Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • I was walking in the market one day with my wife,

    有一天我和妻子走在市場上,

  • and somebody stuck a cage in my face.

    有人往我面前遞上一個籠子

  • And in between those slits

    籠子的縫隙後

  • were the saddest eyes I've ever seen.

    是我今生所見過最悲傷的眼睛。

  • There was a very sick orangutan baby, my first encounter.

    我最初見到的,是一個病得非常厲害的猩猩寶寶。

  • That evening I came back to the market in the dark

    當晚我摸黑回到那個市集

  • and I heard "uhh, uhh,"

    我聽到“嗚,嗚”的啜泣聲

  • and sure enough I found a dying orangutan baby on a garbage heap.

    果然﹐我在垃圾堆上發現一個正在死去的小猩猩。

  • Of course, the cage was salvaged.

    籠子被丟棄了

  • I took up the little baby,

    我抱起這小猩猩,

  • massaged her, forced her to drink

    在牠身上揉揉,強迫牠喝點水

  • until she finally started breathing normally.

    直到牠開始正常地呼吸。

  • This is Uce.

    這是Uce。

  • She's now living in the jungle of Sungai Wain,

    現在牠住在Sungai Wain保護林區,

  • and this is Matahari, her second son,

    而這是Matahari,牠的第二個孩子,

  • which, by the way, is also the son of the second orangutan I rescued, Dodoy.

    事實上牠也是我救來的第二個紅毛猩猩Dodoy的孩子。

  • That changed my life quite dramatically,

    這件事戲劇性地改變了我的生命,

  • and as of today, I have almost 1,000 babies in my two centers.

    到今天為止,在我的兩個中心裡,已有將近一千隻小猩猩。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • No. No. No. Wrong.

    不,不,不。錯了。

  • It's horrible. It's a proof of our failing to save them in the wild.

    這很糟糕。這不過證明我們失敗了,我們無法在野外救活牠們。

  • It's not good.

    這很不好。

  • This is merely proof of everyone failing to do the right thing.

    這僅表明每個人在他們該做的事上失敗了。

  • Having more than all the orangutans in all the zoos in the world together,

    幾乎所有的紅毛猩猩都活在世界上的動物園裡,

  • just now like victims for every baby,

    那些現在受害的猩猩寶寶,

  • six have disappeared from the forest.

    其中已經有六隻消失在森林中了。

  • The deforestation, especially for oil palm,

    伐林,尤其是為了栽種油棕櫚而濫砍林木,

  • to provide biofuel for Western countries

    以提供西方國家生質燃料

  • is what's causing these problems.

    是造成這些問題的主因。

  • And those are the peat swamp forests on 20 meters of peat,

    這是二十公尺長的泥炭沼澤,

  • the largest accumulation of organic material in the world.

    蘊藏世界上最多的有機物質。

  • When you open this for growing oil palms

    開墾泥炭沼澤來種棕櫚樹

  • you're creating CO2 volcanoes

    就像製造一座座噴發二氧化碳的火山群

  • that are emitting so much CO2

    這將會排放非常多的二氧化碳

  • that my country is now the third largest emitter of greenhouse gasses in the world,

    我的國家已成為全球溫室氣體排放的第三大國,

  • after China and the United States.

    名列中國與美國之後,

  • And we don't have any industry at all --

    而我們卻是個毫無工業的國家。

  • it's only because of this deforestation.

    就只因為濫採森林。

  • And these are horrible images.

    這些是可怕的圖像。

  • I'm not going to talk too long about it,

    我今天不會花太多時間說這些,

  • but there are so many of the family of Uce,

    但是有許許多多Uce家庭成員

  • which are not so fortunate to live out there in the forest,

    很不幸地依然住在那森林裡

  • that still have to go through that process.

    依然必須經歷那過程

  • And I don't know anymore where to put them.

    而我已不知道要將牠們安置在哪些安全的地方了。

  • So I decided that I had to come up with a solution for her

    於是,我決定必須要為牠想出一個解決方案

  • but also a solution

    而這一解決方案

  • that will benefit the people that are trying to exploit those forests,

    也讓採伐森林的人們同樣受益

  • to get their hands on the last timber

    讓他們的經手最後一片森林

  • and that are causing, in that way,

    那將會

  • the loss of habitat and all those victims.

    失去那些受害者與棲息地。

  • So I created the place Samboja Lestari,

    所以我創造一個叫Samboja Lestari的地方

  • and the idea was,

    我的想法是,

  • if I can do this on the worst possible place that I can think of

    如果我可以在我想像的到最糟糕最不可能的地方完成這件事

  • where there is really nothing left,

    從一個什麼都沒有了的地方

  • no one will have an excuse to say, "Yeah, but ..."

    那麼就沒有人會有藉口說,“對啊,但是...”

  • No. Everyone should be able to follow this.

    不會有。這會是每一個人都可以依循的步驟。

  • So we're in East Borneo. This is the place where I started.

    所以我們現在在婆羅洲東部。這是我開始著手的地方。

  • As you can see there's only yellow terrain.

    誠如你所見到的,這裡原先只有一片枯黃荒地

  • There's nothing left -- just a bit of grass there.

    什麼也不剩,只剩一丁點小草

  • In 2002 we had about 50 percent of the people jobless there.

    2002年間我們這裡有將近百分之五十的人沒有工作

  • There was a huge amount of crime.

    存在著為數甚多的犯罪。

  • People spent so much of their money on health issues and drinking water.

    當地人在醫療與飲水上花費很多錢

  • There was no agricultural productivity left.

    農業生產力所剩無幾

  • This was the poorest district in the whole province

    這是全省最貧窮的區域

  • and it was a total extinction of wildlife.

    所有野生動植物已經完全滅絕

  • This was like a biological desert.

    就像生物學上的一片沙漠

  • When I stood there in the grass, it's hot -- not even the sound of insects --

    當我站在這片草地上,我只覺得熱 -- 那裏甚至沒有一點蟲子的聲音 --

  • just this waving grass.

    只剩這些搖動的草。

  • Still, four years later we have created jobs for about 3,000 people.

    儘管如此,四年後我們在此創造了3000個工作機會。

  • The climate has changed. I will show you:

    那裏的氣候也改變了。我將為你們展示:

  • no more flooding, no more fires.

    再也沒有水災,再也沒有火災。

  • It's no longer the poorest district,

    這裡也不再是最貧窮的區域了,

  • and there is a huge development of biodiversity.

    而且此地的生物多樣性也得到巨幅地發展。

  • We've got over 1,000 species. We have 137 bird species as of today.

    我們得到超過一千以上的物種,至今有137種鳥類。

  • We have 30 species of reptiles.

    我們有30種爬蟲類。

  • So what happened here? We created a huge economic failure in this forest.

    所以,這裡到底發生了什麼事? 我們在森林中製造了巨大的經濟損害。

  • So basically the whole process of destruction

    基本上這些全部的毀壞過程

  • had gone a bit slower than what is happening now with the oil palm.

    已經得到減緩,

  • But we saw the same thing.

    但我們見到一樣的事--

  • We had slash and burn agriculture;

    我們使用火耕;

  • people cannot afford the fertilizer,

    人們買不起化肥

  • so they burn the trees and have the minerals available there;

    所以他們燃燒一半的樹木與當地現有一半的礦產。

  • the fires become more frequent,

    火災變得頻繁發生

  • and after a while you're stuck with an area of land

    過一陣子你又被困在一塊

  • where there is no fertility left.

    完全無法耕種的土地上。

  • There are no trees left.

    沒有一棵樹存留。

  • Still, in this place, in this grassland

    然而在這個地方,在這片草地上

  • where you can see our very first office there on that hill,

    你可以見到山丘上有我們最初的辦公室,

  • four years later, there is this one green blop on the Earth's surface ...

    四年下來,一片綠方地在地球表面出現了...

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • And there are all these animals, and all these people happy,

    這裡有這些動物,這些快樂的人們,

  • and there's this economic value.

    而且還有經濟價值。

  • So how's this possible?

    這怎麼可能呢?

  • It was quite simple. If you'll look at the steps:

    如果你看看這步驟,你會發現很簡單:

  • we bought the land, we dealt with the fire,

    我們買下這塊地,處理火災,

  • and then only, we started doing the reforestation

    然後開始植林

  • by combining agriculture with forestry.

    混合農業與林業。

  • Only then we set up the infrastructure and management and the monetary.

    在那時我們建立基礎設施、管理、以及財政措施。

  • But we made sure that in every step of the way

    但我們必須確定每一個當地居民

  • the local people were going to be fully involved

    都全然參與計畫

  • so that no outside forces would be able to interfere with that.

    這樣就沒有外部的力量會介入。

  • The people would become the defenders of that forest.

    這使得當地人成為那片林地的保護者。

  • So we do the "people, profit, planet" principles,

    我們以“人民、利益、地球”的原則,

  • but we do it in addition

    並且更進一步地

  • to a sure legal status --

    我們建立一個確定的法律地位

  • because if the forest belongs to the state,

    因為假始森林屬於國家的話

  • people say, "It belongs to me, it belongs to everyone."

    人們會說,它屬於我,它屬於每一個人。

  • And then we apply all these other principles

    我們也應用其他原則

  • like transparency, professional management, measurable results,

    比如說透明化、專業評估管理

  • scalability, [unclear], etc.

    可擴展性、往複性...等等。

  • What we did was we formulated recipes --

    我們所做的是制定配方

  • how to go from a starting situation where you have nothing

    如何從一開始甚麼都沒有的情況

  • to a target situation.

    向一個目標前進。

  • You formulate a recipe based upon the factors you can control,

    你根據可以控制的因素,制定一個配方

  • whether it be the skills or the fertilizer or the plant choice.

    無論選擇技術、化肥、或樹種

  • And then you look at the outputs and you start measuring what comes out.

    你觀測結果,並且測量它。

  • Now in this recipe you also have the cost.

    在這配方裡你同時包含了成本。

  • You also know how much labor is needed.

    你要知道需要付出多少勞動力

  • If you can drop this recipe on the map

    如果你可以把這配方丟在地圖上、

  • on a sandy soil, on a clay soil,

    在沙質土壤上、在粘土壤上、

  • on a steep slope, on flat soil,

    在陡峭的斜坡、在平地上的土壤上、

  • you put those different recipes; if you combine them,

    你配置這些不同的食譜;如果將它們結合起來,

  • out of that comes a business plan,

    從之而來的一個商業計劃、

  • comes a work plan, and you can optimize it

    以及從之而來的工作計劃,你可以對其進行優化

  • for the amount of labor you have available or for the amount of fertilizer you have,

    可以針對對現有的可供勞動力、或現有的肥料,

  • and you can do it.

    來完成這計畫。

  • This is how it looks like in practice. We have this grass we want to get rid of.

    這就是實行這個計畫所看起來的樣子。我們要擺脫這片荒草地。

  • It exudes [unclear]-like compounds from the roots.

    它從根處散發著化合物

  • The acacia trees are of a very low value

    合歡樹是一個經濟價值非常低的植物

  • but we need them to restore the micro-climate, to protect the soil

    但我們需要它們來恢復微氣候,以保護土壤

  • and to shake out the grasses.

    並打開這片荒草地。

  • And after eight years they might actually yield some timber --

    8年後,這裡可能真會產生一些木材,

  • that is, if you can preserve it in the right way,

    也就是說,如果你可以以正確的方法維護它,

  • which we can do with bamboo peels.

    我們能做出竹子幼芽

  • It's an old temple-building technique from Japan

    這是一個古老發源自日本的建築廟宇的技術

  • but bamboo is very fire-susceptible.

    但竹子非常容易著火。

  • So if we would plant that in the beginning

    所以要是我們一開始就種植竹子的話

  • we would have a very high risk of losing everything again.

    我們要承擔失去一切的高風險

  • So we plant it later, along the waterways

    所以我們晚點兒種它,沿著水道

  • to filter the water, provide the raw products

    過濾水,只在木材可供使用時

  • just in time for when the timber becomes available.

    提供原產品。

  • So the idea is: how to integrate these flows

    這樣的想法是:如何在一定的時間與空間內,

  • in space, over time and with the limited means you have.

    使用有限的工具與策略,匯聚資源。

  • So we plant the trees, we plant these pineapples

    因此我們栽種這些樹,栽種鳳梨

  • and beans and ginger in between, to reduce the competition for the trees,

    同時種植豆類和生薑在它們之中,以減少樹木與樹木之間的競爭,

  • the crop fertilizer. Organic material is useful for the agricultural crops,

    作物肥料 -- 有機物質是對農作物有益的,

  • for the people, but also helps the trees. The farmers have free land,

    對人們也是有益的,它也幫助樹木生長,農民有免費土地,

  • the system yields early income, the orangutans get healthy food

    系統獲得初期收益,紅毛猩猩也獲得健康食物

  • and we can speed up ecosystem regeneration

    我們可以加快生態系統的再生

  • while even saving some money.

    這期間甚至也可以節省一些錢。

  • So beautiful. What a theory.

    美麗極了。多好的理論。

  • But is it really that easy?

    但是,它真的那麼容易嗎?

  • Not really, because if you looked at what happened in 1998,

    不見得,因為如果你回顧1998年所發生的事情,

  • the fire started.

    火災發生了。

  • This is an area of about 50 million hectares.

    這是一個面積約五千萬公頃的林地。

  • January.

    一月。

  • February.

    二月。

  • March.

    三月。

  • April.

    四月。

  • May.

    五月。

  • We lost 5.5 million hectares in just a matter of a few months.

    我們在短短幾個月之內失去了五百五十萬公頃的林地。

  • This is because we have 10,000 of those underground fires

    因為我們有10,000次左右的這種地下火災

  • that you also have in Pennsylvania here in the United States.

    在美國賓州也有。

  • And once the soil gets dried, you're in a dry season -- you get cracks,

    一旦土壤變得乾燥,旱季會出現裂縫,

  • oxygen goes in, flames come out and the problem starts all over again.

    氧氣滲入,火災隨而發生,問題又會重新開始。

  • So how to break that cycle?

    因此,如何打破這種循環呢?

  • Fire is the biggest problem.

    火災是最大的問題。

  • This is what it looked like for three months.

    這是三個月看起來的樣子。

  • For three months, the automatic lights outside did not go off

    三個月間,外邊的自動照明沒有熄滅

  • because it was that dark.

    因為是那麼黑。

  • We lost all the crops. No children gained weight for over a year;

    我們失去了所有的作物,一年間沒有一個孩子增加體重。

  • they lost 12 IQ points. It was a disaster

    他們還失去了12點的智商;這對猩猩和人來說

  • for orangutans and people.

    都是一場災難。

  • So these fires are really the first things to work on.

    因此,火災是首先真正要處理的工作。

  • That was why I put it as a single point up there.

    這就是為什麼我在這裡把它作為一個單一重點。

  • And you need the local people for that because these grasslands,

    您需要當地人民,因為這些草原,

  • once they start burning ... It goes through it like a windstorm

    一旦開始燃燒,它就會像一場風暴

  • and you lose again the last bit of ash and nutrients

    使你再度失去最後的灰燼與養分

  • to the first rainfall -- going to the sea

    直到第一場雨落到海浬

  • killing off the coral reefs there.

    讓珊瑚礁也死去為止。

  • So you have to do it with the local people.

    所以,你必須與當地人民一起做。

  • That is the short-term solution but you also need a long-term solution.

    上述僅僅只是短期的解決辦法,而你還需要一個長期的解決辦法。

  • So what we did is, we created

    為此,我們設置了

  • a ring of sugar palms around the area.

    一個以糖棕櫚樹圍繞出來的一個區域。

  • These sugar palms turn out to be fire-resistant --

    這些糖棕櫚樹形成一個防火

  • also flood-resistant, by the way --

    亦防洪的天然設施。

  • and they provide a lot of income for local people.

    並且為當地人民提供了大量的收入。

  • This is what it looks like:

    這看起來是這樣的:

  • the people have to tap them twice a day -- just a millimeter slice --

    人們只在這些樹上刮採幾毫米片,一日兩次,

  • and the only thing you harvest is sugar water,

    僅僅採收糖水,

  • carbon dioxide, rain fall and a little bit of sunshine.

    二氧化碳、降雨量和一點點的陽光

  • In principle, you make those trees into

    原則上你使那些樹木成為

  • biological photovoltaic cells.

    生物光伏電池。

  • And you can create so much energy from this --

    因為他們每年每公頃可以產出3倍以上的能源,

  • they produce three times more energy per hectare per year,

    因為你可以將之用於日常工作,

  • because you can tap them on a daily basis.

    您可以從這裡製造許多的能源。

  • You don't need to harvest [unclear]

    您不必採集器官

  • or any other of the crops.

    或任何其他的作物。

  • So this is the combination where we have all this genetic potential in the tropics,

    因此,這是我們在熱帶所能有的基因潛在結合

  • which is still unexploited, and doing it in combination with technology.

    它尚未被開發,並且正藉由科技整合做著

  • But also your legal side needs to be in very good order.

    但此外,你也要有很好的法律知識

  • So we bought that land,

    所以我們賣下那整塊地

  • and here is where we started our project --

    這就是我們開始這項計畫的所在之處,

  • in the middle of nowhere.

    在一片蠻荒地之中。

  • And if you zoom in a bit you can see that all of this area

    如果你放大一點,你可以看到所有的這區域

  • is divided into strips that go over different types of soil,

    已被不同類型的土壤劃分開來,

  • and we were actually monitoring,

    事實上,我們仔細考量財務狀況

  • measuring every single tree in these 2,000 hectares, 5,000 acres.

    測量在這5000頃長,2000頃寬地裡的所有樹木。

  • And this forest is quite different.

    這個森林很不同。

  • What I really did was I just followed nature,

    我們真正做的只是依自然的性質,

  • and nature doesn't know monocultures,

    而自然本身是不了解何謂單種栽培的,

  • but a natural forest is multilayered.

    且自然森林有多種層次。

  • That means that both in the ground and above the ground

    這意謂著,森林可以較好地利用

  • it can make better use of the available light,

    地面以及地面以上的光,

  • it can store more carbon in the system, it can provide more functions.

    可以在生態系統中儲存更多碳,提供更多功能,

  • But, it's more complicated. It's not that simple, and you have to work with the people.

    然而這也較為複雜,並不像表面上那麼容易,你需要與當地住民合作,一起工作。

  • So, just like nature,

    所以我們的作法是仿效自然,

  • we also grow fast planting trees and underneath that,

    種植快速生長的樹木,同時在那之下

  • we grow the slower growing, primary-grain forest trees of a very high diversity

    我們種植生長較為慢的植物,也就是非常高多樣性的初級糧作林木

  • that can optimally use that light. Then,

    使它們得以較好地利用陽光

  • what is just as important: get the right fungi in there

    同樣重要得是:它們得以取得適當的菌類

  • that will grow into those leaves, bring back the nutrients

    這些菌類可以附著生長於它們的葉內,從24小時內掉落的葉子

  • to the roots of the trees that have just dropped that leaf within 24 hours.

    中帶養分回樹根之中。

  • And they become like nutrient pumps.

    他們會成為養分泵

  • You need the bacteria to fix nitrogen,

    而你也需要土壤中的固氮微生物

  • and without those microorganisms, you won't have any performance at all.

    若少了這些微生物,你將不會有任何成果。

  • And then we started planting -- only 1,000 trees a day.

    接著,我們著手開始植林 -- 一天只栽種1000棵樹。

  • We could have planted many, many more, but we didn't want to

    其實可以栽種更多的,但我們不想

  • because we wanted to keep the number of jobs stable.

    因為我們希望保持穩定的就業數量。

  • We didn't want to lose the people

    我們不希望失去人

  • that are going to work in that plantation.

    他們要在林業上工作。

  • And we do a lot of work here.

    而我們有需多工作要做。

  • We use indicator plants to look at what soil types,

    我們使用指標性植物觀測土壤類型,

  • or what vegetables will grow, or what trees will grow here.

    看看什麼植物或什麼樹種會生長出來。

  • And we have monitored every single one of those trees from space.

    我們在這區域內已經監測了每一棵樹。

  • This is what it looks like in reality;

    這是它現實中看起來的樣子,

  • you have this irregular ring around it,

    你在這周圍有不規則環,

  • with strips of 100 meters wide, with sugar palms

    100公尺寬的的環帶內種植的是糖棕櫚

  • that can provide income for 648 families.

    可以提供648個家庭生計。

  • It's only a small part of the area.

    這只是此區域的一個小部分。

  • The nursery, in here, is quite different.

    這裡的培植區是相當不同的。

  • If you look at the number of tree species we