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  • It is astounding how significantly one idea can shape a society and its policies.

    一個思想對一個社會及其政策的影響之大令人震驚。

  • Consider this one:

    考慮一下這個。

  • If taxes on the rich go up, job creation will go down.

    如果富人的稅收增加,創造的就業機會就會減少。

  • This idea is an article of faith for Republicans and seldom challenged by Democrats

    這種想法是共和黨人的信仰文章,很少受到民主黨人的質疑。

  • and has indeed shaped much of the economic landscape.

    並確實塑造了很多經濟格局。

  • But sometimes the ideas that we are certain are true

    但有時我們確信的想法是真實的。

  • are dead wrong.

    都是大錯特錯。

  • Consider that for thousands of years, humans believed that the Earth

    想想看,幾千年來,人類一直認為地球

  • was the center of the Universe.

    是宇宙的中心。

  • It's not. And an astronomer who still believes that it was

    它'不是。而一個天文學家仍然相信這是

  • would do some pretty terrible astronomy.

    會做一些非常可怕的天文學。

  • Likewise, a policy maker who believes

    同樣,一個政策制定者如果認為

  • that the rich are job creators and therefore should not be taxed

    富人是就業的創造者,是以不應該被徵稅。

  • will do equally terrible policy.

    會做同樣可怕的政策。

  • I have started and helped start dozens of companies

    我已經創辦和幫助創辦了幾十家公司。

  • and initially hired lots of people,

    並最初僱用了很多人。

  • but if there was no-one around who could afford to buy what we have to sell,

    但如果周圍沒有人買得起我們要賣的東西。

  • all those companies and all those jobs would have evaporated.

    所有的公司和所有的工作機會都會蒸發掉。

  • That's why I can say with confidence that rich people don't create jobs.

    這就是為什麼我可以自信地說,有錢人不創造就業機會。

  • Nor do businesses, large or small.

    大大小小的企業也不例外。

  • Jobs are a consequence

    工作是一個結果

  • of a circle of lifelike feedback loop between customers and businesses.

    的客戶和企業之間的一圈生活化反饋圈。

  • And only consumers can set in motion this virtual cycle of increasing demand and

    而只有消費者才能啟動這種需求增加的虛擬循環。

  • hiring.

    僱用。

  • In this sense, an ordinary consumer is more of a job creator than a capitalist like

    從這個意義上說,一個普通消費者比資本家這樣的人更能創造就業機會。

  • me.

    我。

  • That's why, when business people take credit for creating jobs,

    這就是為什麼,當企業人員把創造就業的功勞。

  • it's a little bit like squirrels taking credit for creating evolution.

    它'有點像松鼠把創造進化論的功勞。

  • It's actually the other way round.

    其實是反過來的。

  • Anyone who's ever run a business knows

    任何一個曾經經營過企業的人都會知道。

  • that hiring more people is a course of last resort for capitalists.

    僱傭更多的人是資本家的最後手段。

  • This is what we do if, and only if rising consumer demand requires it.

    這就是我們要做的,如果,也只有在消費者需求上升的情況下才會這樣做。

  • And in this sense, calling ourselves job creators isn't just inaccurate: it's disingenuous.

    而從這個意義上說,稱自己為就業創造者不僅是不準確的:它'是虛偽的。

  • That's why our existing policies are so upside down.

    這也是為什麼我們現有的政策如此顛倒的原因。

  • When the biggest tax exemptions and the lowest tax rates benefit the richest,

    當最大的免稅額和最低的稅率使最富有的人受益。

  • all in the name of job creation,

    都是以創造就業機會的名義。

  • all that happens is that the rich get richer.

    所有發生的事情是,富人變得更富有。

  • Since 1980, the share of income for the top 1% of Americans has more than tripled,

    自1980年以來,美國前1%的人的收入份額增加了兩倍多。

  • while our effective tax rates have gone down by fifty percent.

    而我們的實際稅率卻下降了百分之五十。

  • If it was true that lower taxes for the rich and

    如果真的給富人降稅,而且。

  • more wealth for the wealthy led to job creation,

    富人擁有更多的財富,導致了就業機會的創造。

  • today, we would be drowning in jobs. (Laughter) (Applause) Thank you.

    今天,我們會被淹沒在工作中。(笑聲)(掌聲)謝謝。

  • And yet, unemployment and underemployment is at record highs.

    然而,失業率和就業不足率卻屢創新高。

  • Another reason that this idea is so wrong-headed

    這個想法如此錯誤的另一個原因是......。

  • is that there can never be enough super rich people to power a great economy.

    是永遠也不可能有足夠的超級富豪來推動一個偉大的經濟體。

  • Somebody like me makes 100s, or 1000s of times as much as the median American.

    像我這樣的人賺的錢是美國中產階級的100倍,或者1000倍。

  • But I don't buy 100s or 1000s of times as much stuff.

    但我不買100倍或1000倍的東西。

  • My family owns three cars, not 3000.

    我家有三輛車,不是3000。

  • I buy a few pairs of pants and shirts a year like most American men,

    我和大多數美國男人一樣,每年都會買幾條褲子和襯衫。

  • occasionally, we go out to eat with friends.

    偶爾,我們會和朋友出去吃飯。

  • I can't buy enough of anything to make up for the fact

    我不能買足夠的東西來彌補這個事實

  • that millions of unemployed and underemployed Americans

    數以百萬計的失業和就業不足的美國人。

  • can't buy any new cars, any clothes, or enjoy any meals out.

    不能買任何新車,不能買任何衣服,也不能在外面享受任何飯菜。

  • Nor can I make up for the falling consumption of the vast majority of middle-class families

    我也無法彌補絕大多數中產階級家庭消費下降的問題。

  • that are barely squeaking by, hurried by spiraling costs,

    勉強過關的,被螺旋式上升的成本趕著走。

  • and trapped by stagnant or declining wages.

    並受困於工資停滯或下降。

  • Here's an incredible fact:

    這裡'是一個不可思議的事實。

  • If the typical American family still retained the same share of income that they did in

    如果典型的美國家庭仍然保留著與他們在2007年時相同的收入份額。

  • 1970,

    1970,

  • they'd earn like 45,000 dollars more a year.

    他們'會賺像45,000美元一年多。

  • Imagine what our economy would be like if that were the case.

    想象一下,如果是這樣的話,我們的經濟會是什麼樣子。

  • Significant privileges have come to people like me,

    像我這樣的人已經有了重大的特權。

  • capitalists, for being perceived as job creators at the center of the economic universe,

    資本家,因為被認為是經濟宇宙中心的就業創造者。

  • and the language and metaphors we use

    以及我們使用的語言和比喻

  • to defend the current economic and social arrangements is telling.

    捍衛目前的經濟和社會安排,這很能說明問題。

  • It's a small jump from "job creator" to "the creator". (Laughter) (Applause)

    這'是從"工作創造者"到"創造者"的一個小小的跳躍。笑聲)(掌聲)。

  • This language obviously wasn't chosen by accident,

    這種語言顯然不是偶然選擇的。

  • and it's only honest to admit that when somebody like me calls themselves a "job creator",

    和它'只有誠實地承認,當有人像我一樣稱自己是一個"就業創造者"。

  • we're not just describing how the economy works,

    我們'不只是在描述經濟如何運作。

  • but more particularly, we're making a claim on status and privileges that we deserve.

    但更特別的是,我們'正在對我們應得的地位和特權提出要求。

  • Speaking of special privileges,

    說到特權。

  • the extraordinary differential between the 15% tax rate that capitalists pay

    資本家所繳納的15%的稅率之間的巨大差異。

  • on carried interest, dividends, and capital gains,

    對結轉利息、股息和資本收益的影響。

  • and the 35% top marginal rate on work that ordinary Americans pay

    和普通美國人支付的35%的最高邊際工作費率。

  • is kind of hard to justify without a touch of deification.

    是一種很難證明沒有一點神化。

  • We've had it backwards for the last 30 years.

    在過去的30年裡,我們一直在倒退。

  • Rich people like me don't create jobs.

    像我這樣的有錢人不會創造就業機會。

  • Jobs are a consequence of an eco-systemic feedback loop between customers and businesses.

    就業是客戶和企業之間生態系統反饋循環的結果。

  • And when the middle class thrives, businesses grow and hire, and owners profit.

    而當中產階級興旺時,企業就會發展,僱傭,業主就會獲利。

  • That's why taxing the rich to pay for investments that benefit all

    這就是為什麼向富人徵稅,以支付有利於所有人的投資。

  • is such a fantastic deal for the middle class and the rich.

    對於中產階級和富人來說,是如此美妙的交易。

  • So, ladies and gentlemen, here's an idea worth spreading:

    所以,女士們、先生們,這裡有一個值得傳播的想法。

  • In a capitalist economy, the true job creators are middle class consumers

    在資本主義經濟中,真正的就業創造者是中產階級消費者

  • and taxing the rich to make investments to make the middle class grow and thrive

    並向富人徵稅,進行投資,使中產階級發展壯大。

  • is the single shrewdest thing we can do

    是我們能做的最精明的事情了

  • for the middle class, for the poor, and for the rich.

    為中產階級,為窮人,為富人。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你了

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

It is astounding how significantly one idea can shape a society and its policies.

一個思想對一個社會及其政策的影響之大令人震驚。

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Banned TED Talk: Nick Hanauer "Rich people don't create jobs"

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    林挺裕高中部教師 發佈於 2013 年 06 月 24 日
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