷飯熱炒

  • The results are always the same: we don't need no ID card.

    每次結果都沒什麼不同就是了:美國不需用身分證這玩意兒

  • But suspiciously, US citizens do already have this:

    可是就某個角度來看的話,美國人其實早就有很類似所謂「身分證」的東西了:

  • a card with a unique number that many places will ask for to prove who you are.

    這張類似所謂「身分證」的卡上面有一組號碼,而且去到需要證明自己身份的特定場所的時候,就會被要求出示這張卡

  • This is the Social Security card and number...

    而這張卡就是美國所謂的「社會安全卡」

  • ...and it has become a quasi ID / unique password to identify citizens...

    ... 而雖然這張卡最一開始的用途並不是用於識別人的

  • ...though that was never its intended use.

    ... 但是這張卡現在儼然已經成為用來識別每個人用的「類身分證」/ 「特定編號」了

  • For Americans, keeping this number secret is super important...

    對美國人而言,這張卡片上的號碼是絕對不能讓其他人知道的

  • because it's the key to the government and banks to identifying you as you...

    因為政府還有銀行都用這組號碼來辨識每個人的身份

  • and losing control of it is the worst kind of identity theft that can happen.

    所以只要這組號碼洩漏了,「悲慘」這兩個字可能都不夠形容後續的腥風血雨

  • So how did Americans end up with a national ID number

    話說回來,美國到底是怎麼樣創製出

  • that isn't one and a card terribly unfit to identify?

    這套四不像的「國民身份編號」制度,還有這一張難用到不行的卡?

  • It all started in the great depression of long long ago

    這一切就要從那「經濟大蕭條時期」開始說起

  • when the government created the social security program, …

    當時的政府創建了一套「社會安全方案」

  • … a kind of mandatory pension:

    簡單來說,這個方案的目的是「強制國民儲蓄養老金」啦

  • Citizens would be required to pay in during

    在國民還有勞動能力的期間,政府會強制國民為了老後儲蓄

  • their working lives and withdraw in their retirement.

    然後在國民退休後,政府則會要求國民提出這筆儲蓄

  • The idea being that even if past-you didn't save

    這個方案一開始出發時的用意呢,是說「就算年輕的時候

  • for the sunset years of future-you, the eventually old current you

    你沒有為了往後老koko的自己做其他額外的儲蓄,這筆養老金

  • would still have something to live on.

    還是能夠在你老後幫上你一些忙」

  • Now if you want to think of social security as a benefit

    假如有人覺得上述的這套「社會安全制度」對我們有好處

  • the government provides or as a bank account that's yours

    或者是覺得「政府好棒棒,竟然就這樣給我一個銀行戶頭耶!」的話

  • iscontroversial, but either way this number was created

    其實事實為何,眾說紛紜呀,可是可以確定的是,這個「編號」當初開始被使用的原因

  • to track what you put in and what you take out.

    是為了用來記載每一筆匯入還有匯出的紀錄的

  • Now, because this was just one government program

    而當時,一般人只需要在出社會開始工作的時候

  • related only to your working life, you only needed to apply

    再來申請這張所謂的「社會安全卡」就可以了

  • for a social security card when you actually started working.

    因為上面講到的這個「方案」的效力,對一般人來說是在可以行使勞動行為(也就是成年之後)的時候才生效的

  • But over time, that changed and the younger you are,

    雖然嬰兒根本就算不上是社會勞動階級的一部粉

  • the more likely you've had one from the moment of your birth

    可是隨著時間過去

  • despite babies' worthlessness as child laborers.

    年紀越小的人,竟然有的從一出生開始就有這張「社會安全卡」

  • So why?

    為什麼會這樣呢?

  • Well it goes back to Americans' having no national identity card

    美國原本並沒有可以用來掌握國民日常生活的「國民編號」制度

  • with a national number, which makes it harder for institutions

    可是正因為如此

  • to keep track of people over their lives.

    所以各機關在管理國民上遇到各種困難

  • With hundreds of millions of citizens,

    美國境內有好幾億個國民

  • names and birthdays aren't unique,

    同姓名同生日的人也不在少數

  • people move, people marry, people change names.

    搬家的搬家,結婚的結婚,改名的改名

  • And if you're trying to keep track of everyone,

    像是美國的稅務局這樣

  • as say the United States Tax department might want to do,

    想要掌控全國國民的蹤跡的話

  • it can be a real problem, particularly in the pre-computer days.

    在電腦問世以前的那個時代,真的是說有多艱難就有多艱難

  • "Hey, wait a minute, look, at *this* number just lying around,"

    然後有一天

  • the tax department said.

    稅務局就突然注意到了這個乏人問津的「編號」的存在

  • "It's not supposed to be used as an ID number,"

    社會安全局也注意到了這些沒人在用的「編號」

  • said the social security department.

    可是基於保障個資安全的理由

  • "There are security reasons you shouldn't--"

    社會安全局本來是不想把這些「編號」利用在「辨別身份」的啦...

  • "Yoink!"

    但是稅務局就這麼手一伸!

  • Thus the tax department piggy-backed off of the work

    就拿走了這些原本是社會安全局用來「掌握勞動人力」用的號碼

  • the social security department did assigning working adults a number,

    如此一來呢

  • which made tracking taxes easier

    稅務局在查明稅務狀況的時候就更有效率的

  • and they highly encouraged parents to get a social security number

    而且稅務局還透過了「稅務減免」的做法

  • for their children by tying it to a tax discount.

    試圖鼓勵各位爸爸媽媽也幫家裡的小朋友也申請「社會安全號碼」

  • Crazily, counting children for tax rebates used to run on the honor system.

    最狂的是,「要不要幫家裡小朋友申請社會安全號碼」這個決定,在當時竟然完全是依賴全體國民的「道德良知」來執行的

  • The US Tax Department told people:

    美國稅務局在當時是這樣昭告天下的:

  • 1. We will give you a discount on your taxes for each child you have. And:

    1. 稅務局會依照府上幼年人口之人數,做出適當的稅務減免

  • 2. Write down your number of children, …

    2. 請老實告知府上的幼年人口人數

  • please be honest, we don't have a way to check.

    ...對於各位回答的真實性,稅務局無從查詢及驗證,所以還請各位誠實配合

  • Which was just asking, nay, begging people to lie.

    可是此話一出,不就等於是在向全國國民敞開那扇「逃稅之門」嗎?

  • Which they did, birthing on paper millions of phantom children.

    國民們也不是省油的燈,於是乎就這麼「造就」了成千上萬的幽靈人口

  • But after requiring each kid to have a social security

    俗話說的好,「道高一尺,魔高一丈」,為了解決這種逃稅亂象

  • account number connected to a birth certificate

    稅務局最後決定要求父母必須出示新生兒的「出生證明」,才能申請社會安全號碼

  • before the parents could get the tax discount, …

    而社會安全號碼申請下來之後,稅務局才會給予稅務減免

  • all those phantoms faded away.

    這一聲令下後,先前成千上萬的幽靈人口才慢慢的消失

  • This turned the social security number into a unique number

    幾經這些波折後,這些「社會安全號碼」早已搖身一變,成為了

  • that all citizens had right from the start, …

    國民從來到這個世界上的時候開始就會有的「標準配備」

  • and that made it easy for lots of other places like banks

    而銀行、學校

  • ... and schools and companies and landlords

    公司行號、地主等等

  • to also piggy back on the number as an easy way

    這些會需要用到每個人個人資訊的單位

  • to keep track of people without having to come up

    也都搭上了這班順風車

  • with their own systems and to be able to exchange information

    如此一來,單位與單位間的個資交流也越來越便捷及有效率

  • about people between institutions.

    各單位也不用自己絞盡腦汁,各自為政地來建立只適用於單一單位的個資管理系統了

  • This is super useful for institutions, so, …

    然後呢,因為各大單位覺得「社會安全號碼」這個東西實在是太好用了

  • the desire of Americans to not have a national identity card led, …

    又加上米國人又是這麼的不願意接受「國民身分證」的拘束

  • somewhat inevitably, …

    這兩者相輔相成之下

  • to the nearest thing available being used as a substitute

    「社會安全號碼」就這樣順理成章的開始被當成所謂的「身分證號碼」來使用

  • which ended up being worse because the social security number

    可是問題來了:這些「社會安全號碼」並沒有各位看倌們想像中的那樣「安全」

  • was never designed to be used this way in the long, long ago.

    原因是因為,我們一般常見的「身分證字號」有經過仿偽工程的加持

  • And you can tell because it has no security built into it.

    然而美國特有的「社會安全號碼」並・沒・有

  • Ok, so there's this neat trick that most ID numbers use

    照過來照過來:一般常見的「身分證字號」呢

  • ...where they can check themselves to see if they're invalid.

    都會有防偽機制,下面來為各位看倌介紹一套最常見的:

  • The simplest way is to have the last couple digits

    最簡單的防偽機制,就是把字號的前面幾個數字加總

  • match the sum of the others.

    然後看看加總後的數字,跟最後幾位數的數字是否一致

  • All kinds of ID cards and bar codes do this because it makes it impossible

    常見的身分證字號和市面上常見的條碼等等都有這樣的防偽機制,如此一來

  • to enter an incorrect number in a computer, …

    電腦就能夠偵測出並且擋下一切錯誤輸入的編號

  • and makes it harder for fraudsters to guess valid numbers.

    也能夠有效預防有惻隱之心的個資小偷了

  • This is why if you try to buy something online by guessing

    所以啊,有內建這套防偽機制的網站

  • … a credit card number, the website knows it's invalid

    其實在信用卡卡號被輸入到螢幕上的那一瞬間,而且根本連「送出」都還沒點下去之前

  • before you even click buy.

    這些網站就能夠判別卡號是否為有效卡號了

  • But because the Social Security number started life

    可是社會安全號碼卻沒有這樣的一套防偽機制,原因是因為

  • in the long, long ago, it's just a number

    美國開始使用社會安全號碼的年代太~~久遠了,而當時的

  • with no self-checking security built in.

    先知們並沒有想到要建立一套防偽機制來保護大家

  • Worse, if you're born pre-2011 it's not that hard to just guess

    而且要是看倌們是在2011年之前的美國出生的話,那看倌們的社會安全號碼

  • most of the number: the first three digits are the state where the

    基本上是用膝蓋猜都猜得出來:原因是因為,號碼的頭三個數字

  • parents applied for the card and the last four digits just count up in order, …

    代表爸爸媽媽當初幫小朋友申請社會安全卡時所在的「州」,而最尾的四個數字沒有蹊蹺,照著順序數就好

  • and the middle digits follow a regular pattern.

    然後中間的兩碼數字也有個像這樣子的規律

  • So you can take your number, subtract one and that's a valid number

    所以說就算各位看倌們今天瞎猜好了,把自己的社會安全號碼減個1好了

  • of someone who was probably born in the same hospital

    得到的數字很有可能就是跟看倌們在同一時間

  • as you around the same time.

    在同一間醫院出生的人的社會安全號碼

  • Thus a fraudster who knows your time and location of birth

    所以說如果有心人士想要盜用個資的話,其實他只要「按表索驥」

  • can probably get the first five digits by just looking them up on a chart.

    就大概可以猜出對方社會安全號碼的前五個數字了

  • Institutions ask for the last four digits as a code to identify you as you

    為了要確保身份正確性,大大小小的機關會詢問國民社會安全號碼的最後4個數字

  • which means it's not that hard to put together your number

    然而4位數數字的總變化性也就只有那麼多而已,一旦有個資外洩

  • from a security leak anywhere or just by connecting a few puzzle pieces.

    又或者有心人士自己猜測一下,其實要猜到看倌們的號碼就猶如囊中取物一樣

  • The physical card itself is no help either:

    卡片本身的防偽也最高87分,不能再高了

  • just a literal piece of cardboard, …

    如果看倌生不逢時的話,卡片本身的材質還會有能會是厚紙板

  • depending on when it was issued, not even laminated.

    讓你卡片紙板,傻傻分不清楚。啊,重點是他們連護貝都懶得幫你護貝

  • The social security department used to print

    古早的時候,有鑒於社會安全卡上面的卡號根・本・完・全・沒有辦法拿來識別國民

  • … 'not to be used for identification' on the cards

    社會安全部為了讓各單位不再伸手跟國民詢問社會安全號碼

  • as a futile attempt to stop institutions for asking for them as IDs, …

    社會安全部還會在卡片上面印:

  • because there's nothing identifying a person on the card.

    「此證件不適用於身份識別」

  • But eventually they gave up and removed these words

    可是由於這張社會安全卡的持有率實在太高了

  • because, unlike passports or driver's licenses, …

    竟然比護照還有駕照還要高

  • you can assume all Americans will have this one card.

    所以社會安全部最後決定投降,默默的把「此證件不適用於身份識別」這行字移除了

  • All this means your social security card and number

    話說到這裡,我們其實可以稍微總結一下:

  • probably have less security than your library card, …

    這張人手一張、持有率還有重要度堪稱比台北101的高度還高的社會安全卡

  • while being vastly more important.

    其實還比不上你錢包裡面那張圖書館借書證還來的「安全」

  • So it fails at being a secure number, …

    所以所謂的「社會安全號碼」除了一點都不安全之外

  • it fails at being a good ID card, …

    在身份辨別功能上,最高也只有87分而已

  • but at least it is universal* which is why people use it.

    可是至少這組號碼在「美國全土通用度最高」*這一點上略勝一籌,所以大家也就默默的把它沿用下來了

  • Oh hello, asterisk, my old friend.

    等一下,有人注意到上一句話裡面的星號嗎?

  • No, of course not, this program isn't actually universal:

    來跟各位看倌解釋一下星號的意思好了:其實上面「美國全土通用度最高」這個說法的確是浮誇了

  • not everyone has a social security account number, …

    原因是因為並・不・是・每個美國人都有這一組社會安全號碼

  • and not everyone pays into the program.

    也並・不・是・每個美國人都有乖乖的繳納該繳的「老年儲蓄金」

  • If you want to get out of paying you'll just need to:

    如果看倌們有意思不繳納這筆儲蓄金的話,只要符合下面這幾項條件就好:

  • First: Never have received any social security benefits

    第一,從未領取過任何社會安全福利

  • and give up your rights to getting any in the future.

    第二,表明未來亦不會領取任何社會安全福利

  • Which seems fair. In addition you must also:

    上面這兩項看起來還可以。但除此之外呢:

  • Be a member of a religion opposed to the idea of social security.

    第三,有意不繳納老年儲蓄金者,亦必須為「反對社會福利」之宗教之一員

  • Usually because it’s a kind of insurance, and insurance is a kind of gambling.

    會這樣子規定呢,是因為社會福利可以算得上是一種保險,而保險又被視為是一場賭局

  • That's harder, but you could always just start

    話說回來,如果看倌們不想繳納這筆儲蓄金的意願是真的真的很強烈的話

  • your own religion if you were really serious about avoiding taxes.

    其實只要自己開創一個宗教團體就好了喔!

  • But your new religion must also:

    可是按照規定,宗教團體

  • Provide for its elderly and dependent members.

    必須照料年長團員還有從屬團員

  • Which means you have to re-create a social security program of sorts

    這換句話說呢,就是創辦人必須一方面同時要高喊著「我反對社會福利」的口號

  • in your religion (while also being against social security).

    另一方面又要在自己的宗教團體裡面設立類似「社會安全專案」的專案來照料需要被照料的團員

  • But if creating a contradictory religion doesn't daunt you

    如果這樣相互矛盾的邏輯都還無法阻止看倌們想創建宗教團體的決心的話

  • Lastly, it must have existed continuously since 1950.

    最後最後,宗教團體本身還必須符合一個條件,就是「在1950年或之前就已創建」這一點

  • Which is a giveaway that this exception was written pretty much exclusively

    而放眼美國全土,符合上面這一條規定的

  • for the Amish and Mennonites, …

    大概就只有「亞米胥派」和「門諾派」(兩者皆為基督教分支)這兩個團體了

  • and kills dead your plans unless youre willing

    會有這樣的規定,目的就是為了要全力阻撓有意想不繳納「老年儲蓄金」的人...

  • to undergo a serious change in lifestyle.

    還有看看「人」為了不繳這筆儲蓄金,會甘願做到什麼地步

  • It doesn't stop there:

    而且你以為這樣就沒了嗎?

  • keep digging and youll find all sorts of other weird, weird exceptions:

    有興趣的話可以去爬個文,就會發現其實這種莫名其妙的規定還有一大堆:

  • including some railroad workers, or firefighters, or police, …

    其中有一些只針對鐵道工、消防隊員、警察

  • or teachers (but only in Chicago).

    或老師(而且還限定要在芝加哥喔)

  • Usually these are groups that in the long long ago

    規定會針對這些特定族群的原因,是因為按照「社會安全專案」創立初期的規定,這些特定族群

  • were able to get out of the program at its creation date.

    的確是可以不必繳納老年儲蓄金的,所以這些規定也就這樣被沿用下來了

  • So nothing's ever straight forward.

    看到這裡,有沒有一種「莫名其妙」的感覺?

  • And that's the deal with this social security card:

    可是,「莫名其妙」這四個字,不正是我們這裡從頭到尾都在談論的「社會安全卡」的核心價值嗎?

  • containing a national number for citizens that don't want one, …

    你看看喔:「社會安全卡」就這樣把所謂的「社會安全號碼」給了個壓根兒就不想要這號碼的國民

  • on an identification card, that fails at identification, …

    然後這「社會安全號碼」還被印在一張沒有身份識別功能的「身分證」上面

  • given to all citizens -- except when it isn't -- …

    而這張卡片號稱是國民人手一張,可是其實卻並不然

  • for a program that's universal, except when it's not.

    而這一切最根源的「社會安全專案」號稱是「美國全土通用」,可是事實卻也並非如此

  • This episode has been brought to you by Squarespace,…

    本集節目是由 Squarespace為您撥出的

  • whether you need a domain, a website, or online store, …

    想要網域、架網站、又或者想要開一家自己的網路店舖

  • make your next move with Squarespace.

    Squarespace是您不二的選擇

  • Does your brand new social security-avoiding religion

    對了,看倌們「逃繳儲蓄金宗教小團體」

  • need a website to spread the good news?

    需要幫忙打個廣告嗎?

  • You should use Squarespace’s all-in-one platform.

    沒問題,只要上 Squarespace的「一勞永逸小平台」就好了

  • Their beautiful templates will make it easy to set up, and

    Squarespace提供的網站模板不只精美而已,還可以幫正剛起步的您快速架設

  • there’s nothing to install, patch, or upgrade, ever.

    而且!終身免安裝、免補修、免升級

  • Squarespace is what I use for my personal website

    像我自己的網站就是用Squarespace架的喔

  • and I really think you should use it, too.

    所以小弟也建議各位看倌也試試看

  • Start your free trial today at SquareSpace.com

    今天就開始免費試用

  • and enter offer codeGreyto get 10% off your first purchase.

    第一次購買時輸入折扣序號「Grey」還有9折優惠喔!

Americans love their independence...

美國人最愛自主了

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 號碼 社會 國民 安全 身分證 身份

社會保障卡詳解 (Social Security Cards Explained)

  • 223 24
    Mike NiKao-Kusata 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字