Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    好,介紹中說我是

  • Well, I was introduced as

    密西根前州長

  • the former Governor of Michigan,

    但其實我是一名科學家

  • but actually I'm a scientist.

    好吧,一名政治科學家,算不上正牌貨

  • All right, a political scientist, it doesn't really count,

    但我的實驗室是民主實驗室

  • but my laboratory was the laboratory of democracy

    即密西根州,一如任何的優秀科學家

  • that is Michigan, and, like any good scientist,

    我正在試驗政策

  • I was experimenting with policy

    內容是如何為多數人

  • about what would achieve the greatest good

    創造最大福祉

  • for the greatest number.

    但其中存在三個問題、三個難題

  • But there were three problems, three enigmas

    是我無法解決的

  • that I could not solve,

    我想跟大家分享這些問題

  • and I want to share with you those problems,

    但最重要的是

  • but most importantly,

    我認為我已想出一個解決方案

  • I think I figured out a proposal for a solution.

    第一個問題

  • The first problem

    不僅是密西根州 也是每個州都面臨的問題

  • that not just Michigan, but every state, faces is,

    如何在全球經濟市場

  • how do you create good jobs in America

    替美國創造好工作?

  • in a global economy?

    因此我想與大家分享 一些來自我實驗室的經驗資料

  • So let me share with you some empirical data from my lab.

    我於2002年當選州長 就任屆滿一年後的2003年

  • I was elected in 2002 and, at the end of my first year in office in 2003,

    我接到一位幕僚的電話,他說

  • I got a call from one of my staff members, who said,

    「州長,我們有個大麻煩」

  • "Gov, we have a big problem.

    「密西根州有個名叫格林維爾的小社區」

  • We have a little tiny community called Greenville, Michigan,

    「人口八千」

  • population 8,000,

    「即將失去最大的雇主」

  • and they are about to lose their major employer,

    「即伊萊克斯公司經營的冰箱工廠」

  • which is a refrigerator factory that's operated by Electrolux."

    我說,「好,多少居民 任職於伊萊克斯公司?」

  • And I said, "Well, how many people work at Electrolux?"

    他說,「八千位 格林維爾居民中的三千人」

  • And he said, "3,000 of the 8,000 people in Greenville."

    所以這城鎮只有一間公司

  • So it is a one-company town.

    伊萊克斯打算遷往墨西哥

  • And Electrolux was going to go to Mexico.

    於是我說:「別擔心,我是新州長」

  • So I said, "Forget that. I'm the new Governor.

    「我們可以解決 這個問題,我們去格林維爾看看」

  • We can fix this. We're going to go to Greenville

    「帶上全體閣員」

  • with my whole cabinet and we will just

    「然後給伊萊克斯一個無法拒絕的提議」

  • make Electrolux an offer they can't refuse."

    因此我帶領全體閣員

  • So I brought my whole cabinet,

    與格林維爾所有顯要人士見面 -

  • and we met with all of the pooh-bahs of little Greenville --

    市長、市政執行長、社區學院院長 -

  • the mayor, the city manager, the head of the community college --

    我們可以說連壓箱寶都掏出來了

  • and we basically emptied our pockets

    將所有籌碼攤在桌上

  • and put all of our chips on the table,

    即所謂的獎勵措施 要說服伊萊克斯留下

  • incentives, you name it, to convince Electrolux to stay,

    我們拿出所有籌碼

  • and as we made our pile of chips,

    推過桌面,送到伊萊克斯主管面前

  • we slid them across the table to the management of Electrolux.

    這些籌碼包括免稅 20 年

  • And in the pile were things like zero taxes for 20 years,

    或我們會協助該公司蓋一座新工廠

  • or that we'd help to build a new factory for the company,

    提供金援 代表工人的UAW(美國汽車工會)說

  • we'd help to finance it. The UAW, who represented the workers,

    他們會提供前所未有的優惠

  • said they would offer unprecedented concessions,

    所有犧牲只為了將工作留在格林維爾

  • sacrifices to just keep those jobs in Greenville.

    於是伊萊克斯主管拿起籌碼

  • So the management of Electrolux took our pile,

    即我們列出的獎勵,他們走出房間

  • our list of incentives, and they went outside the room

    商量了17分鐘

  • for 17 minutes,

    他們回來後,開口說

  • and they came back in and they said,

    「哇,這是有史以來」

  • "Wow, this is the most generous

    「社區為了留住 工作機會所做過最慷慨的提議」

  • any community has ever been to try to keep jobs here.

    「但依然無法彌補差額」

  • But there's nothing you can do

    「事實上,我們在墨西哥的華雷斯」

  • to compensate for the fact that we can pay $1.57 an hour

    「支付的時薪只有 1.57 美元。因此我們會搬遷」

  • in Juarez, Mexico. So we're leaving."

    他們要搬了。他們決定這樣做時

  • And they did. And when they did, it was like

    像是在小小的格林維爾引爆了一枚核彈

  • a nuclear bomb went off in little Greenville.

    事實上,這確實震驚了整個工廠

  • In fact, they did implode the factory.

    圖中這男子是最後一天上班

  • That's a guy that is walking on his last day of work.

    最後一個冰箱通過裝配線的那個月

  • And on the month that the last refrigerator rolled off the assembly line,

    密西根州格林維爾的伊萊克斯雇員

  • the employees of Electrolux in Greenville, Michigan,

    自行舉辦了一場聚會 他們稱之為最後的晚餐

  • had a gathering for themselves that they called the last supper.

    地點在格林維爾一座大型室內展覽館

  • It was in a big pavilion in Greenville, an indoor pavilion,

    我參加了那場聚會 因為身為州長的我沮喪萬分

  • and I went to it because I was so frustrated as Governor

    我無力阻止這些工作外流

  • that I couldn't stop the outflow of these jobs,

    我想與他們共同承擔這份悲傷

  • and I wanted to grieve with them,

    我走進館內時,已有上千人到場

  • and as I went into the room-- there's thousands of people there.

    這是一場盛大的聚會,人們吃著便當

  • It was a just big thing. People were eating boxed lunches

    圍在圓桌旁 一個悲傷的樂團演奏著音樂

  • on roundtop tables, and there was a sad band playing music,

    或者說一個樂團演奏著 悲傷的音樂,或許兩者皆是(笑聲)

  • or a band playing sad music, probably both. (Laughter)

    一名男子來到我面前

  • And this guy comes up to me,

    刺青、綁馬尾、戴棒球帽

  • and he's got tattoos and his ponytail and his baseball cap on,

    他帶著兩個女兒

  • and he had his two daughters with him,

    他說:「州長,這兩個是我女兒」

  • and he said, "Gov, these are my two daughters."

    他說:「我今年48歲」

  • He said, "I'm 48 years old,

    「我在這間工廠工作了30年」

  • and I have worked at this factory for 30 years.

    「我高中畢業後就進了工廠」

  • I went from high school to factory.

    「我父親在這間工廠工作,」他說

  • My father worked at this factory," he said.

    「我祖父在這間工廠工作」

  • "My grandfather worked at this factory.

    「我只知道怎麼製造冰箱」

  • All I know is how to make refrigerators."

    他看著兩個女兒

  • And he looked at his daughters,

    將手放在胸口

  • and he puts his hand on his chest,

    然後說,「所以,州長,請告訴我」

  • and he says, "So, Gov, tell me,

    「還有誰會雇用我?」

  • who is ever going to hire me?

    「還有誰會雇用我?」

  • Who is ever going to hire me?"

    這不僅是這名男子的疑問

  • And that was asked not just by that guy

    也是館內每個人的疑問

  • but by everyone in the pavilion,

    坦白說,也是本世紀第一個十年內

  • and frankly, by every worker at one of the 50,000 factories

    五萬間歇業工廠中每位工人的疑問

  • that closed in the first decade of this century.

    第一個難題:如何在全球經濟市場

  • Enigma number one: How do you create jobs

    替美國創造就業機會?

  • in America in a global economy?

    我很快地說明第二個難題:

  • Number two, very quickly:

    如何解決全球氣候變化問題

  • How do you solve global climate change

    在我國甚至連國家能源政策都沒有

  • when we don't even have a national energy policy in this country

    而國會僵局似乎已成常態時?

  • and when gridlock in Congress seems to be the norm?

    事實上,最近所做的一項民調中

  • In fact, there was a poll that was done recently

    民調機構將國會支持率

  • and the pollster compared Congress's approval ratings

    與一些令人不快的事物比較

  • to a number of other unpleasant things,

    調查發現,事實上,國會支持率

  • and it was found, in fact, that Congress's approval rating

    比蟑螂

  • is worse than cockroaches,

    蝨子、五分錢樂團 根管治療和唐納.川普還糟(笑聲)

  • lice, Nickelback the band, root canals and Donald Trump. (Laughter)

    但別急,好消息是至少勝過

  • But wait, the good news is it's at least better

    製毒實驗室和淋病(笑聲)

  • than meth labs and gonorrhea. (Laughter)

    問題大了,伙伴們

  • We got a problem, folks.

    因此這讓我思考,到底是怎麼回事?

  • So it got me thinking, what is it?

    我眼前的實驗室

  • What in the laboratory that I see out there,

    我眼前的民主實驗室到底怎麼了?

  • the laboratories of democracy, what has happened?

    到底有哪些政策法規

  • What policy prescriptions have happened

    真的能引發變化的政策

  • that actually cause changes to occur

    曾經獲得兩黨支持?

  • and that have been accepted in a bipartisan way?

    因此,如果我問大家,例如

  • So if I asked you, for example,

    歐巴馬政府有哪些政策

  • what was the Obama Administration policy

    曾導致整個國家產生巨大變化

  • that caused massive changes across the country,

    你們會說什麼?

  • what would you say?

    你們或許會說歐巴馬健保法案 除了那些非自願的改變

  • You might say Obamacare, except for those were not voluntary changes.

    就我們所知,只有半數州贊成

  • As we know, only half the states have opted in.

    你們或許會說 經濟復甦法案,但那不需要改變政策

  • We might say the Recovery Act, but those didn't require policy changes.

    造成大規模變化的政策

  • The thing that caused massive policy changes to occur

    是「邁向巔峰」(Race to the Top)教育政策

  • was Race to the Top for education.

    為什麼?政府提供45億美元資金

  • Why? The government put a $4.5 billion pot

    讓全國州長爭取

  • and said to the governors across the country, compete for it.

    48名州長參與競爭

  • Forty-eight governors competed,

    說服48個州議會

  • convincing 48 state legislatures to essentially

    從根本提升高中生素質

  • raise standards for high schoolers

    使他們全都參與大學預備課程

  • so that they all take a college prep curriculum.

    48州紛紛響應,從基層 制定國家能源(訂正:教育)政策

  • Forty-eight states opted in, creating a national [education] policy from the bottom up.

    因此我想,好,為何我們不如法炮製

  • So I thought, well, why can't we do something like that

    制訂潔淨能源的「邁向巔峰」政策?

  • and create a clean energy jobs race to the top?

    因為話說回來,如果觀察整體局勢

  • Because after all, if you look at the context,

    過去 8 年中,1.6 兆美元的潔淨能源投資

  • 1.6 trillion dollars has been invested in the past eight years

    來自全球私營機構

  • from the private sector globally,

    每一塊美元都代表一份工作

  • and every dollar represents a job,

    這些工作流向何方?

  • and where are those jobs going?

    好,流向擁有政策的地方,例如中國

  • Well, they're going to places that have policy, like China.

    事實上,我曾經 去中國,觀察他們的做法

  • In fact, I was in China to see what they were doing,

    他們為我們的代表團舉行盛大表演

  • and they were putting on a dog-and-pony show for the group that I was with,

    某場演出時,我站在房間後方

  • and I was standing in the back of the room during one of the demonstrations

    站在一名中國官員身旁

  • and standing next to one of the Chinese officials,

    我們觀賞演出時,他說

  • and we were watching, and he says,

    「所以,州長,妳認為美國 何時能制定出國家能源政策?」

  • "So, Gov, when do you think the U.S. is going to get national energy policy?"

    我說,「天啊 - 國會、僵局,誰知道?」

  • And I said, "Oh my God -- Congress, gridlock, who knows?"

    他的反應是 - 像這樣,然後說

  • And this is what he did, he goes, he says,

    「慢慢來」

  • "Take your time."

    因為他們視我們的消極為他們的機會

  • Because they see our passivity as their opportunity.

    因此,如果我們決定

  • So what if we decided to create

    替全國州長發起一項競爭

  • a challenge to the governors of the country,

    參與這場競爭的代價

  • and the price to entry into this competition

    相當於兩黨於國會批准

  • used the same amount that the bipartisan group approved in Congress

    「邁向巔峰」教育政策的金額,45億美元

  • for the Race to the Top for education, 4.5 billion,

    聽起來似乎是筆鉅款,但事實上少於

  • which sounds like a lot, but actually it's less than

    聯邦政府開銷的千分之一

  • one tenth of one percent of federal spending.

    不過是聯邦預算的零頭

  • It's a rounding error on the federal side.

    但參與這場競爭的代價

  • But price to entry into that competition would be,

    可說符合總統的目標

  • you could just, say, use the President's goal.

    他希望國會於2030年達成

  • He wants Congress to adopt a clean energy standard

    採用 80 % 潔淨能源的目標

  • of 80 percent by 2030,

    換句話說,到了2030年

  • in other words, that you'd have to get 80 percent

    你使用的能源必須有 80 % 來自潔淨能源

  • of your energy from clean sources by the year 2030.

    為何不要求全國各州共襄盛舉?

  • Why not ask all of the states to do that instead?

    想像一下可能發生的情況

  • And imagine what might happen,

    因為每個地區都能提供某些資源

  • because every region has something to offer.

    不妨以愛荷華州和俄亥俄州為例 --

  • You might take states like Iowa and Ohio --

    順帶一提,這是兩大政治關鍵州 --

  • two very important political states, by the way --

    兩位州長會說

  • those two governors, and they would say,

    我們將領頭生產

  • we're going to lead the nation in producing

    風力渦輪機和風力

  • the wind turbines and the wind energy.

    或以太陽能州、陽光地帶為例

  • You might say the solar states, the sun belt,

    他們將成為替國家生產太陽能的州

  • we're going to be the states that produce solar energy for the country,

    也許Jerry Brown(加州州長)會說,「好,我會在加州」

  • and maybe Jerry Brown says, "Well, I'm going to create

    「建立產業集群」

  • an industry cluster in California

    「生產太陽能板」

  • to be able to produce the solar panels

    「這樣我們就不需向中國採購」

  • so that we're not buying them from China

    「而向美國採購」

  • but we're buying them from the U.S."

    事實上,全國各地都能如法炮製

  • In fact, every region of the country could do this.

    如你們所知 全國各地都有生產太陽能和風力的機會

  • You see, you've got solar and wind opportunity all across the nation.

    事實上,如果以上方的北部各州為例

  • In fact, if you look just at the upper and northern states

    西側區域可生產地熱

  • in the West, they could do geothermal,

    或考慮德州的情況

  • or you could look at Texas and say,

    他們可領頭建設智慧電網

  • we could lead the nation in the solutions to smart grid.

    中部及東部各州擁有樹林

  • In the middle eastern states which have access to forests

    和閒置農地,他們或許會說

  • and to agricultural waste, they might say,

    我們將領頭生產生質燃料

  • we're going to lead the nation in biofuels.

    東北各州會說,我們將領頭解決

  • In the upper northeast, we're going to lead the nation

    能源效率問題

  • in energy efficiency solutions.

    東部沿岸各州會說,我們將領頭建設

  • Along the eastern seaboard, we're going to lead the nation

    海上風力發電廠

  • in offshore wind.

    或考慮密西根州的情況,我們可領頭生產

  • You might look at Michigan and say, we're going to lead the nation

    電動車供電裝置,例如鋰電池

  • in producing the guts for the electric vehicle, like the lithium ion battery.

    每個地區都能提供某些資源

  • Every region has something to offer,

    如果發起一項競爭

  • and if you created a competition,

    有利於各州,亦有利於聯邦

  • it respects the states and it respects federalism.

    它將獲得支持,甚至可能 獲得德州和南卡羅萊納州的支持

  • It's opt-in. You might even get Texas and South Carolina,

    這兩州並未支持「邁向巔峰」教育政策

  • who didn't opt into the education Race to the Top,

    這項競爭甚至可能 獲得他們的支持,為什麼?

  • you might even get them to opt in. Why?

    因為共和黨和民主黨州長

  • Because Republican and Democratic governors

    都喜歡剪綵

  • love to cut ribbons.

    我們希望引入就業機會,剛剛只是說說罷了

  • We want to bring jobs. I'm just saying.

    這將促進各州的創新

  • And it fosters innovation at the state level

    在這些民主實驗室

  • in these laboratories of democracy.

    現在,任何關注當前政治局勢的人

  • Now, any of you who are watching anything about politics lately

    或許會說 「嗯,很棒的主意,但可行嗎?」

  • might say, "Okay, great idea, but really?

    「讓國會將45億美元納入預算審查?」

  • Congress putting four and a half billion dollars on the table?

    「他們一毛也不會同意」

  • They can't agree to anything."

    因此你可以等待國會審查

  • So you could wait and go through Congress,

    但必定會十分不耐煩

  • although you should be very impatient.

    或者,你可以採取 不同做法,我們可以繞過國會

  • Or, you renegades, we could go around Congress.

    繞過國會

  • Go around Congress.

    假設我們替州長發起 由私營機構提供的競爭?

  • What if we created a private sector challenge to the governors?

    如果某些擁有高淨值資產的公司和個人

  • What if several of the high-net worth companies

    此時剛好在TED現場,決定

  • and individuals who are here at TED decided

    攜手合作,只要其中幾位

  • that they would create, band together, just a couple of them,

    建立提供給州長的全國性競爭

  • and create a national competition to the governors

    發起「邁向巔峰」競爭

  • to have a race to the top

    觀察這些州長的反應?

  • and see how the governors respond?

    如果這一切全都從TED現場開始?

  • What if it all started here at TED?

    如果在座各位

  • What if you were here

    想出如何打破僵局

  • when we figured out how to crack the code

    替美國創造高薪工作-(掌聲)

  • to create good paying jobs in America -- (Applause) --

    提出國家能源政策

  • and get national energy policy

    從基層建立國家能源政策?

  • and we created a national energy strategy from the bottom up?

    因為,親愛的TED會員們

  • Because, dear TEDsters,

    如果你們像我一樣沒耐心

  • if you are impatient like I am,

    你們知道我們的經濟競爭對手

  • you know that our economic competitors,

    其他對手國已加入這場競爭

  • our other nations, are in the game

    分食我們的工作機會

  • and are eating us for lunch.

    我們可以選擇是否加入這場競爭

  • And we can get in the game or not.

    我們可以選擇旁觀或加入戰局

  • We can be at the table or we can be on the table.

    我不知道你們的想法

  • And I don't know about you,

    但我寧可加入其中

  • but I prefer to dine.

    十分感謝(掌聲)

  • Thank you all so much. (Applause)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

好,介紹中說我是

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED 州長 政策 能源 競爭 國會

【TED】Jennifer Granholm:一個清潔能源提案--競相登頂!(詹妮弗-格蘭霍姆:一個清潔能源提案--競相追逐!) (【TED】Jennifer Granholm: A clean energy proposal -- race to the top! (Jennifer Granholm: A clean energy proposal -- race to the top!))

  • 1470 89
    Daniel 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字