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  • What an intriguing group of individuals you are ...

    對一個心理學家而言......

  • to a psychologist.

    你們真的是一群有趣的研究對象啊!

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I've had the opportunity over the last couple of days

    這幾天,我很榮幸有這個機會,

  • of listening in on some of your conversations

    聆聽在座一些人的對話,

  • and watching you interact with each other.

    以及觀察你們彼此間的交流。

  • And I think it's fair to say, already,

    我想應該已經可以這麼說,

  • that there are 47 people in this audience,

    觀眾席裡面將近有 47 個人,

  • at this moment,

    此時此刻,

  • displaying psychological symptoms I would like to discuss today.

    展現出來的心理病徵與 我今天要探討的主題有關。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And I thought you might like to know who you are.

    我想各位都很想知道, 是哪幾個人,

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But instead of pointing at you,

    但不是要對你指指點點,

  • which would be gratuitous and intrusive,

    這樣沒必要也很唐突,

  • I thought I would tell you a few facts and stories,

    我想我可以告訴你一些事實與故事,

  • in which you may catch a glimpse of yourself.

    而你在其中可能會窺見自己的身影。

  • I'm in the field of research known as personality psychology,

    我研究的領域是人格心理學,

  • which is part of a larger personality science

    它屬於人性科學的範疇,

  • which spans the full spectrum, from neurons to narratives.

    而人性科學的研究領域誇度很大, 從神經元到敘述學。

  • And what we try to do,

    而我們嘗試達成的,

  • in our own way,

    是用我們的方式,

  • is to make sense of how each of us --

    來弄清楚,為什麼我們每一個人——

  • each of you --

    你們每一個人——

  • is, in certain respects,

    在某些方面,

  • like all other people,

    跟多數人相同的地方、

  • like some other people

    跟少數人相同的地方、

  • and like no other person.

    跟其他人完全不同的地方。

  • Now, already you may be saying of yourself,

    你們可能有些人會說,

  • "I'm not intriguing.

    「我一點也不有趣,

  • I am the 46th most boring person in the Western Hemisphere."

    我是西半球排名 第 46 位最無聊的人。」

  • Or you may say of yourself,

    或者你會說,

  • "I am intriguing,

    「我很有趣,

  • even if I am regarded by most people as a great, thundering twit."

    即使很多人認為我是個大白癡。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But it is your self-diagnosed boringness and your inherent "twitiness"

    但就是你的自我認知, 無論是無聊或者與生俱來的白癡

  • that makes me, as a psychologist, really fascinated by you.

    讓我這個心理學家, 對你特別著迷。

  • So let me explain why this is so.

    讓我解釋這是怎麼回事。

  • One of the most influential approaches in personality science

    在個性科學中 最具有影響力的分類方法

  • is known as trait psychology,

    就是特質心理學。

  • and it aligns you along five dimensions which are normally distributed,

    它把人分成五種面向, 通常是常態分配,

  • and that describe universally held aspects of difference between people.

    它描述了人與人之間 彼此特質上的差異。

  • They spell out the acronym OCEAN.

    它們有一個縮寫的簡稱叫做「OCEAN」。

  • So, "O" stands for "open to experience,"

    「O」代表「開放的、喜歡經歷」特質

  • versus those who are more closed.

    另一面就是「較保守封閉的」,

  • "C" stands for "conscientiousness,"

    「C」代表「自覺型的」,

  • in contrast to those with a more lackadaisical approach to life.

    相反的就是較為「渾渾噩噩的」。

  • "E" -- "extroversion," in contrast to more introverted people.

    「E」代表「外向型的」, 與「內向型的」人相反。

  • "A" -- "agreeable individuals,"

    「A」代表「和藹可親、隨和的」,

  • in contrast to those decidedly not agreeable.

    對立的就是「不隨和的」

  • And "N" -- "neurotic individuals,"

    最後「N」代表「神經質的、敏感的」,

  • in contrast to those who are more stable.

    相反的就是比較「平和、穩定的」

  • All of these dimensions have implications for our well-being,

    這五個面向, 影響著我們的幸福

  • for how our life goes.

    及我們的人生方向。

  • And so we know that, for example,

    眾所周知,

  • openness and conscientiousness are very good predictors of life success,

    開放及負責任的人 往往意味著成功,

  • but the open people achieve that success through being audacious

    但個性開放的人在通往成功路上 會變得大膽、

  • and, occasionally, odd.

    有時甚至古怪。

  • The conscientious people achieve it through sticking to deadlines,

    自覺型的人會緊守 最後期限,獲得成功,

  • to persevering, as well as having some passion.

    他們堅持不懈且充滿熱情。

  • Extroversion and agreeableness are both conducive

    外向及隨和的個性,兩者都有助於

  • to working well with people.

    與他人融洽地工作。

  • Extroverts, for example, I find intriguing.

    比如,外向的人, 我就覺得很有趣。

  • With my classes, I sometimes give them a basic fact

    在課堂上,我有時候會 告訴他們一些基本事實,

  • that might be revealing with respect to their personality:

    也許可以幫助他們判斷自己的個性。

  • I tell them that it is virtually impossible for adults

    我告訴他們,成年人幾乎不可能

  • to lick the outside of their own elbow.

    可以舔到自己手肘的外側。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Did you know that?

    你們知道嗎?

  • Already, some of you have tried to lick the outside of your own elbow.

    你看,你們有些人已經開始 在舔自己的手肘外側了。

  • But extroverts amongst you

    但你們之中外向的人,

  • are probably those who have not only tried,

    可能不僅會嘗試,

  • but they have successfully licked the elbow

    他們還會

  • of the person sitting next to them.

    把隔壁的手肘也舔了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Those are the extroverts.

    這就是外向的人。

  • Let me deal in a bit more detail with extroversion,

    讓我再多談談 外向性格的一些細節,

  • because it's consequential and it's intriguing,

    因為很重要,也很有趣,

  • and it helps us understand what I call our three natures.

    它可以幫助我們了解, 「人類的三種天性」,

  • First, our biogenic nature -- our neurophysiology.

    第一種,我們的生物學天性—— 我們的神經心理學。

  • Second, our sociogenic or second nature,

    第二種,社會學天性,又叫第二天性

  • which has to do with the cultural and social aspects of our lives.

    與我們生活的文化和社會面貌有關。

  • And third, what makes you individually you -- idiosyncratic --

    第三種,塑造出獨特你的 ——怪癖——

  • what I call your "idiogenic" nature.

    我稱之為「獨特的天性」。

  • Let me explain.

    讓我解釋一下,

  • One of the things that characterizes extroverts is they need stimulation.

    外向個性的人的一大特徵 就是他們需要刺激。

  • And that stimulation can be achieved by finding things that are exciting:

    這些刺激可以透過 尋找令人興奮的事來找到:

  • loud noises, parties and social events here at TED --

    比如巨大的噪音、派對、 或像 TED 這樣的社交場合——

  • you see the extroverts forming a magnetic core.

    你會看到外向的人,像是個大磁鐵,

  • They all gather together.

    他們會聚在一起。

  • And I've seen you.

    我也有觀察到,

  • The introverts are more likely to spend time in the quiet spaces

    個性內向的人通常比較喜歡

  • up on the second floor,

    躲在二樓安靜的地方,

  • where they are able to reduce stimulation --

    這樣他們可以減少刺激。

  • and may be misconstrued as being antisocial,

    甚至有可能被歸類為 不喜歡社交的人,

  • but you're not necessarily antisocial.

    但你不一定是不喜歡社交。

  • It may be that you simply realize that you do better

    你只是單純地想找個 比較沒有那麼多刺激的地方靜靜,

  • when you have a chance to lower that level of stimulation.

    感覺這樣對你自己比較好而已。

  • Sometimes it's an internal stimulant, from your body.

    有時候,是從你體內 產生出來的刺激物,

  • Caffeine, for example, works much better with extroverts than it does introverts.

    比如,咖啡因,它對外向的人的刺激 比內向的人更有效果。

  • When extroverts come into the office at nine o'clock in the morning

    當外向的人早上九點一到辦公室,

  • and say, "I really need a cup of coffee,"

    說,「我真的需要一杯咖啡」,

  • they're not kidding --

    他們不是在開玩笑——

  • they really do.

    他們是真的需要。

  • Introverts do not do as well,

    內向的人就沒有那麼明顯,

  • particularly if the tasks they're engaged in --

    特別是當他們

  • and they've had some coffee --

    也喝了一些咖啡,

  • if those tasks are speeded,

    參與到快節奏、

  • and if they're quantitative,

    需要高產量的任務時

  • introverts may give the appearance of not being particularly quantitative.

    內向人的表現似乎沒有那麼的好,

  • But it's a misconstrual.

    但這是誤解。

  • So here are the consequences that are really quite intriguing:

    這裡有一份(研究)結果,相當有趣:

  • we're not always what seem to be,

    我們和我們表現出來的樣子不一定相同,

  • and that takes me to my next point.

    這會帶到下一個我要講的重點。

  • I should say, before getting to this,

    在講這個重點前,我必須說說,

  • something about sexual intercourse,

    有關做愛這檔事,

  • although I may not have time.

    雖然時間可能會不夠,

  • And so, if you would like me to --

    所以,各位如果想聽我說——

  • yes, you would?

    想?你們想聽?

  • OK.

    好。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • There are studies done

    這項研究是把

  • on the frequency with which individuals engage in the conjugal act,

    男生、女生、內向、外向的人做分類,

  • as broken down by male, female; introvert, extrovert.

    調查每個人的做愛頻率;

  • So I ask you:

    我問各位:

  • How many times per minute --

    你每分鐘可以做幾次——

  • oh, I'm sorry, that was a rat study --

    喔,對不起,那是有關老鼠的研究——

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • How many times per month

    內向的男人每個月平均

  • do introverted men engage in the act?

    可以做幾次愛?

  • 3.0.

    3.0 次

  • Extroverted men?

    外向的男人呢?

  • More or less?

    更多,還是更少?

  • Yes, more.

    沒錯,更多。

  • 5.5 -- almost twice as much.

    5.5 次——接近兩倍。

  • Introverted women: 3.1.

    內向的女人:3.1 次。

  • Extroverted women?

    外向的女人呢?

  • Frankly, speaking as an introverted male,

    坦白說,對我這個內向的男人來說,

  • which I will explain later --

    我晚點會解釋

  • they are heroic.

    她們超猛的,

  • 7.5.

    7.5 次。

  • They not only handle all the male extroverts,

    她們不只上了所有外向的男人,

  • they pick up a few introverts as well.

    連一些內向的男人都被她們搞了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • We communicate differently, extroverts and introverts.

    內向的人跟外向的人 溝通的方式也不同。

  • Extroverts, when they interact,

    外向的人在互動時,

  • want to have lots of social encounter punctuated by closeness.

    比較喜歡近距離的社交方式,

  • They'd like to stand close for comfortable communication.

    為了有一個舒服的溝通方式, 他們會站的比較靠近。

  • They like to have a lot of eye contact,

    他們喜歡眼神的交會,

  • or mutual gaze.

    或互相盯著對方看。

  • We found in some research

    在一些研究裡我們發現,

  • that they use more diminutive terms when they meet somebody.

    他們在跟人互動時, 也很喜歡用小名。

  • So when an extrovert meets a Charles,

    比如,當一個外向的人 遇到了「查理斯」,

  • it rapidly becomes "Charlie," and then "Chuck,"

    沒多久,就會叫對方「查理」, 然後「小查」,

  • and then "Chuckles Baby."

    最後變成「阿查寶貝」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Whereas for introverts,

    而內向的人,

  • it remains "Charles," until he's given a pass to be more intimate

    在跟對方不熟的時候,

  • by the person he's talking to.

    就只會叫對方「查理斯」。

  • We speak differently.

    我們說話的方式也不同。

  • Extroverts prefer black-and-white, concrete, simple language.

    外向的人,喜歡黑白分明、 簡單明瞭的語言。

  • Introverts prefer -- and I must again tell you

    內向的人喜歡—— 我要再說一遍,

  • that I am as extreme an introvert as you could possibly imagine --

    我是一個極端內向的人, 所以你可以想像——

  • we speak differently.

    我們說話的方式不同,

  • We prefer contextually complex,

    我們喜歡複雜的詞彙、

  • contingent,

    無俚頭、

  • weasel-word sentences --

    有朦朧美的詞彙——

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • More or less.

    或多或少啦!