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  • I was on a long road trip this summer,

    在今年夏天的一次長途旅行途中,

  • and I was having a wonderful time listening

    我正陶醉於一本非常棒的有聲書,

  • to the amazing Isabel Wilkerson's "The Warmth of Other Suns."

    易莎貝‧魏克森所著的「他鄉暖陽」。

  • It documents six million black folks fleeing the South from 1915 to 1970

    這本書記錄了 1915 至 1970 年間, 六百萬黑人逃離美國南方,

  • looking for a respite from all the brutality

    企圖脫離所有暴力折磨, 尋求避風港,

  • and trying to get to a better opportunity up North,

    嘗試在美國北方 獲得更好的生活機遇。

  • and it was filled with stories of the resilience and the brilliance

    這部書充滿了關於美國黑人 堅韌和卓越的故事。

  • of African-Americans,

    而聽著那些恐怖、羞辱

  • and it was also really hard to hear all the stories of the horrors

    與充滿歧視的故事, 我感到非常難過。

  • and the humility, and all the humiliations.

    尤其是那些對黑人的毆打、燒傷、

  • It was especially hard to hear about the beatings and the burnings

    和死刑的故事讓我特別難過。

  • and the lynchings of black men.

    於是我說:「這有點太沈重了!」

  • And I said, "You know, this is a little deep.

    「我需要放鬆一下。 我要聽聽收音機。」

  • I need a break. I'm going to turn on the radio."

    我打開收音機,卻聽到了這些:

  • I turned it on, and there it was:

    密蘇里州弗格森市

  • Ferguson, Missouri,

    麥克•布朗

  • Michael Brown,

    一個十八歲的男性黑人

  • 18-year-old black man,

    在沒有持有武器的情況下, 被一位白人警察射殺,

  • unarmed, shot by a white police officer, laid on the ground dead,

    倒在地上死去,

  • blood running for four hours

    血流不止,持續了整整四個小時。

  • while his grandmother and little children and his neighbors watched in horror,

    而他的祖母、小孩子們, 還有鄰居們在恐懼中目睹了這一幕。

  • and I thought,

    我想:

  • here it is again.

    又開始了。

  • This violence, this brutality against black men

    這些對於黑人的殘忍暴力行徑,

  • has been going on for centuries.

    已經存在了好幾個世紀,

  • I mean, it's the same story. It's just different names.

    這些事情的本質都是一樣的, 只是當事人名字不同而已。

  • It could have been Amadou Diallo.

    與阿馬杜‧狄洛事件一樣, (1999 年被紐約警察槍殺)

  • It could have been Sean Bell.

    與希安‧貝爾事件一樣, (2005 年被紐約警察槍殺)

  • It could have been Oscar Grant.

    與奧斯卡‧格蘭特事件一樣, (2009 年被加州奧克蘭警方槍殺)

  • It could have been Trayvon Martin.

    與特雷凡‧馬丁事件一樣。 (2012 年被佛羅里達州桑福德警方槍殺)

  • This violence, this brutality,

    這種暴力與野蠻

  • is really something that's part of our national psyche.

    已經在我們國家留下深深的烙印,

  • It's part of our collective history.

    是我們共同歷史中的一部分。

  • What are we going to do about it?

    我們要如何去應對它呢?

  • You know that part of us that still crosses the street,

    我們內心的那部分仍然......

  • locks the doors,

    我們會過馬路,

  • clutches the purses,

    鎖上房門

  • when we see young black men?

    抓緊錢包,

  • That part.

    每當我們看到年輕黑人的時候?

  • I mean, I know we're not shooting people down in the street,

    就是那個部分。

  • but I'm saying that the same stereotypes and prejudices

    我的意思是, 我們並沒有在街頭射殺無辜,

  • that fuel those kinds of tragic incidents

    但是釀成那些慘劇的偏見

  • are in us.

    也同樣在我們心中存在。

  • We've been schooled in them as well.

    我們也被這些偏見禁錮住了。

  • I believe that we can stop these types of incidents,

    我相信,

  • these Fergusons from happening,

    我們能夠阻止這種慘劇的發生,

  • by looking within and being willing to change ourselves.

    阻止像弗格森案件這樣的慘劇發生,

  • So I have a call to action for you.

    只要能夠自我反省並願意改變自我。

  • There are three things that I want to offer us today to think about

    所以,我想在這裡呼籲大家

  • as ways to stop Ferguson from happening again;

    做三件我今天想讓大家思考的事情,

  • three things that I think will help us

    來阻止弗格森案件這樣的慘劇 再度發生。

  • reform our images of young black men;

    我認為這三件事情可以幫助我們

  • three things that I'm hoping will not only protect them

    重新塑造對年輕黑人的印象。

  • but will open the world so that they can thrive.

    我希望這三件事不僅可以保護他們,

  • Can you imagine that?

    更可以讓整個世界向他們敞開, 讓他們奮鬥發展。

  • Can you imagine our country embracing young black men,

    你們能夠想像這樣的畫面嗎?

  • seeing them as part of our future, giving them that kind of openness,

    你們能夠想像我們的國家 擁抱年輕黑人,

  • that kind of grace we give to people we love?

    將他們視作我們未來的一部分,

  • How much better would our lives be? How much better would our country be?

    給予他們同樣的寬敞空間 和同樣的寬厚,

  • Let me just start with number one.

    如同我們給我們所愛的人一樣?

  • We gotta get out of denial.

    我們的生活與我們的國家 將會變得多麼美好?

  • Stop trying to be good people.

    我首先要介紹第一件事,

  • We need real people.

    那就是:我們必須停止否認,

  • You know, I do a lot of diversity work,

    不要再裝作是好人。

  • and people will come up to me at the beginning of the workshop.

    我們需要真實的人。

  • They're like, "Oh, Ms. Diversity Lady, we're so glad you're here" --

    我從事許多關於社會多樣化的工作, 許多人在研討會之初找到我,

  • (Laughter) --

    他們會說:「哦,『多樣化』女士, 我們很高興您能夠出席!」

  • "but we don't have a biased bone in our body."

    (笑聲)

  • And I'm like, "Really?

    「但是我們心中 並沒有一絲一毫的偏見。」

  • Because I do this work every day, and I see all my biases."

    我會說:「真的嗎?」

  • I mean, not too long ago, I was on a plane

    「因為我每天都在做這方面的工作, 但我本人還是有許多偏見。」

  • and I heard the voice of a woman pilot coming over the P.A. system,

    不久前,我在一架飛機上

  • and I was just so excited, so thrilled.

    聽到機艙廣播裡 一位女機長的聲音,

  • I was like, "Yes, women, we are rocking it.

    當時我非常激動,非常驕傲,

  • We are now in the stratosphere."

    「是的,女同胞們,我們做到了!」

  • It was all good, and then it started getting turbulent and bumpy,

    「我們女人正在天空翱翔!」

  • and I was like,

    一切都很好,直到遇到氣流, 飛機開始變得顛簸,

  • "I hope she can drive."

    我在想:

  • (Laughter)

    「這個女機長到底 會不會開飛機啊!」

  • I know. Right.

    (笑聲)

  • But it's not even like I knew that was a bias

    我知道,沒錯!

  • until I was coming back on the other leg and there's always a guy driving

    我甚至沒有意識到這是個偏見。

  • and it's often turbulent and bumpy,

    直到在回程的航班上, 是一位男機長在駕駛,

  • and I've never questioned the confidence of the male driver.

    而飛機總是在氣流中顛簸,

  • The pilot is good.

    我卻一直沒有質疑 這位男機長的實力,

  • Now, here's the problem.

    他很棒。

  • If you ask me explicitly, I would say, "Female pilot: awesome."

    問題來了:

  • But it appears that when things get funky and a little troublesome, a little risky,

    如果你直接問我,我會這樣說:

  • I lean on a bias that I didn't even know that I had.

    「女機長,太好了!」

  • You know, fast-moving planes in the sky,

    但是當出現了一點點小麻煩時,

  • I want a guy.

    我便會不自覺地產生一些偏見,

  • That's my default.

    在天空中快速飛行的飛機上,

  • Men are my default.

    我希望是由男機長駕駛。

  • Who is your default?

    我默認就應該是這樣的,

  • Who do you trust?

    我默認就是男性。

  • Who are you afraid of?

    你們又默認什麼呢?

  • Who do you implicitly feel connected to?

    你們信任什麼樣的人呢?

  • Who do you run away from?

    你們又害怕哪些人呢?

  • I'm going to tell you what we have learned.

    你們與哪些人能產生共鳴?

  • The implicit association test, which measures unconscious bias,

    又會躲避哪些人呢?

  • you can go online and take it.

    我要告訴大家我們的結果與發現。

  • Five million people have taken it.

    「隱性連結測試」是一個

  • Turns out, our default is white. We like white people.

    用來檢測你們下意識偏見的測試,

  • We prefer white. What do I mean by that?

    你們可以在網絡上進行這個測試。

  • When people are shown images of black men and white men,

    有五百萬人做了這個測試,

  • we are more quickly able to associate

    結果是,我們默認白人更好, 我們喜歡白人。

  • that picture with a positive word, that white person with a positive word,

    我們比較喜歡白人。 我這麼說是什麼意思呢?

  • than we are when we are trying to associate

    當男性黑人和男性白人的相片 同時放給人們看時,

  • positive with a black face, and vice versa.

    我們能比較快地將白人男性的照片 與正面的字眼相聯繫,

  • When we see a black face,

    而不是黑人男性。

  • it is easier for us to connect black with negative

    而反之亦然, 當我們看到一張黑人面孔時,

  • than it is white with negative.

    我們比較容易 將他與負面內容相聯繫,

  • Seventy percent of white people taking that test prefer white.

    而不是白人男性。

  • Fifty percent of black people taking that test prefer white.

    做那個測驗的白人中百分之七十 比較喜歡白人,

  • You see, we were all outside when the contamination came down.

    做同一個測驗的黑人中百分之五十 比較喜歡白人。

  • What do we do about the fact that our brain automatically associates?

    你看,我們都被污染了。

  • You know, one of the things that you probably are thinking about,

    對於我們的大腦自動聯想的事實, 我們怎麼處理呢?

  • and you're probably like, you know what,

    你知道嗎,你可能在想的一件事,

  • I'm just going to double down on my color blindness.

    你可能在想:

  • Yes, I'm going to recommit to that.

    我要進一步否認 我對有色人種有歧視。

  • I'm going to suggest to you, no.

    是的,我就是要再犯。

  • We've gone about as far as we can go trying to make a difference

    我將建議你不要這樣做,

  • trying to not see color.

    我們已盡全力

  • The problem was never that we saw color. It was what we did when we saw the color.

    不去分辨一個人的膚色。

  • It's a false ideal.

    問題從來就不是我們在分辨膚色, 問題在於我們辨別膚色後的行為。

  • And while we're busy pretending not to see,

    那是一個錯誤的理想。

  • we are not being aware of the ways in which racial difference

    當我們忙著假裝不去辨別膚色時,

  • is changing people's possibilities, that's keeping them from thriving,

    我們就沒有覺察到

  • and sometimes it's causing them an early death.

    種族差異在改變著人們 能否茁壯成長的可能性。

  • So in fact, what the scientists are telling us is, no way.

    而且有時候,甚至造成他們早夭。

  • Don't even think about color blindness.

    所以事實上,科學家告訴我們的是:

  • In fact, what they're suggesting is,

    別那樣做。

  • stare at awesome black people.

    完全都不要想著你要去忽略膚色。

  • (Laughter)

    事實上,他們建議

  • Look at them directly in their faces and memorize them,

    凝視很讚的男性黑人。

  • because when we look at awesome folks who are black,

    (笑聲)

  • it helps to dissociate

    直接注視著他們的臉,並記住他們。

  • the association that happens automatically in our brain.

    因為當我們看到很讚的黑人時,

  • Why do you think I'm showing you these beautiful black men behind me?

    它有助於瓦解

  • There were so many, I had to cut them.

    我們大腦自動發生的聯想。

  • Okay, so here's the thing:

    你猜猜我為什麼要在身後 展示這些漂亮的黑色男性?

  • I'm trying to reset your automatic associations about who black men are.

    他們的數量眾多, 我只能挑其中一些。

  • I'm trying to remind you

    好,重點來了:

  • that young black men grow up to be amazing human beings

    我在嘗試著重置 你對於黑人的自動聯想,

  • who have changed our lives and made them better.

    我要提醒你們,

  • So here's the thing.

    年輕的黑人成長為了不起的人。

  • The other possibility in science,

    他們改變了我們的生命, 而且讓生活變得更美好。

  • and it's only temporarily changing our automatic assumptions,

    所以重點是,

  • but one thing we know

    科學還有另一個可能性:

  • is that if you take a white person who is odious that you know,

    它只是暫時改變了我們的自動假設。

  • and stick it up next to a person of color,

    但是我們知道的是,

  • a black person, who is fabulous,

    如果你將一個可惡的白人

  • then that sometimes actually causes us to disassociate too.

    放在一個有色人種旁邊,

  • So think Jeffrey Dahmer and Colin Powell.

    一個非常優秀的黑人旁邊,

  • Just stare at them, right? (Laughter)

    那有時也會造成我們不再聯想。

  • But these are the things. So go looking for your bias.

    所以想一想,連環殺手傑佛瑞‧丹墨 和前國務卿克林·鮑威爾。

  • Please, please, just get out of denial and go looking for disconfirming data

    你就凝視他們,好嗎? (笑聲)

  • that will prove that in fact your old stereotypes are wrong.

    這些就是重點, 所以去找你的偏見。

  • Okay, so that's number one: number two,

    拜託,拜託,不要再否認了, 去找證明不成立的數據。

  • what I'm going to say is move toward young black men instead of away from them.

    來證明事實上, 你那些老舊刻板印象是錯的。

  • It's not the hardest thing to do,

    好了,那就是第一件事情。 而第二件事情呢,

  • but it's also one of these things

    我要說的是去接近年輕男性黑人, 而不是遠離他們。

  • where you have to be conscious and intentional about it.

    這並不是難過登天的事,

  • You know, I was in a Wall Street area one time several years ago

    但也是你必須自覺 且特意去做的事之一。

  • when I was with a colleague of mine, and she's really wonderful

    幾年前我一次曾在華爾街地區,

  • and she does diversity work with me and she's a woman of color, she's Korean.

    當時我和一位同事一起。 她人真的很好,

  • And we were outside, it was late at night,

    她和我一起做多樣化工作, 她也是有色人種,是韓國人。

  • and we were sort of wondering where we were going, we were lost.

    我們在外面,天色已晚,

  • And I saw this person across the street, and I was thinking, "Oh great, black guy."

    我們又不知道自己身在何方, 已經迷路了。

  • I was going toward him without even thinking about it.

    然後我看到對面有一個人, 我在想,「喔,真好,一個黑人」

  • And she was like, "Oh, that's interesting."

    我甚至沒想什麼就走向他。

  • The guy across the street, he was a black guy.

    她的表情好像在說, 「喔,那真是有趣。」

  • I think black guys generally know where they're going.

    對面那個人是一個黑人。

  • I don't know why exactly I think that, but that's what I think.

    我想黑人通常知道他們在哪裡,

  • So she was saying, "Oh, you were going, 'Yay, a black guy'?"

    我不知道我為什麼會那麼想, 但那就是我當時的想法。

  • She said, "I was going, 'Ooh, a black guy.'"

    她說,「喔,你是想, 『嘿,一個黑人?』 」

  • Other direction. Same need, same guy, same clothes,

    她說,「可我是往『唔,一個黑人』 那個方向想的 。」

  • same time, same street, different reaction.

    同樣需要,同一個人,同樣的衣服,

  • And she said, "I feel so bad. I'm a diversity consultant.

    同一時間,同一條街,不同的反應。

  • I did the black guy thing. I'm a woman of color. Oh my God!"

    然後她說:「我覺得自己很壞。 我還是一個多樣化顧問呢!」

  • And I said, "You know what? Please. We really need to relax about this."

    「我竟然對黑人有歧視, 而我自己也有色女性,天哪!」

  • I mean, you've got to realize I go way back with black guys.

    我就說,「你知道嗎?拜託, 你不要對自己太苛責了。」

  • (Laughter)

    我的意思是,你肯定知道 我和男性黑人可是很有淵源的喲!

  • My dad is a black guy. You see what I'm saying?

    (笑聲)

  • I've got a 6'5" black guy son. I was married to a black guy.

    我父親是黑人, 你明白我的意思嗎?

  • My black guy thing is so wide and so deep

    我有一個六呎五的黑人兒子, 我前夫是黑人。

  • that I can pretty much sort and figure out who that black guy is,

    我的黑人背景是既廣且深,

  • and he was my black guy.

    我可以大概知道 那個黑人是什麼樣的。

  • He said, "Yes, ladies, I know where you're going. I'll take you there."

    他是善良的黑人。

  • You know, biases are the stories we make up about people

    他說:「是的,女士們,我知道 你們要去的地方。 我帶你們去。」

  • before we know who they actually are.

    你知道,偏見是我們編出來的故事,

  • But how are we going to know who they are

    在我們還不了解 他人是什麼樣的人之前。

  • when we've been told to avoid and be afraid of them?

    可我們怎樣才能知道 他們是什麼樣的人,

  • So I'm going to tell you to walk toward your discomfort.

    當我們總是被教導 要去避開他們和害怕他們?

  • And I'm not asking you to take any crazy risks.

    所以我要告訴你們: 走向你的反感之源。

  • I'm saying, just do an inventory,

    我不是要你們去做瘋狂的冒險,

  • expand your social and professional circles.

    我的意思是, 你只需清點一下你的朋友名單,

  • Who's in your circle?

    擴張你的社交和專業圈。

  • Who's missing?

    誰在你的圈子裡?

  • How many authentic relationships

    誰不在裡面?

  • do you have with young black people, folks, men, women?

    你有多少真正有意義的關係

  • Or any other major difference from who you are

    是與年輕黑人,老的黑人 , 男性黑人,女性黑人

  • and how you roll, so to speak?

    或者其他和你很不一樣的人建立的?

  • Because, you know what? Just look around your periphery.

    或者說,你和什麼樣人混?

  • There may be somebody at work, in your classroom,

    因為你知道嗎? 就只看看你的周圍,

  • in your house of worship, somewhere, there's some black young guy there.

    在你的工作環境裡面, 你的教室裡,

  • And you're nice. You say hi.

    你的教堂裡,在某處, 一定會有一些年輕的男性黑人。

  • I'm saying go deeper, closer, further, and build the kinds of relationships,

    你是和善的人,去打聲招呼。

  • the kinds of friendships that actually cause you to see the holistic person

    你可以深交一點, 走得更接近些,更進一步,

  • and to really go against the stereotypes.

    然後建立一種關係或友誼,

  • I know some of you are out there,

    讓你所看到的對方 純粹只是另一個人類的那種關係,

  • I know because I have some white friends in particular that will say,

    然後真正地去推翻你的刻板印象。

  • "You have no idea how awkward I am.

    我知道你們有些人是這樣的,

  • Like, I don't think this is going to work for me.

    我知道因為我有一些白人朋友會說:

  • I'm sure I'm going to blow this."

    「你不知道我覺得有多尷尬。」

  • Okay, maybe, but this thing is not about perfection. It's about connection.

    「我認為我做不到這一點。」

  • And you're not going to get comfortable before you get uncomfortable.

    「我確定我一定做不到。」

  • I mean, you just have to do it.

    或許吧,但是這種事不需要完美, 只是需要建立關係。

  • And young black men, what I'm saying is

    而且你肯定會首先覺得不自在, 之後才會開始覺得自在。

  • if someone comes your way, genuinely and authentically, take the invitation.

    我的意思是,你就只要去做這件事,

  • Not everyone is out to get you.

    年輕的黑人們,我要說的是,

  • Go looking for those people who can see your humanity.

    如果有人向你示好,很真心很真誠的, 你就接受邀請吧。

  • You know, it's the empathy and the compassion

    不是每個人都要找你麻煩。

  • that comes out of having relationships with people who are different from you.

    去找那些能夠看到你的人性的人。

  • Something really powerful and beautiful happens:

    你知道,和那些與你不同的人 建立關係所衍生出來的,

  • you start to realize that they are you,

    是同理心和慈悲心。

  • that they are part of you, that they are you in your family,

    很有力和美好的事情便發生了:

  • and then we cease to be bystanders

    你開始意識到他們就是你,

  • and we become actors, we become advocates,

    他們是你的一部分,

  • and we become allies.

    他們是你家庭的一份子。

  • So go away from your comfort into a bigger, brighter thing,

    然後我們不再是旁觀者了,

  • because that is how we will stop another Ferguson from happening.

    我們成為演員, 我們成為提倡者,

  • That's how we create a community

    我們成為盟友。

  • where everybody, especially young black men, can thrive.

    走出你的舒適圈, 去一個更大更明亮的地方,

  • So this last thing is going to be harder,

    因為如此一來,我們才能不讓 另一件如佛格森的事再發生。

  • and I know it, but I'm just going to put it out there anyway.

    我們要創造一種環境,

  • When we see something, we have to have the courage to say something,

    在那裡的每個人,尤其是黑人, 可以茁壯。

  • even to the people we love.

    所以這最後一件會比較難做,

  • You know, it's holidays and it's going to be a time

    我知道,但是我還是要提出來。

  • when we're sitting around the table and having a good time.

    當我們看到不對的事, 我們必須有勇氣說出來,

  • Many of us, anyways, will be in holidays,

    甚至是對我們愛的人說出來。

  • and you've got to