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  • Let me tell you the story of how one man accidentally gave us the obesity epidemic, kept cardiovascular

    讓我來告訴你,一個人是如何意外地給我們帶來了肥胖症的流行,讓心血管

  • disease growing, made billions for the pharmaceutical industry and programmed us to be afraid of

    疾病的增長,為製藥業賺取了數十億的利潤,並給我們編程,讓我們害怕。

  • fat and cholesterol.

    脂肪和膽固醇。

  • All the benefits from skim milk, low fat snacks, and cholesterol lowering Cheerios that were

    脫脂牛奶、低脂零食和降低膽固醇的車釐子帶來的所有好處,都是。

  • sold to you are based on hypotheses made by a man named Ancel Keys.

    賣給你的是基於一個叫安塞爾・凱斯的人提出的假說。

  • The idea that we should avoid saturated fat and cholesterol at all costs comes from the

    我們應該不惜一切代價避免飽和脂肪和膽固醇的想法來自於以下幾點

  • Keys’ “Diet-Heart HypothesisandLipid Hypothesis”.

    Keys的 "飲食-心臟假說 "和 "脂質假說"。

  • These ideas come from him analyzing the data from 7 countries which showed that when you

    這些想法來自於他對7個國家的數據進行分析,結果顯示,當你

  • plotted incidence of heart attacks against fat consumption you see that the countries

    將心臟病發作的發生率與脂肪消耗量進行對比,你會發現,各國的脂肪消耗量都在增加。

  • that ate more fat had more heart attacks.

    吃更多脂肪的人有更多的心臟病發作。

  • It was simple, you could draw a straight line through the data points which showed more

    這很簡單,你可以通過數據點畫一條直線,這顯示了更多的。

  • fat equaled more heart attacks.

    脂肪等於更多的心臟病發作。

  • Pretty straight forward, you eat more fat, you get fat, your cholesterol rises, your

    很直接,你吃了更多的脂肪,你會變得肥胖,你的膽固醇上升,你的身體會變得更健康。

  • arteries get clogged, and you have a heart attack.

    動脈被堵塞,你有一個心臟發作。

  • Ancel Keys got this accepted by the USDA, the American Medical Association, the American

    Ancel Keys讓這個被美國農業部、美國醫學協會、美國...

  • Diabetes Association, the American Heart Association and off went the anti-fat anti-cholesterol

    糖尿病協會,美國心臟協會和關閉去了抗脂肪抗膽固醇

  • movement.

    運動。

  • The only catch here is that there weren’t only 7 countries for which data was available,

    這裡唯一的問題是,並不是只有7個國家有數據。

  • there were 22 countries.

    有22個國家。

  • When you factor in the remaining countries there is no straight line to be drawn.

    當你把剩下的國家計算在內,就沒有直線可言了。

  • Maybe Keys had access to the remaining data, maybe he didn’t, but he sure worked fast

    也許Keys能拿到剩餘的數據 也許他沒有 但他肯定工作得很快

  • to have his recommendations put in place.

    落實他的建議。

  • The lack of good evidence didn’t go unnoticed, though: Dr. George Mann, one of the researchers

    不過,缺乏好的證據並沒有被忽視。喬治-曼恩博士,研究人員之一... ...

  • on the Framingham study which was actually supposed to bolster this cholesterol theory,

    在弗雷明漢的研究,這實際上是應該支持這種膽固醇理論。

  • said, “Dietary fat is not the determinant of either high cholesterol or coronary heart

    說:"膳食脂肪不是高膽固醇或冠心病的決定因素。

  • diseaseand ‘”the diet heart hypothesis is the greatest scam ever perpetrated on the

    疾病 "和 "飲食心臟假說是有史以來最大的騙局,對實施

  • American public.“

    美國公眾。"

  • That’s a bold claim but by the way, it’s still calledhypothesisbecause it’s

    這是一個大膽的說法,但順便說一句,它仍然被稱為 "假說",因為它是

  • never been proven.

    從未被證實。

  • Youre probably up to date with recent health information and maybe even OK with the idea

    你可能掌握了最新的健康資訊,甚至可能還能接受這個想法。

  • of a low carb diet, but chances are youre still not completely comfortable with fat.

    的低碳水化合物飲食,但有可能你還是不完全適應脂肪。

  • After all, weve been programmed to associate saturated fats withArtery Clogging

    畢竟,我們已經被編程為將飽和脂肪與 "動脈堵塞 "聯繫起來。

  • and weve seen the commercials where they do something like clog a drain with bacon

    我們已經看到了廣告,他們做的東西 像堵塞排水管與培根。

  • fat.

    肥。

  • Also Butter, Lard and Coconut Oil solidify at room temperature so it’s pretty easy

    另外黃油、豬油和椰子油在室溫下也會凝固,所以很容易。

  • logic that those solid fats will clog your arteries.

    那些固體脂肪會堵塞動脈的邏輯。

  • The problem with these images is that you can melt those saturated fats easily in your

    這些影像的問題是,你可以在你的那些飽和脂肪輕鬆融化。

  • hand, like I'm doing here, and the temperature in your body is much hotter; and the thing

    手,就像我在這裡做的那樣,你身體裡的溫度就會更高;而這個東西

  • that clogs your arteries resulting in a heart attack is not an accumulation of fat.

    堵塞動脈,導致心臟病發作的不是脂肪的堆積。

  • Fat doesn’t even stay intact in the body- your stomach bile works kind of like the dish

    脂肪在體內甚至不能保持完整--你的胃膽汁的工作原理有點像盤子。

  • liquid I’m dropping here.

    我在這裡滴液體。

  • It breaks the fat up into these small droplets..

    它把脂肪分解成小水滴... ...

  • Then it gets wrapped inside carrier molecules called lipoproteins.

    然後它被包裹在稱為脂蛋白的載體分子內。

  • Fat is never technically even in the bloodstream, it’s always transported inside of a lipoprotein

    嚴格來說,脂肪根本就不在血液中,它總是在脂蛋白裡面運輸的。

  • shell.

    殼。

  • When you look at health from an evolutionary standpoint, the concept of engineering fat

    當你從進化論的角度來看健康,工程脂肪的概念。

  • out of our foods for our health doesn’t make much sense.

    出我們的食物,為我們的健康沒有太大的意義。

  • Our brains, which is what got us so far, are the most metabolically expensive organs that

    我們的大腦,是讓我們走到今天的,是新陳代謝最昂貴的器官,它的作用是

  • we have: consuming 25% of the adult metabolic budget.

    我們有:消耗成人代謝預算的25%。

  • To adjust for the high energy cost of a large brain, our guts had to shrink because they

    為了適應大腦的高能量成本,我們的膽子不得不縮小,因為它們的能量成本很高

  • too required a lot of energy to run.

    也需要大量的能量來運行。

  • So, our gut became less efficient at getting enough energy from fibrous foods and was more

    所以,我們的腸胃從纖維類食物中獲取足夠能量的效率變得很低,更多的是

  • dependent on more bio-available, nutrient-dense and energy dense foods.

    依賴於更多的生物利用率高、營養豐富、能量高的食物。

  • Cooking food of course was an important development for us too, but fat still takes first place

    烹飪食物當然對我們來說也是一個重要的發展,但脂肪仍然是第一位的

  • for most calorie dense nutrient at 9 calories per gram.

    為熱量密度最高的營養素,每克9卡路里。

  • So fat would then be a very valuable macronutrient that we would get as much of as our environment

    所以脂肪會是一種非常寶貴的常量營養素,我們會隨著環境的變化而獲取更多的脂肪。

  • allowed.

    允許。

  • There is even evidence that suggests homo sapiens may have eaten most of the fat on

    甚至有證據表明,智人可能已經吃了大部分的脂肪,這就是所謂的 "脂肪"。

  • an animal before even touching the meat.

    在接觸動物肉之前。

  • Sure we have plenty of fruits and vegetables that have been cultivated to be more nutrient

    當然,我們有很多水果和蔬菜,經過培育後,營養成分更高

  • and calorie dense and we spend much less time moving around, so ravenously eating fat is

    和熱量高,我們活動的時間也少了很多,所以狂吃脂肪是

  • hardly necessary.

    幾乎沒有必要。

  • However it’s not very plausible that a macronutrient that used to be so important to us is now

    然而這並不是很合理,過去對我們很重要的一種宏量營養素,現在卻成了

  • killing so many of us .

    殺死我們這麼多的人。

  • Timothy Olsen showcases the efficiency of fat in spectacular fashion.

    蒂莫西-奧爾森以壯觀的方式展示了脂肪的效率。

  • He holds the record for the Western 100 Endurance run, a 100 mile ultra distance race in California

    他保持著西部100耐力跑的記錄,這是一項在加州舉行的100英里超長距離比賽。

  • that includes an 18,000 feet climb and 23,000 feet descent.

    包括18,000英尺的爬升和23,000英尺的下降。

  • He said he used to consume dozens of sports gels throughout his races to keep him going,

    他說,他曾經在整個比賽中消耗了幾十種運動凝膠,以保持他的活力。

  • but switched to a low carb, high fat diet for more stable energy;

    但為了更穩定的能量,改成了低碳高脂飲食。

  • "Towards the end of the race y'know after lots of heat and lots of gels and whatnot,

    "到了比賽的最後y'知道經過大量的高溫和大量的凝膠和什麼。

  • I ended up taking a crap in the woods like 20 some times.

    我最後在樹林里拉了20多次屎。

  • That's when I switched to more primal like grain free diet, I had huge success with it"

    這'就是當我轉到更原始的像無穀物飲食,我有巨大的成功與它&quot。

  • You might have stopped and thoughtHow can fat not be the problem?

    你可能會停下來想:"脂肪怎麼可能不是問題呢?

  • I ate a plant based diet and reversed my atherosclerosis!”Living in Japan, I’m very aware of how healthy

    我吃了植物性飲食,扭轉了我的動脈硬化!"在日本生活,我很清楚健康的重要性。

  • a high carbohydrate diet can be, especially a primarily plant based one like the Okinawan

    高碳水化合物的飲食,尤其是像沖繩那樣以植物為主的飲食。

  • people’s who frequently live to be 100 while less than 8% of their calories come from fat.

    經常活到100歲的人,而他們的熱量只有不到8%來自脂肪。

  • Don’t worry, well get to this.

    別擔心,我們會處理好的。

  • Despite our bodies preferring the energy dense fat, this idea that saturated fat and cholesterol

    儘管我們的身體更喜歡能量密度高的脂肪,但這種認為飽和脂肪和膽固醇

  • needs to be reduced at all costs became medical dogma.

    需要不惜一切代價減少,成為醫學教條。

  • However, not only does our body want fat, it doesn’t want to reduce cholesterol.

    然而,我們的身體不僅想要脂肪,也不想減少膽固醇。

  • Cholesterol is incredibly important: we need it for the membranes of our cells, we need

    膽固醇是非常重要的:我們的細胞膜需要膽固醇,我們需要

  • it to make brain cells, we need it to make several important hormones like estrogen,

    它製造腦細胞,我們需要它製造幾種重要的激素,比如雌激素。

  • progesterone and testosterone.

    孕酮和睪酮。

  • Probably due to things like that bacon fat commercial, the common assumption is that

    可能是由於像培根脂肪廣告這樣的事情,通常的假設是。

  • fat and cholesterol build up on the arterial wall.

    脂肪和膽固醇堆積在動脈壁上。

  • This isn’t quite how it works.

    這不完全是它的工作原理。

  • Where the build up takes place is actually under the arterial wall.

    堆積的地方其實是動脈壁下。

  • The process leading up to a heart attack starts with a damaged, inflamed arterial wall and

    導致心臟病發作的過程是從動脈壁受損、發炎開始的。

  • then the body wants to mend that damage, much like it would want to mend a cut you might

    然後,身體想修復的傷害, 就像它會想修復一個傷口,你可能會。

  • have, so it sends cholesterol and other things like calcium, and fibrin in an attempt to

    所以它發送膽固醇和其他東西,如鈣和纖維蛋白,以嘗試

  • seal up the hole.

    把洞口封起來。

  • Sure cholesterol is found inside this inflamed area, but you would blame getting burned for

    當然,在這個發炎的區域內發現了膽固醇,但你會責怪被燒傷的。

  • your blister, not the fluid that builds up.

    你的水泡,而不是積聚的液體。

  • Blaming cholesterol instead of the inflammation is like blaming one of the firemen instead

    責備膽固醇而不是發炎,就像責備其中一個消防員而不是

  • of the fire.

    的火。

  • Back to the Okinawan people: they have such a low incidence of heart disease because theyre

    說回沖繩人:他們的心臟病發病率如此之低,是因為他們是。

  • not eating foods that cause inflammation so atherosclerosis never develops.

    不吃導致發炎的食物,所以動脈硬化永遠不會形成。

  • Of course they live long: they eat locally grown, organic, fiber rich vegetables designed

    他們當然長壽:他們吃的是當地種植的、有機的、富含纖維的蔬菜,旨在

  • to nourish them, not optimized for profit and laden with pesticides.

    來滋養它們,而不是為了利益而優化,並含有農藥。

  • Keep in mind by the way that the saturated fat our homo sapien ancestors were getting

    請記住,我們的智人祖先所得到的飽和脂肪

  • was from wild animals, (cage free, pasture raised, organic - that is)not from highly

    是來自野生動物,(無籠子,牧場飼養,有機 - 這是)不是從高度。

  • processed ham slices in Kraft Food’s “Lunchables” , and certainly not from the butter of cows

    卡夫食品公司的 "午餐食品 "中的加工火腿片,當然也不是用牛油加工而成的

  • pumped with hormones while living in cow jail and eating processed corn scrap.

    在牛牢裡生活,吃著加工過的玉米渣,卻被灌了激素。

  • Also they were getting their unsaturated fat in the form of omega-3’s from fish and omega-6’s

    此外,他們得到他們的不飽和脂肪的形式 歐米伽3的魚和歐米伽6的。

  • from nuts, not mostly from Canola seeds that had to be washed in hexane solvent & sodium

    來自堅果,而不是主要來自必須在正己烷溶劑中清洗的油菜籽&鈉。

  • hydroxide, bleached and then steam injected.

    氫氧化物,漂白後再注入蒸汽。

  • Wait a minute, but What if you have too much cholesterol?

    等一下,但是如果你的膽固醇過高怎麼辦?

  • It doesn’t really matter.

    這其實並不重要。

  • One of the authors of theThe Great Cholesterol Myth,” Dr. Johnny Bowden explained in this

    偉大的膽固醇神話 "的作者之一,約翰尼-鮑登博士在這篇文章中解釋道。

  • lecture that in the Lyon Diet Heart Study they had a group of 605 people with high cholesterol

    演講中,在里昂飲食心臟研究中,他們有一組605人與高膽固醇

  • and a very high risk of heart disease.

    且患心臟病的風險非常高。

  • In one group they put them on the Mediterranean diet and in another they recommended they

    在一個小組中,他們讓他們吃地中海飲食,在另一個小組中,他們建議他們

  • cut saturated fat, reduce cholesterol intake to 300mg per day and follow thehealthy

    減少飽和脂肪,將膽固醇攝入量降低到每天300毫克,遵循 "健康"

  • western diet.

    西方飲食。

  • The results?

    結果呢?

  • Cardiac death and all cause mortality on the Mediterranean diet was significantly lower

    地中海飲食中的心臟死亡和所有原因的死亡率顯著降低。

  • than on the low saturated fat diet.

    比低飽和脂肪飲食。

  • After explaining this, Dr. Bowden saysWhat do you think happened to the cholesterol of

    解釋完後,鮑登醫生說:"你認為膽固醇的發生了什麼?

  • the people on the Mediterranean diet?

    在地中海飲食的人?

  • Their cholesterol didn’t budge.

    他們的膽固醇沒有變化。

  • They just stopped dying.

    他們只是停止了死亡。

  • Cholesterol had nothing to do with it.”

    膽固醇與此無關。"

  • OK so total cholesterol is not a useful piece of information.

    好吧,所以總膽固醇不是一個有用的資訊。

  • But what about the HDLgoodcholesterol and the LDLbadcholesterol?

    但 "好 "膽固醇的高密度脂蛋白和 "壞 "膽固醇的低密度脂蛋白呢?

  • This concept is also outdated.

    這個概念也已經過時了。

  • In Peter Attia’s wonderfully long and technical talk about cholesterol he explains...

    在Peter Attia關於膽固醇的精彩長篇技術講座中,他解釋了...

  • We were taught that LDL cholesterol is the big risk right, if your LDL cholesterol

    "我們被教導說,低密度脂蛋白膽固醇是大的風險吧,如果你的低密度脂蛋白膽固醇

  • is high, you are at risk for heart disease.

    高,你就有患心臟病的風險。

  • And yet we're seeing that some of the time that turns out to be patently false.

    然而我們'看到,有些時候,結果是明顯的錯誤。

  • This is a study that looked at 136,000 patients admitted to the hospital for a coronary artery

    這是一項研究,考察了13.6萬名因冠狀動脈入院的患者。

  • event.

    事件。

  • And in these patients they looked at LDL cholesterol level and you can see that nearly 50% of them

    在這些病人中,他們觀察了低密度脂蛋白膽固醇的水準,你可以看到,近50%的人。

  • had what you would consider a low LDL cholesterol level

    有你認為低密度脂蛋白膽固醇水準低"

  • There are a number of different types and sizes of HDL and LDL particles, and what is

    高密度脂蛋白和低密度脂蛋白顆粒有很多不同的類型和大小,什麼是低密度脂蛋白顆粒?

  • actually important is to avoid having too many triglycerides sitting in your bloodstream,

    其實重要的是避免有太多的甘油三酯坐在你的血液中。

  • which are also transported by lipoproteins.

    也是由脂蛋白運輸的。

  • Peter cites studies that show an increase in processed carbohydrates and sugar leads

    彼得引用的研究表明,加工碳水化合物和糖的增加會導致。

  • to an increase in the triglyceride concentration.

    到甘油三酯濃度的增加。

  • The best way for the subjects to decrease their triglyceride concentration was ironically

    對受試者來說,降低甘油三酯濃度的最佳方法是鐵的。

  • to go on a higher fat, low carbohydrate diet.

    要進行高脂肪、低碳水化合物的飲食。

  • Therefore these low-fat products marketed to health conscious people that switch fat

    是以,這些低脂肪產品的市場,以健康意識的人,轉換脂肪

  • for more carbohydrates are directly increasing your risk for heart disease.

    對於更多的碳水化合物是直接增加你的心臟疾病的風險。

  • We trusted you, Snackwell's

    我們相信你 Snackwell的

  • One quick thing: If that last part had you thinkinghow in the world could sugar,

    一個快速的事情:如果最後一部分讓你覺得 "世界上怎麼會有糖。

  • instead of fat, lead to a higher triglyceride concentration?”

    而不是脂肪,導致甘油三酯濃度升高?"

  • Take a moment to look at Doug McGuff’s thorough explanation of glucose metabolism here or

    花點時間看看道格-麥加夫對葡萄糖代謝的詳盡解釋,這裡或

  • you can see my cliffnotes version here.

    你可以在這裡看到我的Cliffnotes版本。

  • It wasn’t like nobody knew that the culprit behind our health problems wasn’t so much

    不是沒有人知道,我們的健康問題背後的罪魁禍首不是那麼多的

  • fat, but sugar.

    脂肪,但糖。

  • British physiologist John Yudkin wrote a book in 1972 “Pure, White and Deadly: The Problem

    英國生理學家約翰-尤德金在1972年寫了一本書《純潔、潔白和致命》。"The Problem

  • of Sugarwhich correctly warned that the consumption of sugar is what is really dangerous

    糖",它正確地告誡人們,吃糖才是真正的危險。

  • to our health, an argument he had made since at least 1957.

    他至少在1957年就提出了這一論點,對我們的健康。

  • Nonetheless, in 1977, the US government gave us our new low fat healthy guidelines.

    儘管如此,1977年,美國政府還是給了我們新的低脂健康指南。

  • and What’s happened since then?

    那之後發生了什麼?