字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 Hi. I'm Gill at www.engvid.com. And today we're having a lesson on the use of the word "back". We've already given you a lesson on the word "back" in different parts of speech, so do have a look for that if you haven't already seen it. This lesson is about words which are based on the word "back" or they begin with "back". So, let's have a look at a few examples. First of all, if you say: "That man has no backbone!" Your backbone is your spine that runs down the back of your body, and it sort of holds you upright. So if you think literally someone has no backbone, they're going to go over like that, but this is used in a metaphorical sense, not a literal sense. So if you describe someone as having no backbone, it means they're not a very strong person. You can easily make them do things, or stop them doing things. They don't sort of have a mind of their own or they don't have a strong will. You can push them around, that sort of thing. They're a bit weak. So, no backbone is quite a bad criticism of anybody. Okay. Second example, if you're applying for a job, usually: "Your job application will require the backing of two referees." Meaning people who will give you a reference, maybe people you have worked with before who will say how well you did your job, what sort of person you are. Hopefully they will say nice things. Otherwise, you wouldn't choose them to give you references. So when you fill in an application form, you often have to put the name and address, and job title of two referees. Okay? So the backing of referees means the support, the telling the new company about you, and helping you to get the new job. Okay. Right. Another business-related one, if you want to find out more information about a company, you can ask somebody: "Could you give me some background information on the company?" So, information tells you really what it means. Background means just general information about maybe when the company was started; what does the company do, what is their business, how many people work there, do they have one building in one city or several buildings in different cities? All the sort of background, maybe a bit historical; what has happened in the past? Are they on the stock market? That sort of thing. Background information. Okay. Next example, sometimes when a government decide to do something new, a new policy, sometimes people don't like it very much and it can cause demonstrations, riots, all sorts of things. It can cause bad things to happen. People react to the new policy. So if you say: "The government's new policy could result in a backlash." that's like if you're using a whip... The whip which does a lash, you lash something with a whip. If it comes back at you and hits you, that is a backlash. So, the government is doing this, and it comes back at them and something bad happens. A bad result, basically. A backlash is a bad result from something. Okay. And finally in this first half of the lesson, if I have been on holiday for two weeks and I come back, and my desk has got lots of papers mounted up, lots of emails on the computer, lots of work to do because I've been away: "I have a huge backlog of work!" It means just lots of work that has come in while I have been away. Why did I bother going on holiday? I got all this extra work to do now. A backlog. So it's best to avoid a backlog if you can, but not going on holiday is not so nice. But when you think sometimes: "What will it be like when I go back? There'll be so much to do", so that's a backlog. Okay, we'll move on to the next few examples. Okay, so you'll see I am now carrying my backpack to illustrate the next sentence. So, let's see what it is. "He is going to backpack around India." Okay? And that's what you do if you're travelling just with a pack on your back like this, so you're travelling very light and you're just getting buses, you're walking, you're maybe getting rides in cars and lorries, backpack. And this... This is all that you have with you. No suitcases or anything like that. So, it's a very popular way of travelling if you're feeling quite brave and you're happy just to go day to day seeing different places. Okay, so that's a backpack. Right. Okay. And next sentence... Now, this is a little bit rude. So sometimes I hear people saying this word: "backside" because they've put "back" and "side" together, and because English is not their first language, they don't realize that "backside" as one word has a very specific meaning. Okay. And it's actually your bottom. Right. Bottom. Or some people even say "B-T-M" without saying the word. BTM, bottom. "Backside" has this particular meaning, and it's slightly slang, a little bit rude. You don't generally use it in polite society, so you have to be careful who you are with when you use it. If you're with friends, it's probably okay. So, here: "She fell down on her backside!" Could be painful. Okay? That's what it means. She fell down on her bottom. Another word we use: "posterior", but that's a very... Oh, elite word that comes from Latin. "Posterior", but it's a bit of a jokey word as well. So, okay. All these different words. "Backside", be careful how you use it. Right. Now, next one, if someone is trying to explain something to you that's really complicated and you have to concentrate very hard, and then at some point you think: "I don't understand this. I need this person to start again from the beginning, and see if I understand it next time." So you can say: "I've lost the thread of your explanation", the thread, it's like a piece of cotton. Cotton that you sew with. And as they're explaining, you have this sort of idea of a thread, but if you sort of lose your concentration, you can say: "I've lost the thread of your explanation - can we backtrack, please?" Meaning: Can we go back? Tracks are like a train is on tracks, so if you backtrack, you're going back along some tracks. Back to the beginning of the explanation and try again to understand. So, to backtrack. Right. Now, if there is an incident, people on the street fighting or somebody stealing something from a shop, the policeman... One policeman on his own is not always the best way of dealing with it. You need more than one for safety. So, often: "The policeman"-on his own-"had to call for backup", meaning for support, for more policemen to come and policewomen maybe. Why not? To come and help because it's too much for one person to deal with. So, "to call for backup" is to call for extra people to come and help. Okay? And then finally, if you imagine you're doing a building project, maybe it's an old house that you have bought and you want to modernize it, but as you start working you find that you have to get rid of a lot of things, you have to take the plaster off the walls, there are all sorts of problems. It's as if you're almost demolishing the house before you can rebuild it. So, you can say: "I think we're going backwards rather than forwards with this building project!" We're having to go backwards, take it back before we can start building again. Bring it down almost to the ground before we can start building it up again as a nice modern house. So, "backwards" you can use in all sorts of context. If I'm walking backwards, I'm going like that, obviously. Forwards like that. Simple. Okay. So, I hope these examples have been useful for you. If you'd like to do a quiz, please go to the website, www.engvid.com. And if you'd like to subscribe to my YouTube channel, that would be great. And hope to see you again very soon. Okay. Bye for now.