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  • The book of first and second kings

    列王記上和列王記下

  • Although they are two separate books in our Bibles

    雖然在我們的《聖經》裡它們是分開的兩卷書

  • They were originally written as one book telling a unified story

    他們原本是一卷書,訴說著一個故事

  • that continues on from the book of Samuel that came before it

    延續了它的上一卷書-撒母耳記

  • So David has unified the tribes of Israel into a kingdom

    大衛將以色列的各支派統一成為一個聯合的王國

  • and God promised that from his line would come a Messianic king

    然後神應許他,從他的後裔中將會出現一位彌賽亞君王

  • who would establish God's kingdom over the nation's and fulfill the promises made to Abraham

    這位彌賽亞將會建立一個神的國度於列國之上, 並且完成神對亞伯拉罕的應許

  • So the Book of Kings tells the story of the long line of Kings that came after David

    所以列王記上下紀錄了大衛之後列王的故事

  • and none of them lived up to that promise

    而他們沒有任何人活出應許的要求

  • In fact, they run the nation of Israel right into the ground

    事實上,他們將以色列治理地非常糟糕

  • The book is designed to have five main movements

    列王記可以分為五個部分

  • the story begins and ends focus on Jerusalem

    故事的開頭和結尾都聚焦於耶路撒冷

  • First with Solomon's reign in the construction of the temple

    第一個部分講到所羅門的治理和建造聖殿

  • and then in this last section ending with jerusalem's destruction and Israel's exile to Babylon

    在最後一部分耶路撒冷被毀,而以色列人被擄到巴比倫

  • and the story leading up to this tragedy is what makes up the center three sections

    中間的三個部分描述了這個悲劇發生的原因和經過

  • which explain how Israel split into two rival kingdoms

    它解釋了以色列為何分裂為兩個對立的國家

  • how God tried to prevent the corruption of Israel by sending the prophets

    上帝如何差遣先知,以阻止以色列的敗壞

  • and how exile became unavoidable consequence of Israel's sins

    和被擄如何成為以色列犯罪後不可避免的結果

  • The book opens with two chapters about the kingdom passing from the aging David to his son Solomon

    這卷書開頭的兩章講到王國從年老的大衛手中 交到他兒子所羅門的身上

  • and David's final words to Solomon they're very similar to those of Moses and Joshua and Samuel to the people

    大衛給所羅門的遺言和摩西、約書亞 和撒母耳給以色列人的遺言有點類似

  • It's a call to remain faithful to the commands of the covenants

    主要都是在呼籲人要謹守遵行他們和神的約

  • and to give allegiance to the God of Israel alone

    要單單事奉以色列的神

  • but David's words bring somewhat hollow here

    但大衛的話接著就顯得有點空洞

  • because David and Solomon then go on to conspire how they're going to consolidate this new kingdom

    因為大衛和所羅門開始籌畫如何穩固這個新的國家

  • through a whole series of political assassinations

    透過一系列的政治暗殺

  • so it's not off to a great start

    所以這並不是一個好的開始

  • Solomon's brightest moment comes when he asked God for wisdom to lead Israel

    所羅門最光明的時刻是當他向神求智慧以治理以色列

  • and he even complete David's dream to make a temple for the God of Israel

    他也完成了大衛為以色列的神建殿的夢想

  • Here the story actually stops and describes the design of this temple in detail

    故事在這裡停止,並且開始詳細描述聖殿的設計

  • just like the tabernacle design in the Torah

    就像在摩西五經裡面對於會幕設計的描寫一樣

  • there's all these gold and jewels and depictions of angels and fruit trees

    有很多的金銀珠寶和關於天使和果樹的描述

  • It's all symbolism echoing back to the garden of eden

    這些都象徵著伊甸園的景象

  • it's the place where heaven and earth meet where God's presence dwells with his people

    這裡是天地的交會之處,也是神與祂子民同在的地方

  • but no sooner does Solomon finish the temple

    但就在所羅門完成聖殿不久後

  • but he makes them really horrible choices and the Kingdom falls apart

    他做了一個非常糟糕選擇導致王國的分裂

  • he starts marrying the daughters of other kings hundreds of them for political alliances

    他開始出於政治結盟而娶了許多國家的公主

  • and then he adopts their gods and introduces the worship of those gods into Israel

    然後他接受了她們的神,並將假神崇拜引入了以色列

  • Solomon then accumulates huge amounts of wealth he built a huge army

    接著他積攢了大量的財富,建立了一支大軍

  • He even Institute slave labor for all of his building projects

    他甚至為了建造宮殿而使用奴隸

  • Now if you go back to the Torah and look at God's guidelines for Israel's kings in Deuteronomy 17

    如果你回去看看摩西五經, 申命記17章記載了神對以色列君王的心意

  • Solomon is breaking every one

    所羅門違反了每一條

  • so by the time that he dies

    所以在他死之前

  • Solomon resembles Pharaoh the king of Egypt more than he does his father David

    所羅門更像埃及王法老多過像他的父親大衛

  • the next section of the book opens with Solomon's son, Rehoboam, acting just like his father

    下一個部分講到所羅門的兒子羅波安, 他的所作所為,就像他的父親一樣

  • it's a very sad story of greed and lust for power

    這是個關於對權力的貪婪和慾望的悲傷故事

  • he tries to increase taxes for slave labor

    他對奴隸課以重稅

  • and under the leadership of Jeroboam the northern tribes reject this

    在耶羅波安的領導下,北方的十個支派拒絕配合

  • they rebelled and secede and form their own rival Kingdom

    他們反叛,並且建立了自己的王國

  • and so now in the story you have the southern kingdom of Judah

    所以,故事到了這裡,有一個南國猶大

  • centered in Jerusalem with Kings from the line of David

    以耶路撒冷為中心,以大衛的後代為王

  • and now this new northern kingdom called Israel

    然後有一個新的北方王國叫做以色列

  • who's capital will be Samaria eventually

    以撒馬利亞為首都

  • Jeroboam also goes on to build two new temples to compete with Solomon's temple in the south

    耶羅波安也建了兩座聖殿,以抗衡南方的所羅門聖殿

  • he put the Golden Calf in each one to represent the God of Israel

    他在其中放置了金牛犢代表以色列的神

  • The connection to Exodus 32 and the Golden Calf It's all quite explicit

    這和出埃及記32章的金牛犢如出一轍

  • From this point on the story goes back and forth from north to south tracing the fate of both kingdoms

    從這裡開始,故事便在南北兩國的命運之間來回

  • Each one had about 20 successive kings

    兩個國大概都有20位君王

  • and as the author introduces each king he evaluates their reign by a few criteria

    每當作者提及每位君王時,會根據幾個標準評估其統治

  • did they worship the God of Israel alone or did they promote the worship other gods

    他們是否單單敬拜以色列的神或是他們也敬拜其他的神

  • did they deal with idolatry among the people

    他們是否處理在百姓中間的偶像崇拜

  • and did they remained faithful to the Covenant like David or do they become corrupt and unjust

    他們是否像大衛一樣對神的約忠誠, 或是他們變得腐敗不公

  • and according to these criteria the author finds no good kings in northern Israel zero for twenty

    根據這些標準,作者發現, 在北國以色列的二十位王中間,沒有任何一位好王

  • And then in southern Judah only eight out of 20 get a positive rating

    在南國猶大的二十位王裡,只有八位得到正面的評價

  • which connects to another huge purpose in this book

    這和本書的另外一個重要的寫作主旨有關

  • and that to introduce the role of the prophet key figures in israel's history

    就是引入「先知」這個在以色列歷史上重要的角色

  • so in the Bible, prophets were not fortune tellers rather they spoke on behalf of the God of Israel

    在聖經裡面,先知不是占卜者, 而是代表以色列的神說話的人

  • and they played the role of Covenant watchdog

    他們扮演神的約的守望者

  • which means they called out idolatry and injustice among the Kings and the people

    這意味著他們在王和百姓中間呼籲除去偶像和不公

  • they were constantly reminding Israel of their calling to be a light to the nations

    他們持續地提醒以色列,上帝呼召他們成為列國的光

  • that they should obey the commands of the Torah

    他們應當遵守律法的要求

  • and so the prophets challenged Israel to repent and follow their God

    因此,先知挑戰以色列悔改,並且歸向他們的神

  • In these centres sections for each King, God then raises up prophets to hold them accountable

    在這些論述的當中,神興起這些先知並且委以重任

  • the most prominent prophets over the northern ones are Elijah and his disciples Elisha

    北國最重要的先知是以利亞和他的門徒以利沙

  • right here in the center of the book

    在列王記最中間的部分

  • Elijah was a wild man of a prophet living out in the desert

    以利亞是一位住在曠野的先知

  • and his arch nemesis was the northern King Ahab and his Canaanite wife Jezebel

    他的死對頭是北國君王亞哈和他的迦南妻子耶洗別

  • together these two had instituted the worship of the Canaanites God Baal over Israel

    這兩個人在國中一起帶領百姓敬拜迦南的神巴力

  • and so in a famous story Elijah challenged four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal

    所以有一個出名的故事,以利亞大戰450名巴力先知

  • to a contest to see which God was a real

    來讓人看見誰才是真神

  • so they both built altars and prayed to their gods

    他們都築了祭壇並且向他們的神禱告

  • but only the God of Israel answers with fire

    但只有以色列的神以烈火回應

  • After this, Ahab uses his royal power to murder an Israelite farmer and then steal his family's vineyard

    這之後,亞哈利用他們權力謀殺了以色列農夫拿伯, 竊取了他的葡萄園

  • and the Elijah again confront Ahab's injustice and he announces the downfall of his house

    以利亞再次指責亞哈的惡行,並且宣告他家的敗落

  • Elijah eventually passes the mantle of his prophetic leadership to a young disciple named Elisha

    以利亞最後將先知的職分傳承給年輕的門徒以利沙

  • who asks for two times the authority of Elijah

    他求擁有以利亞兩倍的能力

  • but what's fascinating here is how the author is recounted 7 miraculous feats for Elijah

    有趣的是,作者在此描述了以利亞所行的七件神蹟

  • and then he offers stories of 14 acts of power from Elisha

    以及以利沙所行的十四件神蹟

  • Both prophets were clearly remarkable men and they played the same role confronting Israel's Kings

    兩位先知都是了不起的人,他們扮演了同樣的角色, 警告以色列的君王

  • for idolatry and injustice and ultimately they were unsuccessful in turning Israel back from apostasy

    他們崇拜偶像和不公義, 但他們最終也沒能帶領以色列回轉

  • In the next section, the northern kingdom has rocked by a bloody revolution started by a king named Jehu

    在下一個部分, 北國經歷了一場由耶戶王發動的血腥革命

  • who destroys Ahab's family and although Jehu was at first commissioned by God

    他毀滅了亞哈家,雖然一開始他是被神所揀選的

  • his violence just gets out of control

    他的暴行卻失控了

  • and it creates the spiral of political assassinations and rebellions from which Israel never recovered

    從這裡開啟了以色列國政治暗殺和反叛的循環

  • coup follows coup after Jehu

    在耶戶之後,一次又一次的政變

  • and each King follows other gods allows horrible injustice it all leads up to second Kings chapter 17

    每位君王都隨從別神,帶來許多的不公義, 直到列王記下17章

  • the big bad empire of Assyria swoops down and takes out the northern kingdom altogether

    強大的亞述帝國南下攻打以色列

  • and the capital city of Samaria is conquered

    首都撒馬利亞因此淪陷

  • and the Israelites were exiled and scattered throughout the ancient world

    以色列人被擄,並且散居到各地

  • now chapter 17 is key

    十七章是一個關鍵

  • the author stops the story and offers this prophetic reflection and what's just happened

    作者在這裡停下,並且以先知的角度提出一些反省

  • he blames the downfall of the northern kingdom on the idolatry

    他將北國的落敗歸咎於偶像崇拜

  • and covenant unfaithfulness of Israel and its kings

    以及以色列和君王對神的約不忠

  • and so God has allowed them to face the consequences of their decisions

    因此神讓他們看見他們的選擇帶來的後果

  • The final movement of the book tells the story of the lone southern kingdom

    列王記的最後一部分記述了南國猶大

  • In here, we meet very heroic kings like Hezekiah who trust God

    在這裡我們看見幾位好王像是希西家,他信靠神

  • when the armies of Assyria come knocking on Jerusalem's door

    當亞述的大軍來到耶路撒冷的城下時

  • or Josiah who discovers this lost scroll of the Torah in the temple

    或是在聖殿裡面發現律法書的約西亞王

  • So he start to reading it. He's convicted

    他開始宣讀律法,並且認罪

  • and he institutes religious reforms to remove idolatry in Canaanite influences from the land

    他下令開始改革,除去迦南地的偶像崇拜

  • but Judah is just too far gone

    但是猶大已經離神的心意太遙遠了

  • The King right in between these two, Menassah. He's the worst by far

    在這兩位王中間,是史上最邪惡的國王,瑪拿西

  • so he not only introduces the worship of idols statues into the Jerusalem Temple,

    他不僅在耶路撒冷的聖殿中引入偶像崇拜

  • he also institutes child sacrifice

    還以孩童經火獻祭

  • And so God sends prophets to say the time is up. Israel has reached the point of no return

    所以上帝差派先知告訴以色列人,你們已經回不去了

  • The final chapters tell the story of the Babylonian Empire coming to invade Jerusalem destroy the temple

    最後一章講述到巴比倫入侵耶路撒冷,拆毀聖殿

  • and carry the people and the royal line of David off into exile

    將以色列人民和大衛的後裔擄走

  • and so the story ends leaving us wondering has God done with Israel

    故事的結尾令我們困惑,上帝厭棄以色列了嗎?

  • has he done with a line of David

    祂放棄大衛的後裔了嗎?

  • Well, the final paragraph zooms about forty years forward into the exile

    最後一章記載了被擄後的四十年

  • and it tells very odd story. It's about Jehoiachin, a descendant from David

    一件奇怪的事情發生了。是關於約雅斤,大衛的後裔

  • who would have been king and he was back in Jerusalem

    如果沒有被擄,他就會是猶大王

  • and the king of Babylon releases him from prison and invite them to eat at the Royal table for the rest of his life

    巴比倫王提他出監,並且使他終身在王面前吃飯

  • and the book ends

    然後這本書就結束了

  • so it's not much but it's a story that gives a glimmer of hope

    這裡沒有說太多,但是給了我們一絲盼望

  • that God has not abandon the line of David

    神並沒有拋棄大衛的後裔

  • so the question now is how is that going to fulfill his promises to Abraham to David

    所以現在的問題是: 這個結局要如何成就神對亞伯拉罕和大衛的應許?

  • How he is going to bless the nations and bring the Messianic Kingdom

    神要如何祝福萬國,並且帶來彌賽亞的國度?

  • and answer those questions you have to read on into the wisdom and the prophetic books

    你得從詩歌智慧書和先知書裡面找答案

  • but for now that's the Book of Kings

    但這就是列王記的故事

The book of first and second kings

列王記上和列王記下

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 以色列 大衛 先知 所羅門 君王 聖殿

閱讀經文。王上1 -2 (Read Scripture: 1-2 Kings)

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    sophia 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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