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  • One summer evening,

    一個夏日的傍晚。

  • my eighteen-year-old son Jimmy said he wanted to talk.

    我18歲的兒子Jimmy說他想談談。

  • So, after my wife Joan and I got his three much younger siblings tucked in

    所以,在我和妻子Joan把他的三個小弟妹塞進去之後... ...

  • and read their bedtime stories,

    並給他們讀睡前故事。

  • Joan and I sat down in our bedroom.

    我和瓊在臥室裡坐下來。

  • Jimmy came in and closed the door behind him.

    吉米走進來,把門關上。

  • And he sat down on a chair across from the bed where we were sitting,

    他就坐在我們坐的床對面的椅子上。

  • and says, "Mom and Dad, I have something important to tell you,

    並說,"爸爸媽媽,我有重要的事情要告訴你們。

  • and it's not a problem, it's not a bad thing, it's just different."

    和它'不是一個問題,它'不是一件壞事,它'只是不同.&quot。

  • We said, "Okay."

    我們說,"好吧&quot。

  • And he looked at us in earnest, and he said, "I'm gay."

    他認真地看著我們,他說,"I'm gay.&quot。

  • So, after a few seconds of deafening silence,

    所以,在幾秒鐘的震耳欲聾的沉默之後。

  • Joan takes a deep breath and says, "Jimmy, we will love whoever you love."

    瓊深吸一口氣,說:"吉米,你愛誰我們就愛誰&quot。

  • That was about 12 years ago when he came out to us,

    那是12年前,他向我們走出來的時候。

  • and I'll have to admit that, at the time,

    和我'不得不承認,當時。

  • Joan and I did think this could be a problem,

    瓊和我確實認為這可能是個問題。

  • for his safety, even.

    為了他的安全,甚至。

  • And as his father, I had this feeling that, somehow, I had failed him,

    作為他的父親,我有一種感覺,不知為何,我讓他失望了。

  • and maybe, because of that, he wouldn't have a chance to have kids of his own.

    也許,因為這樣,他就沒有機會有自己的孩子了。

  • So, I'm a cardiologist,

    所以,我'是個心臟病專家。

  • and I like to imagine the world through the eyes of a hunter-gatherer ancestor

    我喜歡用狩獵採集者祖先的眼光來想象這個世界。

  • for clues about how to thrive in the modern world,

    以獲得如何在現代世界發展的線索。

  • but, viewed in the light of evolution,

    但是,從進化的角度來看。

  • homosexuality seems to be a real self-defeating non-productive strategy.

    同志似乎是一種真正的自欺欺人的非生產性策略。

  • I mean, gays have 80% fewer kids than heterosexuals.

    我是說,同志的孩子比異性戀少80%。

  • This is a trait that ought to go extinct in a few generations,

    這是一種應該在幾代人中滅絕的特徵。

  • but down through recorded history,

    但從有史以來。

  • in every culture, and many animal species as well,

    在每一種文化中,許多動物物種也是如此。

  • homosexuality's been a small, but distinct subgroup.

    同志'的一直是一個小的,但獨特的子群體。

  • If this were a genetic error,

    如果這是一個基因錯誤。

  • natural selection should have long ago called this from the gene pool.

    自然選擇早就應該從基因庫裡把這個叫。

  • So, while I was pondering this,

    所以,當我在思考這個問題的時候。

  • this paradox about the natural origins of homosexuality,

    這個關於同志自然起源的悖論。

  • our babies grew up.

    我們的孩子長大了。

  • Jimmy has three younger siblings who adore him.

    吉米有三個弟弟妹妹,他們都很喜歡他。

  • He has this magnetism and this charming wit

    他有這種磁性和這種迷人的智慧

  • that helps them feel happy and relaxed.

    這有助於他們感到快樂和放鬆。

  • And one day, while contemplating this "Jimmy effect,"

    有一天,在思考這個"吉米效應&quot時。

  • it suddenly dawned on me: homosexuality is not so much about sex;

    我突然明白了:同志與性的關係並不是那麼大。

  • it's really more about survival, the family's survival.

    它'真的更多的是關於生存,家庭'的生存。

  • So us, Homo sapiens, we are among the most social species on Earth.

    所以我們智人,我們是地球上社會性最強的物種之一。

  • For us, it's not just a kill-or-be-killed struggle for existence.

    對我們來說,這不僅僅是一場生存的殺戮或被殺戮的鬥爭。

  • It's a snuggle for existence, you know.

    這是一個依偎的存在,你知道的。

  • An ability to love our family and bond with our group

    有能力愛我們的家庭,與我們的團體建立聯繫。

  • determines, in many cases, whether we survive or perish.

    在很多情況下,決定了我們是生存還是滅亡。

  • So it's the survival of the fittest family,

    所以這是適者生存的家族。

  • not the fittest individual.

    不是最合適的個體。

  • So, you share 50% of your DNA with your siblings.

    所以,你和你的兄弟姐妹共享50%的DNA。

  • Your nieces and nephews share 25% of your DNA.

    你的侄女和侄子分享你25%的DNA。

  • Frоm evolution's perspective,

    從進化'的角度來看。

  • you have the same genetic success if you raise one child on your own

    獨生子女也有同樣的遺傳成功率

  • or you enable a sibling to raise two children.

    或者你讓一個兄弟姐妹撫養兩個孩子。

  • Frоm evolution's perspective,

    從進化'的角度來看。

  • this is all about cooperation and altruism.

    這就是合作和利他主義。

  • Homosexuality is genetically-programmed altruism.

    同志是基因編程的利他主義。

  • Gays are designed by nature to help us be kind to one another,

    同志們的天性是幫助我們善待彼此的。

  • like Ellen DeGeneres says.

    就像Ellen DeGeneres說的那樣

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So, E. O. Wilson,

    所以,E. O. 威爾遜。

  • probably the greatest evolutionary biologist since Darwin himself,

    可能是最偉大的進化生物學家 自達爾文本人。

  • says homosexuality gives advantages to the group by specialized talents

    說同志通過專業的人才給群體帶來了優勢。

  • and unusual qualities of personality.

    和不同尋常的個性品質。

  • So, a society that condemns homosexuality harms itself.

    所以,一個譴責同志的社會,是在傷害自己。

  • So, what does professor Wilson mean by "unusual qualities of personality"?

    那麼,威爾遜教授所說的"不尋常的個性品質"是什麼意思呢?

  • Well, let me tell you about our dear family friend Jenny.

    好吧,讓我來給你講講我們親愛的家人朋友珍妮。

  • She is 35, single, straight.

    她35歲,單身,直男。

  • She was telling us she is looking for a man who's smart and funny,

    她告訴我們,她要找一個聰明又有趣的男人。

  • who's sensitive, who's a good listener.

    誰'的敏感,誰'是一個很好的傾聽者。

  • And she says she occasionally meets a guy like that,

    而她說她偶爾會遇到這樣的人。

  • but she complains, "You know, he usually has a boyfriend already!"

    但她抱怨說,"你知道,他通常已經有男朋友了!&quot。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So, although people tend to obsess over what gays do or don't do in a bedroom,

    所以,雖然人們往往糾結於同志在臥室裡做什麼或不做什麼'。

  • it's really this distinctive personality and a strong intellect

    真的是個性鮮明,智慧過人

  • that are more critical, from evolution's perspective.

    是比較關鍵的,從進化論'的角度來看。

  • So, scientific studies do indeed show

    所以,科學研究確實表明

  • that people in the sexual minority tend to be intelligent,

    性少數群體的人往往是聰明的。

  • particularly when it comes to emotional intelligence.

    尤其是在情商方面。

  • So, this study showed

    所以,這項研究表明

  • that boys and girls who scored in a very bright IQ range

    智商在很高的男孩和女孩的分數範圍內

  • were twice as likely to be homosexual as adults

    同志的可能性是成年人的兩倍。

  • as those children who scored in the low to average range.

    作為那些得分在低到平均範圍內的兒童。

  • And, among gay males, on psychological testing,

    而且,在男同性戀中,在心理測試上。

  • gay males tend to score higher in metrics of compassion and cooperation,

    男同性戀在同情心和合作的指標上往往得分較高。

  • and lower in metrics of hostility.

    和較低的敵對度量。

  • So, if Michelangelo had been straight,

    所以,如果米開朗基羅一直直。

  • he might have just wallpapered the Sistine Chapel.

    他可能只是給西斯廷教堂貼了壁紙。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Songwriter Sam Austin says,

    作曲家山姆-奧斯汀說。

  • "Homosexuality is God's way of ensuring

    "同志是上帝'的方式,以確保。

  • the truly gifted aren't burdened with children."

    真正有天賦的人是不會有孩子的負擔的&quot。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But today, in the US, about 2 out of every 25 people are in the sexual minority.

    但如今,在美國,每25人中就有2人屬於性少數派。

  • Diversity is nature's secret weapon.

    多樣性是大自然的祕密武器。

  • If all males were gay, that would be a problem,

    如果所有的男性都是同志,那就麻煩了。

  • but if all males were warriors, we'd always be at war.

    但如果所有的男性都是戰士,我們'會一直處於戰爭狀態。

  • The recipe for a successful human culture

    人類文化的成功祕訣

  • is a synergy of many different ingredients.

    是多種不同成分的協同作用。

  • Homosexuality is like a catalyst

    同志就像催化劑

  • to help emotionally connect groups of people together.

    以幫助情感上將群體聯繫在一起。

  • For heterosexuals, to disapprove of gays

    對異性戀者來說,不贊成同性戀者

  • is kind of like the white flour in bread disapproving of the yeast.

    有點像麵包中的白麵粉不贊成酵母。

  • So, if your genome is your hardware, epigenetics is your software.

    所以,如果你的基因組是你的硬件,表觀遺傳學就是你的軟件。

  • You have many different DNA programs downloaded on your DNA,

    你的DNA上下載了許多不同的DNA程序。

  • and epigenetics chooses from among these to determine

    和表觀遺傳學從中選擇決定。

  • which version of you actually is the best fit for the environment.

    其實哪個版本的你才是最適合環境的。

  • So, ants, you probably didn't know it, but are another highly social species

    所以,螞蟻,你可能不知道,但卻是另一個高度社會化的物種。

  • that have epigenetic mechanisms very similar to humans.

    的表觀遺傳機制與人類非常相似。

  • These two are identical twin sisters, huh?

    這兩個是同卵雙胞胎姐妹,嗯?

  • Even though their DNA sequences are exactly the same,

    即使他們的DNA序列完全相同。

  • this one, the worker,

    這個,工。

  • is a brainy little scurrier who goes out looking for food,

    是一個聰明的小飛毛腿,他出去尋找食物。

  • whereas the one on the right, the soldier,

    而右邊的那個,是阿兵哥。

  • is obviously a brawny one to fight off enemies.

    明明是個彪悍的人,卻偏偏要去打敵人。

  • So, the queen ant epigenetically orchestrates this

    所以,蟻后從表觀遺傳學的角度協調了這一切

  • by placing different epigenetic tags on the developing ants.

    通過在發育中的螞蟻身上放置不同的表觀遺傳標籤。

  • So -

    所以...

  • she places tags when the colony is under attack

    它在族群受到攻擊時貼上標籤。

  • to uncoil the DNA and light up the genes to make the soldier,

    來解開DNA,點亮基因,讓阿兵哥。

  • but when the colony is hungry, she puts different tags to uncoil the DNA

    但當蟻群飢餓時,她會貼上不同的標籤來解開DNA

  • and epigenetically create the conditions for the worker.

    並從表觀上為工人創造條件。

  • So, in this way, the epigenetics -

    所以,這樣一來,表觀遺傳學--。

  • the dynamic power of epigenetics changes our genetic expression,

    表觀遺傳學的動態力量改變了我們的基因表達。

  • so that we're born with traits that allow us and our families

    所以,我們'出生的特點,讓我們和我們的家庭。

  • the best chance to succeed in the current conditions.

    在目前的條件下,是最有機會成功的。

  • So, you probably have gay genes in your DNA,

    所以,你的DNA裡可能有同志的基因。

  • but, unless they were turned on in your mother's womb,

    但是,除非它們在你母親的子宮裡被打開。

  • they remain coiled up and silent.

    它們依然盤踞在那裡,默默無聞。

  • A recent groundbreaking study from UCLA found

    加州大學洛杉磯分校最近的一項突破性研究發現

  • that, by looking at a group of men, some gay, some straight,

    那,通過看一群男人,有些是同志,有些是異性戀。

  • and looking at epigenetic tags in nine different sites,

    並在9個不同的部位觀察表觀遺傳標籤。

  • they could predict with 70% accuracy their sexual orientation.

    他們可以用70%的準確率預測自己的性取向。

  • So, what conditions in the uterus turn on those gay genes?

    那麼,子宮裡什麼情況下會開啟這些同志基因呢?

  • So, for a male,

    所以,對於一個男性來說。

  • your chances of homosexuality increase in proportion

    你的同志機率會成比例增加

  • to the number of previous baby boys who inhabited your mother's uterus.

    到以前的男嬰數量誰居住在你母親'的子宮。

  • So, for every older biological brother you have,

    所以,你每有一個親哥哥。

  • your chances of being born gay go up 33%.

    你生為同志的機率上升33%。

  • Long before we invented the pill,

    早在我們發明藥片之前

  • nature devised homosexuality as a prescription for birth control.

    大自然設計了同志作為控制生育的處方。

  • After four straight, heterosexual males, nature says, "Enough already!,"

    四個異性直男之後,大自然說,"已經夠了!&quot。

  • and the mom's immune system switches on the epigenetic switch

    和媽媽的免疫系統開啟了表觀遺傳學的開關

  • so a gay male is born into the family.

    所以一個男同性戀者出生在這個家庭裡。

  • This one will not be overburdening the clan with yet more mouths to feed

    這個不會給族人帶來過重的負擔,讓他們有更多的口飯吃。

  • in the next generation - sometimes more isn't better -

    在下一代 - 有時更多是不是更好 -

  • and he's not going to be killing his brother

    他不會殺了他的兄弟。

  • in a fight over who gets the girl.

    在爭奪誰得到的女孩。

  • Thankfully, the sexual minority these days have many options

    值得慶幸的是,現在的性少數派有很多選擇。

  • for having kids of their own,

    因為有自己的孩子。

  • and I have a hunch my gay son may bless us with grandchildren

    我有一種預感,我的同志兒子可能會給我們帶來孫子孫女。

  • before our three straight children do.

    在我們的三個直腸子之前。

  • So, another gene, this one on the X chromosome,

    所以,另一個基因,這個基因在X染色體上。

  • is called a "male-loving gene,"

    被稱為"戀男基因,&quot。

  • because, when it shows up in a female,

    因為,當它出現在女性。

  • she tends to mate early and have a lot of kids,

    她往往交配早,孩子多。

  • but, when the male-loving gene shows up in a male,

    但是,當男性的戀男基因出現在男性身上時。

  • it predisposes to homosexuality.

    它容易導致同志。

  • So, this is another gene that balances a family

    所以,這又是一個平衡家庭的基因。

  • destined to have a large brood of kids and grandkids

    兒孫滿堂

  • with an occasional gay son whose natural tendency to promote togetherness

    偶爾有一個同志的兒子,他的自然傾向於促進團結。

  • could improve the chances of survival for the whole family.

    可以提高全家人的生存機率。

  • Now, I apologize.

    現在,我道歉。

  • We have a lot more science about sexual orientation in men than in women,

    我們對男性的性取向比女性的性取向有更多的科學依據。

  • so this talk is mostly about gay males.

    所以這個話題主要是關於男同性戀的。

  • Though, I have no doubt

    雖然,我毫不懷疑

  • that female homosexuality is also a natural variation

    女性同志也是一種自然變化

  • that is advantageous for the family and the community.

    是對家庭和社會有利的。

  • But Jimmy has no older brothers.

    但吉米沒有哥哥。

  • Why is he gay?

    他為什麼是同志?

  • So, when Joan was pregnant with him,

    所以,當瓊懷上他的時候。

  • we discovered a large cancer growing in her chest.

    我們發現她的胸部長了一個大癌。

  • Metastasis in the neck.

    頸部的轉移。

  • It was a scary time.

    那是一個可怕的時代。

  • She had radiation therapy to her chest

    她的胸部接受了放射治療

  • while Jimmy was still in the third trimester.

    當吉米還在懷孕三個月的時候。

  • It was a rocky start for little Jimmy.

    對小吉米來說,這是個艱難的開始。

  • Miraculously, they both survived and are in great health today.

    奇蹟般地,他們都活了下來,如今身體非常健康。

  • But, in fact,

    但是,其實。

  • severe prenatal stress does predispose to homosexuality.

    嚴重的產前壓力確實容易導致同志。

  • In this study, 37% of gay males

    在這項研究中,37%的男同性戀者。

  • reported their mothers suffered severe prenatal stress

    據報告,她們的母親遭受了嚴重的產前壓力。

  • compared to only 3% of heterosexual males' moms.

    相比之下,只有3%的異性男性'媽媽。

  • This is kind of like the queen ant,

    這有點像蟻后。

  • where the mom is placing epigenetic markers on the baby

    媽媽把表觀遺傳標記放在寶寶身上的地方

  • to change his identity to help the future welfare of the family.

    為了改變自己的身份,幫助家庭未來的福利。

  • It's as if the mom was saying, "I'm in trouble here.

    這就好像媽媽在說,"我這裡有麻煩了。

  • I need a kind and clever ally to help me hold this family together."

    我需要一個善良而聰明的盟友來幫我撐起這個家&quot。

  • So, to summarize,

    所以,總結一下。

  • if the family is flushed with plenty of kids

    家有兒女滿堂紅

  • and/or it's a stressful place and time,

    和/或它'是一個緊張的地方和時間。

  • nature occasionally flips these epigenetics switches

    自然界偶爾會打開這些表觀遺傳學的開關。

  • to turn on the gay genes.

    來開啟同志的基因。

  • This alters brain development,

    這改變了大腦的發育。

  • that changes sexual orientation and also improves emotional intelligence.

    能改變性取向,還能提高情商。

  • I have no doubt that Jimmy was born gay.

    我毫不懷疑吉米是天生的同志。

  • Here's his first birthday party.

    這是他的第一個生日派對。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • When he was three, he said, "Mommy, when I grow up, I want to marry Daddy."

    在他三歲的時候,他說,"媽媽,等我長大了,我要嫁給爸爸&quot。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, some parents send their kid away, you know, well-meaning parents,

    現在,有些父母把孩子送走,你知道,好心的父母。

  • to a conversion camp to pray away the gay.

    到皈依營去祈求消除同志。

  • You might as well send the kid to a camp

    你還不如送孩子去夏令營呢。

  • to convert his eye color from brown to blue.

    將他的眼睛顏色從棕色轉為藍色。

  • Not happening!

    不可能!

  • But Jimmy is like social glue holding our family together.

    但吉米就像社會膠水一樣,把我們的家庭凝聚在一起。

  • You know, whether his brother Evan gets beat up in a bar fight,

    你知道,無論他的兄弟埃文被毆打 在酒吧打架。

  • or his sister Caroline gets dumped by a boyfriend,

    或者他的妹妹Caroline被男朋友甩了。

  • or his sister Kathleen gets busted for plagiarizing Wikipedia -

    或者他的妹妹凱瑟琳因為抄襲維基百科而被抓。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • they know Jimmy's made them feel

    他們知道吉米讓他們覺得

  • like they belong to something bigger than their problems.

    就像他們屬於比他們的問題更大的東西。

  • So, storytelling is the great survival skill of the Irish,

    所以,講故事是愛爾蘭人的生存大法。

  • and, right here in Dublin, 162 years ago,

    而且,就在都柏林,162年前。

  • one of your finest storytellers was born:

    你們最優秀的故事家之一誕生了。

  • Oscar Wilde.

    奧斯卡-王爾德

  • Oscar ran away to the University of Oxford

    奧斯卡跑到牛津大學去了

  • where he met a young poet named Bosie Douglas.

    在那裡,他遇到了一個年輕的詩人叫博西-道格拉斯。

  • Their long-standing openly gay relationship

    他們長期公開的同志關係

  • infuriated and humiliated Bosie's father, Lord Queensburry -

    激怒並羞辱了博西'的父親,Queensburry勳爵--。

  • I'm not making this up -

    我不是在編造這一切。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • who was so mad that he eventually had Oscar arrested for gross indecency,

    誰是如此瘋狂,他最終有奧斯卡被捕 嚴重猥褻。

  • thrown into a dungeon for two years of hard labor.

    被關進地牢,做兩年苦工。

  • Oscar died three years later, a young man.

    奧斯卡三年後去世,一個年輕人。

  • Oscar wrote, "Always forgive your enemies. Nothing annoys them so much."

    奧斯卡寫道,"永遠原諒你的敵人。沒有什麼能讓他們如此惱火.&quot。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But these days, open homophobia is being replaced by more of a subtle heterosexism

    但如今,公開的同志恐懼症正被更多微妙的異性戀所取代

  • where people in the sexual minority

    性少數群體的人

  • are often considered second-class citizens.

    往往被視為二等公民。

  • Boy George says, "There's this illusion

    男孩喬治說,"有'的這種錯覺。

  • that homosexuals have sex and heterosexuals fall in love.

    同性戀者做愛,異性戀者戀愛。

  • That's completely untrue. We all want to be loved."

    那'是完全不真實的。我們都希望被愛.&quot。

  • I agree: among all the things in life it'd be hardest to live without,

    我同意:在生活中所有的東西中,沒有它是最難活的。

  • love would come first.

    愛是第一位的。

  • But indoor plumbing and toilet paper would be pretty high up there too, right?

    但室內的水管和衛生紙也會很高吧?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I want to tell you about one more study,

    我還想告訴你一個研究。

  • this one a heartbreaking, nationwide study, from the US,

    這個一個令人心碎的,全國性的研究,來自美國。

  • that looked at US teens, and they found that those in the sexual minority

    他們發現,那些在性少數群體中的

  • were twice as likely to be bullied,

    是被欺負的可能性的兩倍。

  • five times more likely to have attempted suicide.

    自殺未遂的可能性高5倍。

  • Twenty-nine percent of gay teens had tried to kill themselves.

    29%的同志青少年曾試圖自殺。

  • These days, around the world, in many countries,

    如今,在世界範圍內,很多國家。

  • it's