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  • Hi.

  • I'm Gill at www.engvid.com.

  • And today we're having a lesson on the use of the word "back".

  • We've already given you a lesson on the word "back" in different parts of speech, so do

  • have a look for that if you haven't already seen it.

  • This lesson is about words which are based on the word "back" or they begin with "back".

  • So, let's have a look at a few examples.

  • First of all, if you say: "That man has no backbone!"

  • Your backbone is your spine that runs down the back of your body, and it sort of holds

  • you upright.

  • So if you think literally someone has no backbone, they're going to go over like that, but this

  • is used in a metaphorical sense, not a literal sense.

  • So if you describe someone as having no backbone, it means they're not a very strong person.

  • You can easily make them do things, or stop them doing things.

  • They don't sort of have a mind of their own or they don't have a strong will.

  • You can push them around, that sort of thing.

  • They're a bit weak.

  • So, no backbone is quite a bad criticism of anybody.

  • Okay.

  • Second example, if you're applying for a job, usually:

  • "Your job application will require the backing of two referees."

  • Meaning people who will give you a reference, maybe people you have worked with before who

  • will say how well you did your job, what sort of person you are.

  • Hopefully they will say nice things.

  • Otherwise, you wouldn't choose them to give you references.

  • So when you fill in an application form, you often have to put the name and address, and

  • job title of two referees.

  • Okay?

  • So the backing of referees means the support, the telling the new company about you, and

  • helping you to get the new job.

  • Okay.

  • Right.

  • Another business-related one, if you want to find out more information about a company,

  • you can ask somebody:

  • "Could you give me some background information on the company?"

  • So, information tells you really what it means.

  • Background means just general information about maybe when the company was started;

  • what does the company do, what is their business, how many people work there, do they have one

  • building in one city or several buildings in different cities?

  • All the sort of background, maybe a bit historical; what has happened in the past?

  • Are they on the stock market?

  • That sort of thing.

  • Background information. Okay.

  • Next example, sometimes when a government decide to do something new, a new policy,

  • sometimes people don't like it very much and it can cause demonstrations, riots, all sorts

  • of things.

  • It can cause bad things to happen.

  • People react to the new policy.

  • So if you say: "The government's new policy could result in a backlash."

  • that's like if you're using a whip...

  • The whip which does a lash, you lash something with a whip.

  • If it comes back at you and hits you, that is a backlash.

  • So, the government is doing this, and it comes back at them and something bad happens.

  • A bad result, basically.

  • A backlash is a bad result from something.

  • Okay.

  • And finally in this first half of the lesson, if I have been on holiday for two weeks and

  • I come back, and my desk has got lots of papers mounted up, lots of emails on the computer,

  • lots of work to do because I've been away: "I have a huge backlog of work!"

  • It means just lots of work that has come in while I have been away.

  • Why did I bother going on holiday?

  • I got all this extra work to do now.

  • A backlog.

  • So it's best to avoid a backlog if you can, but not going on holiday is not so nice.

  • But when you think sometimes: "What will it be like when I go back?

  • There'll be so much to do", so that's a backlog.

  • Okay, we'll move on to the next few examples.

  • Okay, so you'll see I am now carrying my backpack to illustrate the next sentence.

  • So, let's see what it is.

  • "He is going to backpack around India."

  • Okay?

  • And that's what you do if you're travelling just with a pack on your back like this, so

  • you're travelling very light and you're just getting buses, you're walking, you're maybe

  • getting rides in cars and lorries, backpack.

  • And this...

  • This is all that you have with you.

  • No suitcases or anything like that.

  • So, it's a very popular way of travelling if you're feeling quite brave and you're happy

  • just to go day to day seeing different places.

  • Okay, so that's a backpack.

  • Right.

  • Okay.

  • And next sentence...

  • Now, this is a little bit rude.

  • So sometimes I hear people saying this word: "backside" because they've put "back" and

  • "side" together, and because English is not their first language, they don't realize that

  • "backside" as one word has a very specific meaning.

  • Okay.

  • And it's actually your bottom.

  • Right.

  • Bottom.

  • Or some people even say "B-T-M" without saying the word.

  • BTM, bottom.

  • "Backside" has this particular meaning, and it's slightly slang, a little bit rude.

  • You don't generally use it in polite society, so you have to be careful who you are with

  • when you use it.

  • If you're with friends, it's probably okay.

  • So, here: "She fell down on her backside!"

  • Could be painful.

  • Okay?

  • That's what it means.

  • She fell down on her bottom.

  • Another word we use: "posterior", but that's a very...

  • Oh, elite word that comes from Latin.

  • "Posterior", but it's a bit of a jokey word as well.

  • So, okay.

  • All these different words.

  • "Backside", be careful how you use it.

  • Right.

  • Now, next one, if someone is trying to explain something to you that's really complicated

  • and you have to concentrate very hard, and then at some point you think:

  • "I don't understand this.

  • I need this person to start again from the beginning, and see if I understand it next time."

  • So you can say:

  • "I've lost the thread of your explanation",

  • the thread, it's like a piece of cotton.

  • Cotton that you sew with.

  • And as they're explaining, you have this sort of idea of a thread, but if you sort of lose

  • your concentration, you can say:

  • "I've lost the thread of your explanation - can we backtrack, please?"

  • Meaning: Can we go back?

  • Tracks are like a train is on tracks, so if you backtrack, you're going back along some

  • tracks.

  • Back to the beginning of the explanation and try again to understand.

  • So, to backtrack.

  • Right.

  • Now, if there is an incident, people on the street fighting or somebody stealing something

  • from a shop, the policeman...

  • One policeman on his own is not always the best way of dealing with it.

  • You need more than one for safety.

  • So, often: "The policeman"-on his own-"had to call for backup", meaning for support,

  • for more policemen to come and policewomen maybe.

  • Why not?

  • To come and help because it's too much for one person to deal with.

  • So, "to call for backup" is to call for extra people to come and help.

  • Okay?

  • And then finally, if you imagine you're doing a building project, maybe it's an old house

  • that you have bought and you want to modernize it, but as you start working you find that

  • you have to get rid of a lot of things, you have to take the plaster off the walls, there

  • are all sorts of problems.

  • It's as if you're almost demolishing the house before you can rebuild it.

  • So, you can say: "I think we're going backwards rather than forwards with this building project!"

  • We're having to go backwards, take it back before we can start building again.

  • Bring it down almost to the ground before we can start building it up again as a nice

  • modern house.

  • So, "backwards" you can use in all sorts of context.

  • If I'm walking backwards, I'm going like that, obviously.

  • Forwards like that.

  • Simple.

  • Okay.

  • So, I hope these examples have been useful for you.

  • If you'd like to do a quiz, please go to the website, www.engvid.com.

  • And if you'd like to subscribe to my YouTube channel, that would be great.

  • And hope to see you again very soon.

  • Okay.

  • Bye for now.

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A2 初級 美國腔

詞彙。學習10個來自 "BACK "的單詞 (Vocabulary: Learn 10 words that come from "BACK")

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    ryan 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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