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  • Hi there.

    大家好

  • My name is Emma and in today's video we're going to talk about the test known as the IELTS.

    我叫艾瑪,今天要講的是雅思(IELTS)測驗

  • So if you are going to be writing the IELTS, this video is for you.

    如果你正打算參加雅思測驗,那麼今天的課程就很適合你

  • Now, in this video we're talking specifically about if you're writing the academic IELTS.

    今天講的雅思特別是針對準備考學術組(準備留學)的人

  • If you're, you know, just here for general interest, you can still learn quite a bit

    如果你只是為了興趣而來,你仍然可以從這部影片學到不少東西

  • from this video because we will be talking about different vocabulary and grammar.

    因為我們會教一些不同的單字及文法

  • So this video can also help you if you're not taking the IELTS also.

    即使你不打算考雅思,這部影片也會對你有所助益

  • Okay, so what are we going to be talking about specifically in this video?

    我們今天要講的主題到底是什麼呢?

  • Well, if you're taking the IELTS you probably know that there's a writing part of the IELTS.

    如果你要考雅思,你也許知道考試其中一項為「寫作」

  • The writing part has two sections, we call them Writing Task 1 and Writing Task 2.

    「寫作」分為兩部份,我們稱之為「題型1」與「題型2」

  • In this video I'm going to cover a small bit of Writing Task 1.

    今天的課程將簡要介紹「題型1」

  • So, in Writing Task 1, you're going to be given some sort of visual image.

    在「題型1」裡你會看到一些圖像

  • Okay?

    了解嗎?

  • So you might see something like this, this, or this.

    所以你可能會看像這幾種的圖像

  • It might be a chart, it might be a table, but you're going to see some sort of visual

    可能是圖表,可能是表格,一些圖象化的東西

  • and you need to describe what you're seeing.

    你必須能描述出你所看到的

  • So this video...

    在這部影片中

  • I've covered different types of Writing Task 1 and I'll talk about the links to some of

    已經含括了各種不同形式的「題型1」,我會在影片結束時堤供各位

  • these other videos at the end, but in this specific video we're going to be talking about

    一些相同主題影片的連結,但是今天我主要講的是

  • bar graphs.

    長條圖

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So, first of all: What is a bar graph?

    首先要講:什麼是長條圖?

  • Well, so I have here three different types of charts or graphs.

    我們這裡有三種不同的圖表

  • We have this one, this one, and this one.

    這種,這種,和這種

  • This is called a pie chart. Okay?

    這種叫圓餅圖

  • I've covered this in another video, so if you're interested in learning how to write

    我在另一部影片裡有詳細解說,如果你想知道如何描述圓餅圖

  • about pie charts, you can check out that video.

    你可以去看那一部影片

  • But you'll notice with a pie chart it looks kind of like a pizza or a pie.

    圓餅圖看起來有點像一個披薩或是派

  • It's in a circle and it's...

    是圓形的

  • Has different colours representing different percents.

    裡面用不同的顏色來表所佔的百分比

  • We have here, this is called a line graph.

    這種叫線形圖

  • So you'll notice that there's a line and, you know, sometimes this represents time,

    你會看到像這樣的一條線,橫軸有時代表時間

  • sometimes it represents other things, but with a line graph you'll notice, like, increases

    有時代表其他東西,線形圖可以看出增減的變化

  • and decreases, but it's one connected line.

    它是一條連續的線

  • We're not covering either of these in this video.

    這兩種都不是今天要講的

  • What we're going to be covering is another thing you might see on the IELTS, which is

    今天要講的是另一個你可能在雅思會看到的

  • you might be given a picture like this.

    像這樣的圖形

  • This is called a bar graph or a bar chart.

    這就叫長條圖

  • So we have here these rectangular-shaped things that are each a different colour.

    這些不同顏色的長方形

  • These are known as bars. Okay?

    就是我們說的長條

  • So, I know a bar is a place you go to buy beer, but in this case a bar is not that,

    我知道 bar (酒吧) 是去喝酒的地方,但在這裡的 bar 不是指酒吧

  • it's actually this kind of rectangle on the chart.

    而是這些圖表裡的長方形

  • So, on the IELTS you may get a picture of something like this.

    在雅思測驗你會看到這類的圖表

  • You might actually get a picture of two things together, or you might get a picture of something

    實際上你可能會看到兩種合併在一起的的圖表,或是比這種

  • a lot more complicated than this.

    更複雜的圖表

  • In this case we're going to talk about: What would you do and say, and what are some tips

    因此今天我們就要教你:如果你看到長條圖時

  • if you get a picture of a bar graph or a bar chart?

    要如何答題的技巧

  • Okay, so what are you going to have to do?

    你要如何做呢?

  • Specifically they're going to ask you...

    題目會這樣出

  • After you get a picture like this, they're going to ask you to describe what you see.

    給你看一個這樣的圖形,然後要求你將所看到的描述出來

  • Okay? So you're describing the main information.

    所以你要描述出圖形裡涵蓋的主要資訊

  • You're also going to have to maybe make comparisons, say how things are similar or how things are

    也許你還要做一些比較,例如有哪些相似或相異之處

  • different, which is contrast.

    這就是對照法

  • So, for example, if this is, you know, different activities, maybe you might say that the red

    例如要表示不同的活動,你可以說紅色

  • is shopping and the blue is golfing.

    是代表購物,藍色代表打高爾夫球

  • In this case, shopping is less popular than golfing. Okay?

    以這個例子來說,購物比打高爾夫更不受歡迎

  • So pretty much you need to compare the different bars and say: What are the same about them?

    你需要比較這些不同的條狀指標:它們的共通性是什麼?

  • Which ones are similar and which ones are different?

    佊此的相似處和相異處又是什麼?

  • You're also going to have to report any main features or trends.

    你還要指出來圖表主要的特點或代表的趨勢是什麼

  • Okay?

    了解嗎?

  • So maybe you'll see a pattern and you're going to have to write about, you know, some of

    要根據題目圖形上面給你的資訊

  • these main points you see when you look at the visualization.

    寫出圖形的主旨

  • You do not write your opinion.

    不是要你隨便發表個人的意見

  • Okay? So if this is a graph on education, maybe this is elementary school, secondary school,

    如果這是個有關教育體系的圖表,這些長條就可能代表小學,中學

  • university, master's, and like a doctorate or something - you do not write what you think

    大學,碩、博士等,不是靠自己的想像力去寫

  • about it. Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • All you do is in this type of question, you're just writing what you see and what it means.

    對這類的題型,你只要寫下你看到的資訊和代表的意義

  • You're not writing your opinion on anything.

    不是要你發表個人意見

  • So you should not write the words: "I think" or "In my opinion", you'll actually lose marks

    所以不要寫類似「我認為」或「按照我的看法」這種字眼,否則你會因此

  • for this.

    失分

  • So in task 1, no opinion; that's for task 2.

    所以「題型一」不是要你發表個人意見,那是「題型二」才要做的事

  • Okay, so for something like this, and we will look at an example question, you have about

    好,我們來舉一下例子,做這個大題你只有大約

  • 20 minutes.

    20分鐘的時間

  • You know, you're responsible for your timing, but something like this should take you about

    你必須自己掌握答題時間,這個單元約需要用到20分鐘

  • 20 minutes and you need to write at least 150 words.

    你要寫至少150個字

  • If you write less, you lose marks.

    字數不夠,得分就不會高

  • So it's very important to write at least 150 words.

    所以寫至少150字是很重要的

  • There is such a thing as too many words, so you don't have to write 800, that would be

    字數太多也不行,你不需要寫到800個字

  • very bad.

    那會很糟糕

  • You know, writing 500 would be very bad.

    500個字也很糟糕

  • You're aiming for around 150 words.

    只要約 150 個字就可以了

  • You know, maybe 170 is fine, but you don't want to write way too much either.

    也許 170 個字還可以,但就是不要超過太多

  • Okay, so now we're going to look at an example of a question for this and some more tips

    現在就來看看例題以及更多答題技巧

  • on how to...

    如何...

  • How to write when you look at a bar graph.

    看到長條圖後如何答題

  • Okay, so I have here an example of an IELTS question.

    這裡有一個雅思考題的例子

  • So, here's the chart and here is the question itself.

    這裡是圖表,這裡是題目

  • It says: "The chart shows information about changes in the average housing prices

    題目:「圖表顯示 1990 到 2000 年間,在三個不同城市

  • in three different cities between 1990 and 2000.

    平均房價變動的情形

  • Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features

    整合這些資料,選擇並指出主要的特徵

  • and making comparisons where relevant."

    做出相關性比較」

  • So, for a question like this you will again have about 20 minutes, and you'll also have...

    同樣的,你有約20分鐘時間答題,你還要...

  • You have to write about 150 words.

    你還要寫大約 150 個字

  • So, what do a lot of students do when they see this?

    大多數學生看到題目後的反應是如何呢?

  • They go: "Oh my gosh. I... I don't know what to do. I panic."

    他們反應是:「天啊...我不知道怎麼答題,我很緊張。」

  • Right? A lot of students get really stressed out, but this is something you can do.

    對吧?許多學生會覺得壓力很大,但是你可以這麼做

  • So, the number one thing you need to do is take a breath, first thing, and then think

    第一,先吸一口氣,然後再想想看

  • about: What are you seeing?

    你看到了什麼?

  • Don't just start writing.

    不要急著答題

  • Think about: What can you actually see?

    想想看:你看到了什麼?

  • What is happening here?

    題目問的是什麼?

  • Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • So, for example, here we have on this side...

    舉例來說,圖形的這一部份

  • This is called the Y axis.

    稱之為 Y 軸

  • We have the percentage of change in housing prices.

    所顯示的是房價變動的百分比

  • Okay, so I see here the word "percent" and I see the numbers 10, 5, -5, and -10.

    我看到了 "percent" 這個字,也看到 10, 5, -5, 及 -10這些數字

  • So this is showing percent.

    這就表示百分比

  • Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • And what kind of percent is it showing?

    是什麼東西的百分比呢?

  • Housing prices, so the cost of buying a house.

    是房價,買房子要付的錢

  • How has it changed over time?

    房價如何隨著時間變化?

  • And then I can also look here and here.

    我可以看這裡和這裡

  • Okay, so we're looking at the year 1990 and we're comparing it to 2000.

    我們看1990年這裡,並和2000年做比較

  • Usually the graph would also have a title.

    通常圖形會有一個標題

  • I didn't have enough space to write the title, but in terms of the visual you might see something

    因為白板的空間不夠所我沒寫標題,但是在題目上你可能會看到

  • like this.

    有標題

  • There are different types of bar graphs.

    長條圖也分好幾種

  • So sometimes you'll just have, you know, maybe one part of it, sometimes you'll have multiple

    有的只代表單一的資訊,有的則是由許多資訊組合成的

  • bar graphs you need to interpret, sometimes you'll have a pie graph and a bar graph, so

    你必須去解讀,有時會把餅狀圖和長條圖放在一起

  • key here is take your time to really think about what you're seeing.

    重點就是把握時間將你所看到的圖形弄清楚

  • So in this case we have three different colours: blue, green, and red; and we have three different

    在這個例子中有三種顏色:藍色,綠色,和紅色;也有三個城市

  • cities: Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

    多倫多,蒙特婁,和溫哥華

  • So, I made up this, by the way.

    順便說明,這是我虛構的數字

  • This is not actually reflective of housing prices in these cities.

    不代表這些城市真正的房價

  • I have no idea what housing prices are right now, so you know, don't take this as fact

    我也不知道現在的房價是多少,請別當真

  • because it's made up numbers.

    這虛構的數字用來舉例而已

  • So when you look at this, what can we see right away?

    當你看到這個圖表後,你直接的反應是什麼?

  • Well, we can find Toronto.

    嗯,我們可以找到多倫多

  • This is Toronto in 1990 and this is Toronto in 2000.

    這是1990年的多倫多,這是2000年的多倫多

  • Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • If I look here this is about 5% and here it's 10%.

    如果你看這裡,這是5%,這是10%

  • I can also look at Montreal.

    我再看蒙特婁

  • Montreal here is in the negatives.

    蒙特婁顯示的百分比是負值

  • It's -5%, compared to here in 2000 which is 5%, so it's a positive number.

    是負 5%,對照看 2000 年的則是正 5%

  • And then we can look at red which represents Vancouver, this is the same as Toronto, it's

    接著我們看紅色的溫哥華,和多倫多一樣是 5%

  • 5%, and this is, again, the same as Toronto, 5%.

    這裡也是和多倫多一樣 5%

  • So, you can start by asking yourself some questions.

    現在你可以從自問自答開始

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • What are you looking at?

    你看到的是什麼?

  • You can look at the bars and think about: Which is the tallest bar?

    你看著長條圖的時候可以思考:最長的是哪一條?

  • So in this case the tallest bar in 1990 are both Toronto and Vancouver.

    以這個例子而言,多倫多和溫哥華兩個都是1990年最長的

  • In 2000, the tallest bars are also Toronto and Vancouver.

    在2000年,也仍然是多倫多和溫哥華

  • You can look at the shortest bar.

    你在看最短得那一條

  • Well, in this case, in terms of negative, we see Montreal.

    在這個例子中,這條已經變成負值,所以是蒙特婁,

  • Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • In this case, again, it's Montreal.

    在這裡,一樣,也是蒙特婁

  • So looking at which is the tallest and which is the shortest are some questions you want

    所以哪個最長和哪個最短是你首先要

  • to ask yourself right off the bat.

    問自己的問題

  • You also want to look at change over time.

    你也要注意它們在不同時間的變化

  • Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • You know: How is this graph changing?

    這個圖形是如何變化的?

  • Is something increasing?

    是否某些數值增加了?

  • Is something decreasing?

    是否某些數值減少了?

  • In this case we see Toronto increased, Montreal increased, and Vancouver increased.

    這個例子中,我們看到多倫多增加了,蒙特婁增加了,溫哥華也增加了

  • Everything has increased over time.

    隨著時間不同所有的數值都增加了

  • You also want to compare: How are these bars the same and how are they different?

    你也要比較:這些長條相同及相異之處

  • So I'll look: Okay, you know, in this case Toronto and Vancouver are the same,

    這個例子中,多倫多和溫哥華是相同的

  • Montreal is different.

    蒙特婁則不同

  • Toronto and Vancouver have both increased, Montreal has decreased.

    多倫多和溫哥華的數值都是增加,蒙特婁則是減少

  • In this case all three have increased, but Toronto and Vancouver are greater.

    在這裡所有的都是增加,但是多倫多和溫哥華增加的比較多

  • You know, they show greater increase than Montreal.

    它們的數值增加的比蒙特婁多

  • So noticing these types of patterns and just really analyzing: "What are you seeing?" will

    所以瞭解這些模式並且認真分析:「你所看到的是什麼?」

  • really help you in terms of your answer.

    在你回答問題時將帶給你很大幫助

  • So key point here: Don't just write.

    這裡所講重點就是:不要只顧著寫答案

  • Take a minute to actually understand what you are looking at.

    先花一點時間來真正理解題目

  • Okay, now let's look at some other tips on how to do...

    現在我們再看看分析長條圖

  • How to analyze a bar graph.

    其他的撇步

  • Okay, so you've now understood what you're looking at.

    現在你已經理解所看到的圖表

  • You've read the question carefully and you've also looked at the visual, in this case, a

    你已經仔細看過題目你也看到了圖表,在這個例子就是

  • bar graph.

    長條圖

  • So what do you do next?

    那麼下一步該怎麼做?

  • Well, it's a good idea to have a plan on how to do these questions.

    我認為對於如何回答問題,心裡先有一個計畫是不錯的方法

  • So, for example, what I would recommend is first write an introduction.

    舉例來說,我會建議首先寫下簡介

  • Your introduction should not be long. Okay?

    簡介要簡短

  • A lot of students, they start the introduction and then they run out of time because they

    許多學生,他們開始寫簡介後卻發現時間不夠了,因為他們

  • spent too much time on the introduction.

    寫簡介花了太多時間

  • For this, you only really need to write maybe two sentences for your introduction.

    在這個例子,你只需要寫兩句就夠了

  • What your sentences should say in your introduction is it should pretty much say all of this,

    內容大致包括這些重點就可以了

  • so you need to talk about what kind of chart it is.

    你需要提到這是哪一種圖表

  • In this case it's a bar chart or a bar graph, and you can pretty much say all of this information.

    在這裡就是指長條圖,你也可以理解這些資訊

  • Now here's the tricky thing: You can't just copy what you see here.

    有一個要小心的地方:你不能只是回答圖表上顯示的東西

  • Okay? So in your answer, your answer should not be, you know:

    好嗎?所以你不應該如此回答:

  • "The chart shows information about changes in the average housing prices

    「這個圖表告訴我們1990年和2000年

  • in three different cities between 1990 and 2000."

    三個不同城市的平均房價」

  • If you copy the question you will lose marks.

    你如果只是照著圖表回答就會被減分

  • Okay? It does not show what you're capable of, so do not copy the words in the question.

    這樣回答無法表現出你理解能力,所以不要這樣答題

  • You need to use your own words to say all of this information, but use your own words.

    你必須用你自己的話來說明圖表上的資訊,用你自己的話

  • Okay? So one way to do this: Instead of saying...

    例如你可以這麼說:

  • If they say: "chart" here, you can change that to "bar graph".

    如果題目寫「圖表」,你可以改成「長條圖」

  • Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • Instead of using the word "show", maybe you can use the word "demonstrate" or "indicate"

    避免和題目用同樣的字譬如 "show",你可以改用其他的同義字如 "demonstrate" 或 "indicate"

  • or, you know, "represents", "illustrates".

    或是 "represents", "illustrates"

  • So there's a lot of great words you can use instead of "show".

    不用 "show" 這個字,還是有很多其他很棒的同義字可用

  • In terms of the three different cities, you can actually name the cities.

    有關三個不同的城市,你可以改成直接將城市名字寫出來

  • In this case we looked at Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver.

    這個例子裡就是多倫多、蒙特婁、溫哥華

  • You know, you'll also have to include details about the dates, but you can change some of

    你也必須提到日期(年份),這些字你可以用一些

  • these words around.

    其他的字代替

  • Instead of: "average housing prices", maybe you could change that to: "the price of housing".

    例如 "average housing prices",你可以改成 "the price of housing"

  • You know, so there's different things you can do.

    這些就是你可以做的事

  • The main point here is change the wording and change the sentence structure if you can.

    這裡主要講的就是盡量改用不同的字或句子

  • So that's key in your introduction.

    這就是寫簡介的重點

  • Again, you are not giving your opinion here.

    再次提醒,這個時候不是要你發表個人看法

  • Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • So whether you think: "Oh, it's great that, you know, all these Canadian cities, you know,

    即便你認為:「太好了,這些加拿大城市

  • their housing prices are going down",

    的房價正在下降了」

  • you don't give your opinion about it.

    你也不要發表個人意見

  • Okay, the next thing you should do...

    第二件你應該做的事是...

  • So, your introduction is, again, about maybe two sentences.

    再次提醒,你的簡介只要寫差不多兩句

  • You can now give a sentence or two about the main trend you see.

    接著你可以寫一或二句你所觀察到的主要趨勢

  • So the main trend is the most important or the...

    主要趨勢就是最重要或是...

  • The most...

    最‧‧‧

  • You know, the thing you see that is kind of like the biggest thing.

    最明顯看到的東西

  • So in this case we looked at housing prices of Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal.

    這裡我們看溫哥華、多倫多、和蒙特婁的房價

  • One thing that was a very big trend is that everything increased.

    有一個大的趨勢就是所有的房價統統在上漲

  • All of the cities increased over time in terms of their housing prices.

    每個城市在不同的年份都是上漲的

  • That's a main trend.

    這就是主要趨勢

  • So anything that's a big pattern that when you look at you notice:

    任何圖表有這樣的一種模式,你會注意到:

  • "Okay, all of these things show the same pattern"

    「所有的圖形都顯示出這種模式」

  • or maybe, you know, it might be that one of the main trends

    或是主要趨勢的其中之一

  • is that Vancouver is the most expensive and Montreal is the least expensive.

    就是溫哥華是最貴的,蒙特婁是最便宜的

  • These types of things are things that you can write about overall.

    這些都是你可以寫的

  • So in terms of when you're talking about main trends, there's two great words to use.

    當你講到主要趨勢的時候,有兩個很棒的單字可以用

  • "Overall" or, and I'll just put that here, "In general".

    "Overall"或,我寫在這裡 "In general"

  • So these are two great words that can start off this sentence where you can show off what

    在你發表個人看法的時候,就可以用這兩個字

  • is the big picture or the main idea.

    做為句子開頭

  • Okay, and that should be maybe, you know, two sentences.

    同樣的,只要簡短的兩句就可以了

  • After you finish the main trend, then you're going to have a new paragraph.

    寫完了主要趨勢,接著你要開始寫新的一段

  • And in this new paragraph is where you're going to say most of the details.

    新的一段就要寫細節

  • Okay?

    懂嗎?

  • So you're going to say specific numbers.

    你要寫特定的數字

  • You're going to, you know, really do comparing and contrasting between them.

    你要比較這些數據並且找出它們的差異

  • Toronto is like this, Vancouver is like this, Montreal is like this, and you're going to

    多倫多是這樣,溫哥華是這樣,蒙特婁是這樣的