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  • If you can't imagine life without chocolate,

    假如你無法想像人生沒有巧克力要如何度過的話

  • you're lucky you weren't born before the 16th century.

    那你真的該為了自己沒有出生在16世紀之前而慶幸

  • Until then, chocolate only existed in Mesoamerica

    直到16世紀之前,巧克力只存在於中美洲而已

  • in a form quite different from what we know.

    而且還跟我們現在所知的巧克力大不相同

  • As far back as 1900 BCE,

    時光倒回至西元前1900年

  • the people of that region had learned to prepare the beans

    當時生活於中美洲的人已經習得調製

  • of the native cacao tree.

    當地原生可可樹所生長出的可可豆的方法

  • The earliest records tell us the beans were ground

    最早的文獻指出,當時的可可豆在經過磨碎後

  • and mixed with cornmeal and chili peppers

    會跟玉米粉和辣椒混在一起

  • to create a drink -

    調配成一種飲品

  • not a relaxing cup of hot cocoa,

    當時調配出的這種飲品並非我們現代人常喝的,那種撫慰身心的熱巧克力

  • but a bitter, invigorating concoction frothing with foam.

    而是一種帶有泡沫,口味苦澀,喝下去會讓人精神百倍的飲料

  • And if you thought we make a big deal about chocolate today,

    如果有人覺得說我們現代人完全把巧克力神格化了,

  • the Mesoamericans had us beat.

    我只能說當時的中美洲人可是更勝我們一籌

  • They believed that cacao was a heavenly food

    當時的中美洲人視可可為神賜之物

  • gifted to humans by a feathered serpent god,

    他們相信,可可是由一個外表長得像蛇一樣,身上帶有羽毛的神所賜,

  • known to the Maya as Kukulkan

    當時的馬雅人,稱之為「庫庫爾坎」 (意為 「羽蛇」)

  • and to the Aztecs as Quetzalcoatl.

    另一方面,當時的阿茲提克人,則把這個神稱為「魁札爾科亞特爾」(意為「羽蛇神」)

  • Aztecs used cacao beans as currency

    阿茲提克人把可可豆當作貨幣使用

  • and drank chocolate at royal feasts,

    而且也會在王宴上飲用可可豆所作成的巧克力調液,

  • gave it to soldiers as a reward for success in battle,

    也會用可可豆獎賞打勝仗的士兵,

  • and used it in rituals.

    或把可可豆用於祭祀的儀式上

  • The first transatlantic chocolate encounter occurred in 1519

    歐洲人第一次接觸到巧克力,則是1519年的時候的事情

  • when Hernán Cortés visited the court of Moctezuma at Tenochtitlan.

    當時,埃爾南·科爾特斯 (西班牙殖民者) 造訪位於特諾奇提特蘭的蒙特祖馬王朝

  • As recorded by Cortés's lieutenant,

    根據科爾特斯船上的助理員記載

  • the king had 50 jugs of the drink brought out and poured into golden cups.

    當地的國王搬出了 50 壺巧克力調液,然後把這些調液倒入黃金色的杯子中

  • When the colonists returned with shipments of the strange new bean,

    當時的歐洲的殖民者將一船一船這種從未見過的豆子帶回歐洲載回到歐洲後,

  • missionaries' salacious accounts of native customs

    隨船傳教士對中美洲當地人風俗無比淫穢的描述

  • gave it a reputation as an aphrodisiac.

    卻讓可可豆染上了「催情藥」的色彩

  • At first, its bitter taste made it suitable as a medicine for ailments,

    剛開始在歐洲的時候,由於其帶有苦味,所以普遍認為可可豆很適合用來製作治療輕微病痛的藥材,

  • like upset stomachs,

    像是肚子痛等症狀,

  • but sweetening it with honey, sugar, or vanilla

    可是後來陸續有人加入蜂蜜、糖、還有香草後

  • quickly made chocolate a popular delicacy in the Spanish court.

    巧克力便在當時的西班牙宮廷裡造掀起了一股「甜蜜」旋風

  • And soon, no aristocratic home was complete without dedicated chocolate ware.

    過沒多久,西班牙當地的上流家庭裡,家家戶戶都可以看到巧克力專用壺的身影

  • The fashionable drink was difficult and time consuming to produce on a large scale.

    可是以當時的技術來說,這種超潮飲料的生產過程是一項困難且耗時的大工程

  • That involved using plantations and imported slave labor

    因為除了需要有種植園栽種可可豆之外

  • in the Caribbean and on islands off the coast of Africa.

    還需要從加勒比海和非洲附近的島嶼上引進奴隸

  • The world of chocolate would change forever in 1828

    時間來到1828年,來自荷蘭阿姆斯特丹的昆拉德・梵荷頓

  • with the introduction of the cocoa press by Coenraad van Houten of Amsterdam.

    飲進了可可液壓機這個發明,從此大大改變了巧克力界

  • Van Houten's invention could separate the cocoa's natural fat, or cocoa butter.

    梵荷頓的這個發明可以將可可豆的天然油脂,也就是可可脂分離

  • This left a powder that could be mixed into a drinkable solution

    如此一來,被壓縮過的可可豆就會變成只剩下可以飲用的可可粉末

  • or recombined with the cocoa butter

    可可粉又可以跟可可脂再結合

  • to create the solid chocolate we know today.

    就可以做出我們所熟知的塊狀巧克力了

  • Not long after, a Swiss chocolatier named Daniel Peter

    在梵荷頓的發明問世之後沒多久,有個叫做丹尼爾・彼得的瑞士職業巧克力家

  • added powdered milk to the mix,

    把奶粉加到既有的巧克力裡面,

  • thus inventing milk chocolate.

    於是就發明出了牛奶巧克力

  • By the 20th century, chocolate was no longer an elite luxury

    到了20世紀的時候,巧克力已經廣泛流傳

  • but had become a treat for the public.

    不再只是上流社會的專屬品了

  • Meeting the massive demand required more cultivation of cocoa,

    市場對於巧克力的龐大需求,讓可可豆的栽種業更加興旺,

  • which can only grow near the equator.

    而可可豆的栽種則只能夠在赤道的鄰近地帶進行

  • Now, instead of African slaves being shipped

    以往的做法都是從非洲引進奴隸

  • to South American cocoa plantations,

    到南美洲的種植園來栽種可可豆,

  • cocoa production itself would shift to West Africa

    現在則是直接把種植園遷移到西非

  • with Cote d'Ivoire providing two-fifths of the world's cocoa as of 2015.

    截至2015年計算, 單是象牙海岸的巧克力產量,就佔了世界巧克力總產量的五分之二 (40%)

  • Yet along with the growth of the industry,

    但是,看似蒸蒸日上的巧克力業界,

  • there have been horrific abuses of human rights.

    背後所隱藏的卻是駭人聽聞的人權侵害事件

  • Many of the plantations throughout West Africa,

    許多專門供貨給

  • which supply Western companies,

    西方巧克力批發商的西非種植園,

  • use slave and child labor,

    會利用奴隸及童工來進行種植,

  • with an estimation of more than 2 million children affected.

    一項統計更指出有超過 2 百萬個孩童被這些不肖種植園所迫害

  • This is a complex problem that persists

    雖然有許多大型巧克力批發商想藉由跟非洲國家合作

  • despite efforts from major chocolate companies to partner with African nations

    來達到減少童工以及契約勞工的目的

  • to reduce child and indentured labor practices.

    但是人權侵害的問題在今時今日還是存在著

  • Today, chocolate has established itself in the rituals of our modern culture.

    在我們當今的文化裡,巧克力早已成為了不可或缺的一部分了

  • Due to its colonial association with native cultures,

    由於巧克力本身包含著對於原住民文化的殖民色彩,

  • combined with the power of advertising,

    又加上廣告的強大效果

  • chocolate retains an aura of something sensual,

    巧克力在現代仍然是一個充滿著「性暗示」、

  • decadent,

    「頹靡」,

  • and forbidden.

    以及「禁忌」等等負面印象的食品

  • Yet knowing more about its fascinating and often cruel history,

    但是透過知道巧克力過去光明與黑暗的歷史,

  • as well as its production today,

    還有今時今日巧克力的生產過程,

  • tells us where these associations originate

    我們就可以更清楚的知道這些負面印象究竟是從什麼地方出現的

  • and what they hide.

    還有這些負面印象背後所隱藏的涵義是什麼

  • So as you unwrap your next bar of chocolate,

    下次要打開巧克力,大口大口吃下去的時候

  • take a moment to consider that not everything about chocolate is sweet.

    或許我們就更能嚐出香甜的巧克力裡面那份辛酸的苦澀

If you can't imagine life without chocolate,

假如你無法想像人生沒有巧克力要如何度過的話

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 巧克力 可可 中美洲 奴隸 歐洲

【TED-Ed】巧克力的歷史 (The history of chocolate - Deanna Pucciarelli)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2017 年 05 月 26 日
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