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  • Voiceover: There are several different types of lung cancer,

    旁白肺癌有幾種不同的類型。

  • and to determine the type a patient has,

    並確定患者的類型。

  • cancer cells need to be taken

    癌細胞需要採取

  • from either fluid around the lungs,

    從肺部周圍的任一液體。

  • or from a lung tissue sample known as a biopsy

    或從肺組織樣本中提取,稱為活檢

  • or from a sputum sample.

    或從痰液樣本中提取。

  • Then this sample is taken back to the lab,

    然後將這個樣品帶回實驗室。

  • where the cells are looked at under a microscope,

    在顯微鏡下觀察細胞。

  • and a diagnosis is made based

    並據此作出診斷

  • on some characteristics of the cell.

    在細胞的一些特性上。

  • There are two main categories of lung cancer,

    肺癌主要有兩大類。

  • one being small cell lung cancer,

    一個是小細胞肺癌。

  • and the other non-small cell lung cancer.

    和其他非小細胞肺癌。

  • Maybe you can already tell

    也許你已經知道了

  • that these two main categories have to do

    這兩個主要類別必須做

  • with the actual size of the cell.

    細胞的實際大小。

  • For small cell lung cancer, this is a tiny cell,

    對於小細胞肺癌來說,這是一個小小的細胞。

  • so I like to think of it as a baby cell.

    所以我喜歡把它看成是一個嬰兒細胞。

  • A baby doesn't have much distance

    嬰幼兒沒有太多的距離。

  • from its head to i's toes, right?

    從它的頭到我的腳趾,對不對?

  • Well, a small cell, then, doesn't have much distance

    好吧,一個小的細胞,那麼,沒有太多的距離'。

  • from one side to the other.

    從一邊到另一邊。

  • That means its nucleus and cell wall

    這意味著它的細胞核和細胞壁。

  • are close to each other.

    是相近的。

  • Also like a baby, this particular type of cell

    也像嬰兒一樣,這種特殊類型的細胞。

  • is not fully developed.

    並未得到充分發展。

  • Small cell lung cancer typically occurs in females.

    小細胞肺癌一般發生在女性身上。

  • Let me draw her here with a pink bow,

    讓我用粉紅色的蝴蝶結把她畫過來。

  • and give her a cigarette, because this occurs

    並給她一支菸,因為這發生

  • in females with a long history of smoking.

    有長期吸菸史的女性。

  • A thing to keep in mind about this type of lung cancer,

    關於這種類型的肺癌,需要注意的是。

  • is that it divides quickly,

    就是它的分裂速度很快。

  • and spreads rapidly throughout the body.

    並迅速擴散到全身。

  • In fact, by the time it's diagnosed,

    事實上,到了診斷的時候'。

  • it's usually in numerous locations in the body.

    它'的通常在身體的許多位置。

  • The way I remember this is that

    我記得的方式是

  • a small cell lung cancer is associated

    小細胞肺癌與

  • with heavy smoking.

    與大量吸菸。

  • So let me draw a female with some extra cigarettes.

    所以讓我畫一個女的,多抽幾根菸。

  • If she's rapidly smoking, she has a greater risk

    如果她迅速吸菸,她有更大的風險。

  • of developing the rapidly dividing

    迅速分裂的國家的發展

  • and rapidly spreading type of lung cancer.

    且擴散迅速的肺癌類型。

  • This accounts for about 15% of all lung cancers.

    這約佔所有肺癌的15%。

  • But what about the other 85%?

    但另外85%的人呢?

  • Eighty-five percent of the time,

    百分之八十五的時間。

  • it's a non-small cell lung cancer diagnosis.

    它'的非小細胞肺癌診斷。

  • Now, these are big, mature cells,

    現在,這些是大的,成熟的細胞。

  • and there's lots of mature cells

    有很多成熟的細胞。

  • in the respiratory tract.

    在呼吸道中。

  • So this category has subcategories,

    所以這個類別有子類別。

  • depending on which type of mature cell

    取決於哪種類型的成熟細胞

  • has become cancerous.

    已成為癌症。

  • Here, I'm going to draw a big cell,

    在這裡,我'要畫一個大牢房。

  • lots of distance from the nucleus to the cell wall.

    從細胞核到細胞壁的距離很大。

  • This mature cell has the function

    這個成熟的細胞具有以下功能

  • of secreting mucin.

    的分泌粘液素。

  • So let me write that here.

    所以讓我在這裡寫。

  • Mucin is responsible for keeping the lungs moist.

    粘蛋白負責保持肺部溼潤。

  • If this cell becomes cancerous,

    如果這個細胞發生癌變。

  • it's called an adenocarcinoma.

    它叫做腺癌。

  • Adeno meaning coming from a gland,

    腺體的意思是來自腺體。

  • and glands produce mucin.

    和腺體產生粘液素。

  • This occurs 40% of the time in all

    這種情況發生在所有40%的時間裡。

  • non-small cell lung cancers.

    非小細胞肺癌;

  • This is going to affect women, so again here's my bow.

    這將影響女性,所以再次在這裡'我的弓。

  • But I'm not going to include a cigarette this time,

    但我'這次不打算包括香菸。

  • because it actually affects both

    因為它實際上會影響到兩個

  • smokers and nonsmokers.

    吸菸者和不吸菸者;

  • For this next subcategory, I need to draw two cells.

    接下來這個子類,我需要畫兩個單元格。

  • They're still large, but they're

    他們仍然是大的,但他們'。

  • a little flatter this time,

    這次有點平淡了。

  • and they're kind of stapled together

    他們是那種釘在一起的

  • by these proteins that make up a desmasome.

    由這些蛋白質組成的去瘤體。

  • It helps the cells create a barrier

    它可以幫助細胞建立一個屏障

  • between the airways and the rest of the body.

    氣道和身體其他部位之間。

  • Keratin is also in the cells.

    角蛋白也在細胞中。

  • This is a lot like the keratin you find in our hair

    這很像你在我們頭髮上找到的角蛋白。

  • and serves a protective function.

    並起到保護作用。

  • If these cells become cancerous,

    如果這些細胞發生癌變。

  • it's called a squamous cell carcinoma.

    它'的叫鱗狀細胞癌。

  • This occurs about 30% of the time,

    這種情況大約有30%的時間發生。

  • and in males this time, so let me give him a blue hat.

    而且這次是在男性,所以讓我給他一頂藍色的帽子。

  • Males who have a history of smoking.

    有吸菸史的男性。

  • Of all the non-small cell lung cancers,

    在所有非小細胞肺癌中。

  • this one has the greatest link to smoking.

    這個和吸菸的關係最大。

  • Okay, let's move this canvas up

    好了,讓我們把畫布往上移一下

  • and talk about another sub-type.

    並談及另一種子類型。

  • Here's a nice large, round cell,

    這裡有一個漂亮的大號圓形牢房。

  • and actually, it doesn't have much more

    而實際上,它並沒有更多的'。

  • defining characteristics than that,

    比的定義特徵。

  • so it's simply called a large cell carcinoma,

    所以它'的簡稱為大細胞癌。

  • and it occurs in male smokers.

    並且發生在男性菸民身上。

  • Oh, I almost forgot.

    哦,我差點忘了。

  • Large cell carcinomas occur in 10%

    10%的人發生大細胞癌

  • of all non-small cell lung cancers.

    佔所有非小細胞肺癌的。

  • Finally, there's this flask-shaped cell

    最後,還有這個瓶狀的細胞。

  • that has added space here, some nerves,

    這已經增加了這裡的空間,一些神經。

  • and when it receives signals from these nerves,

    以及當它收到這些神經的信號時。

  • it releases hormones.

    它釋放激素。

  • If one of these cells becomes cancerous,

    如果其中一個細胞發生癌變。

  • The cancer is called a carcinoid.

    這種癌症被稱為類癌。

  • This happens about 5% of the time.

    這種情況大約有5%的時間發生。

  • Interestingly, males and females

    有趣的是,男性和女性

  • have an equal risk of developing

    有相同的發病風險

  • carcinoid cancers, and there's really

    類癌,而且真的有'的。

  • no direct link to smoking.

    與吸菸沒有直接聯繫。

  • Now I hope you can see that there's

    現在我希望你能看到,有'的

  • many different types of lung cancers,

    許多不同類型的肺癌。

  • and it's important to know what type

    而重要的是要知道什麼類型的。

  • a patient has, because it affects things

    因為它影響到的東西

  • like treatment options and prognosis.

    如治療方案和預後。

Voiceover: There are several different types of lung cancer,

旁白肺癌有幾種不同的類型。

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肺癌 2 (Lung cancer types | Respiratory system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy)

  • 71 9
    廖芯琳 發佈於 2017 年 03 月 15 日
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