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  • Coral reefs are some of the most spectacular

    珊瑚礁是世界上

  • ecosystems on the planet;

    最壯麗的生態系統之一。

  • they are also some of the most vulnerable.

    它們同時也是最脆弱的。

  • But, how can we protect the reefs

    我們該如何保護珊瑚礁

  • and the animals and plants who rely on them?

    和與之相依的動、植物呢?

  • And how can we make sure our protected areas aren't hurting

    而我們又如何讓保護區

  • the people who use the reefs to survive?

    不會影響當地人的生存?

  • These are some of the big questions

    對於現今的海洋保育生物學家而言

  • facing marine conservation biologists today.

    這是個大哉問。

  • Let's take Fiji, for example.

    我們用斐濟當作例子。

  • Fiji is series of islands in the South Pacific Ocean.

    斐濟包含南太平洋上的一系列小島

  • To help balance the need for conservation and making a living,

    為了均衡保育和經濟發展,

  • scientists had suggested that instead of one big park,

    科學家建議:

  • which provides a lot of coverage for one reef system

    與其在在珊瑚礁區 設立一個幅員遼闊的國家公園,

  • while leaving the rest unprotected,

    而讓其他地方失去保障,

  • a better way is to create a system of protected areas

    不如在整個珊瑚礁區,

  • nested together like pearls on a string.

    設立一系列如珍珠般的小保留區。

  • This idea is called connectivity,

    這個概念稱之為連結性

  • and this way, scientists can protect lots of different habitats

    這讓科學家可以保障許多不同的棲地,

  • while not excluding people from their traditional fishing grounds.

    也讓人民不會失去傳統漁場。

  • Now, the only way this string-of-pearls kind of reserve network is going to work

    要使如珍珠項鍊般 的保護網順利運作,

  • is if each park is connected to other parks.

    保留區間必須有所連結。

  • There are two main benefits to this.

    這會帶來兩個好處。

  • First of all, insurance.

    第一是保險。

  • If something bad happens to one park,

    如果其中一區發生不幸事件,

  • say an oil spill

    例如:漏油

  • or coral bleaching,

    或是珊瑚白化,

  • then because that park is part of a system,

    因為它只是整個系統中的一區,

  • it can be receded from other parks that escaped the event.

    這可以藉由其它躲過一劫的保留區 降低對整個保護網的衝擊。

  • The second benefit is representation.

    另外一個優點則是代表性。

  • By conserving many different areas,

    藉由保障不同的地區,

  • scientists ensure that lots of different habitats get protected.

    科學家得以保障不同的棲地。

  • This way, they can make sure all the different marine habitats in Fiji,

    如此,他們可以確保斐濟所有的海洋棲地,

  • such as coral reefs,

    例如:珊瑚礁、

  • man groves,

    紅樹林、

  • and seagrass beds,

    和海底海藻森林

  • are all represented.

    都會納入保護。

  • This way we don't unduly settle any particular village

    如此,就不需要因為限制捕魚

  • or group of people with the economic burden

    帶給特定村莊或人民

  • of having their fishing grounds off limits.

    經濟上的負擔。

  • By sharing the cost around the communities,

    藉由平均分擔保育代價,

  • they can also share the benefits.

    他們的利益也都被保障。

  • So if we agree that rather than one big park,

    所以,如果我們同意用將

  • we should have lots of parks of different sizes

    單一巨大的保留區 用許多大小不同的保留區取代,

  • and covering different habitats,

    以保障不同棲地,

  • then scientists need to make sure

    科學家必須確定

  • that those smaller parks are connected,

    這些小保留必須能彼此交流。

  • because if they are not,

    如果不能,

  • then they're probably not going to be self-sustaining.

    它們可能無法自給自足。

  • But how do we know that?

    但我們又如何確認?

  • That's where genetics and DNA come in.

    這就要仰賴遺傳學和 DNA 研究。

  • By looking at how closely related the fish

    藉由研究斐濟

  • in each one of these small reserves in Fiji are to each other,

    各小保留區中魚類基因接近的程度,

  • scientists can figure out just how much migration

    科學家可以瞭解牠們

  • is going on among the reserves within the system.

    在不同保留區間交流的程度如何。

  • Now it is important to look at a variety of different species

    觀察多樣化的物種也是很重要的。

  • because there is no guarantee

    因為無人能擔保,

  • that what's going on with these guys

    其中幾種物種的狀況,

  • is what's going on with these guys.

    必然和另外幾種的相同。

  • But if we look closely and at enough species,

    但藉由仔細觀察大量的物種,

  • we can see whether or not the necklace is working.

    我們就能確定這個新的策略是否成功。

  • What scientists have found so far is that,

    目前為止,科學家已經知道

  • in general, there's a fair amount of connectivity

    在斐濟的小保留區之間

  • amongst the parks within Fiji.

    有一定程度的交流。

  • But it's not just a big free-for-all;

    但交流不一定輕鬆,

  • rather, it seems that, for some species,

    事實上對有些物種而言

  • babies born in the far west are having a hard time

    出生於西部的魚苗

  • making it to the islands in the far east.

    需要費盡千辛萬苦才能抵達東部島嶼。

  • To help deal with that,

    為應付這種情況,

  • conservation biologists are suggesting

    保育生物學家建議:

  • that there are enough parks in both the east and the west

    在東、西兩邊都建立足夠的小保留區

  • to keep the populations healthy.

    以確保族群健全。

  • This isn't just in Fiji, either.

    這並不止於斐濟,

  • Lessons about reserve connectivity can help across the world

    這份保育連通性的經驗可以 幫助全世界各地區,

  • in places like Indonesia,

    像是印度尼西亞、

  • Papua New Guinea,

    巴布亞紐幾內亞、

  • and The Bahamas.

    和巴哈馬。

  • Scientists are using a variety of tools

    科學家利用不同的工具

  • to help understand how individual parks

    幫助我們瞭解不同的保留區

  • can function together

    如何一起達到保育目的,

  • so that their sum is greater than their whole.

    以達到一加一大於二的效果。

  • And this way, we can keep the beautiful necklace

    如此,我們就能用這 如珍珠項鍊般的保留區網絡,

  • that is our coral reefs intact.

    保護珊瑚礁生態系的完整。

Coral reefs are some of the most spectacular

珊瑚礁是世界上

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 斐濟 保育 珊瑚礁 棲地 科學家

【TED-Ed】保護我們壯麗且脆弱的珊瑚礁 - Conserving our spectacular, vulnerable coral reefs - Joshua Drew

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    Zenn 發佈於 2013 年 06 月 15 日
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