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  • There's a big question at the center of life

    譯者: Xiangyi Chen 審譯者: Conway Ye

  • in our democracies today:

    有一個很嚴峻的問題 存在於生活的中心

  • How do we fight terror without destroying democracies,

    我們今天的民主當中:

  • without trampling human rights?

    我們如何打擊恐怖主義, 在不破壞民主、

  • I've spent much of my career working with journalists,

    不踐踏人權的情況下?

  • with bloggers,

    我工作的大部分時間是 與一些記者們,

  • with activists,

    博客作者們,

  • with human rights researchers all around the world,

    積極份子們,

  • and I've come to the conclusion

    還有來自世界各地的 人權研究者們一起共事,

  • that if our democratic societies do not double down

    我也由此得出一個結論

  • on protecting and defending human rights,

    就是如果我們的 民主社會不加倍地

  • freedom of the press

    保護和捍衛人權,

  • and a free and open internet,

    新聞自由

  • radical extremist ideologies are much more likely to persist.

    還有自由和開放的互聯網,

  • (Applause)

    極端激進的意識形態 很有可能會一直存留著。

  • OK, all done. Thank you very much.

    (掌聲)

  • No, just joking.

    好了,我說完了。感謝妳們。

  • (Laughter)

    不,只是玩笑。

  • I actually want to drill down on this a little bit.

    (笑聲)

  • So, one of the countries that has been on the frontlines of this issue

    我其實想要再 深入探討一下這個話題。

  • is Tunisia,

    有一個國家一直位於 這個話題的前線

  • which was the only country to come out of the Arab Spring

    突尼斯,

  • with a successful democratic revolution.

    唯一一個走出 阿拉伯之春的國家

  • Five years later,

    通過一場成功的民主革命。

  • they're struggling with serious terror attacks

    五年後,

  • and rampant ISIS recruitment.

    他們卻掙扎於 嚴重的恐怖襲擊

  • And many Tunisians are calling on their government

    還有猖獗的ISIS徵募中。

  • to do whatever it takes to keep them safe.

    很多突尼斯民眾 在呼籲他們的政府

  • Tunisian cartoonist Nadia Khiari

    去採取一切手段 來保護他們的人身安全。

  • has summed up the situation with this character who says,

    突尼斯漫畫家 Nadia Khiari

  • "I don't give a damn about human rights.

    通過一個漫畫角色 概括了國內的情形

  • I don't give a damn about the revolution.

    "我一點都不在乎人權。“

  • I don't give a damn about democracy and liberty.

    “我一點都不在乎革命。“

  • I just want to be safe."

    “我一點都不在乎民主和自由。”

  • "Satisfied?" asked his jailer.

    “我只想要安全。”

  • "You're safe now."

    “滿意了嗎?” 獄卒問他,

  • If the Tunisian people can figure out

    “妳現在安全了。”

  • how to deal with their terrorism problem

    假如突尼斯人民 能夠想到

  • without ending up in this place,

    怎麼去處理 恐怖主義問題

  • they will be a model not only for their region,

    而又不必終其一生 在監獄中度過,

  • but for all of us.

    他們將不僅僅成為 他們當地的榜樣,

  • The reality is that civil society, journalists and activists

    更將成為我們 所有人的榜樣。

  • are coming under attack from extremist groups on the one hand,

    事實是公民社會, 記者和積極份子們

  • and, in many countries,

    在一方面正經受著 來自極端團體的攻擊,

  • also from their own governments.

    並且,在很多國家,

  • We're seeing bloggers and journalists being jailed,

    還經受著來自他們 自己政府的攻擊。

  • charged and intimidated

    我們看到很多博客作者 和記者被關押、

  • by their own governments,

    控告和威脅著

  • many of which are allies with the West in the war on terror.

    被他們自己的政府。

  • Just three examples.

    當中的許多國家是西方國家 在反恐戰爭中的盟友。

  • A friend and former colleague of mine,

    就舉三個例子。

  • Hisham Almiraat,

    我的一位朋友兼前同事,

  • has been charged with threatening state security,

    Hisham Almiraat,

  • along with six other activists in Morocco.

    他被控告 威脅國家安全,

  • The Saudi blogger Raif Badawi has been jailed and flogged

    與其他六位在摩洛哥 的積極份子們一道。

  • for insulting Islam and criticizing the Saudi regime on his blog.

    沙特博客作者Raif Badawi 被關押和鞭打

  • More recently, the Turkish representative for Reporters Without Borders,

    因他在博客裡 侮辱伊斯蘭和批判沙特政權。

  • Erol Önderoglu,

    最近的是,無國界記者 的土耳其代表,

  • has been detained and charged with spreading terrorist propaganda,

    Erol Önderoglu,

  • because he and some other activists have been supporting Kurdish media.

    被拘留和控告 宣揚恐怖主義

  • Anti-terror measures quickly turn into state repression

    因為他和一些其他的積極份子們 一直是庫爾德媒體的支持者。

  • without strong protection for minority communities

    反恐措施很快轉變 成為了國家的一種鎮壓

  • and for peaceful debate;

    沒有對少數群體 提供有力的保護

  • this needs to be supported by a robust, independent local media.

    也沒有和平的辯論;

  • But while that's not really happening,

    這需要由一個強大的 獨立的當地媒體來支撐。

  • Washington is teaming up with Silicon Valley and with Hollywood

    然而實際上 卻恰好相反,

  • to pour millions -- hundreds of millions of dollars --

    華盛頓正與硅谷 還有好萊塢合作

  • into what's called "counter-messaging,"

    投入數百萬的— 數億的美元—

  • a fancy word for propaganda.

    到所謂的“反信息活動”中,

  • To counter the terrorist propaganda spreading all over the internet,

    其實就是宣傳的 一種花俏的說法。

  • in Europe, Internet Referral Units are being set up,

    為了對抗在互聯網上 廣泛傳播的恐怖主義宣傳,

  • so that people can report on extremist content that they find

    歐洲設置了 互聯網轉介單位,

  • and get it censored.

    人們可以通過它們 告發他們所看到的極端內容

  • The problem is,

    使這些內容 得以審查。

  • that all of this propaganda, monitoring and censorship

    問題是,

  • completely fails to make up for the fact

    所有的這些宣傳、 監控和審查

  • that the people who are the most credible voices,

    完全無法彌補一個事實

  • who can present credible ideas and alternative solutions

    就是有那麼一群人 他們擁有最具公信力的聲音,

  • to real economic, social and political problems in their community

    他們能呈現可靠的想法和 可替代的解決方案

  • that are causing people to turn to extremism in the first place,

    去解決他們所在地方的 真實的經濟、社會和政治問題

  • are being silenced by their own governments.

    這些問題促使人們投身於極端主義,

  • This is all adding up to a decrease in freedom across the world.

    然而這群人卻被他們的政府所禁言。

  • Freedom House,

    這在全世界範圍內 進一步削減了人們的自由。

  • the human rights organization,

    自由之家,

  • reports that 2015 marks the 10th straight year in a row

    一個人權組織,

  • of decline in freedom worldwide.

    在報告中稱道,2015年 標誌著第10個年頭

  • And this is not just because of the actions

    世界範圍內自由的持續減少。

  • of authoritarian governments.

    造成這結果的不僅僅是

  • It's also because democratic governments

    獨裁政府的所作所為。

  • are increasingly cracking down on dissenters,

    還因為民主政府們

  • whistle-blowers

    在越來越多地 鎮壓異見者、

  • and investigative journalists.

    揭發者、

  • UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon has warned

    和調查記者。

  • that "preventing extremism and promoting human rights go hand-in-hand."

    聯合國秘書長 潘基文曾警告道

  • It's not to say that governments shouldn't keep us safe --

    “防止極端主義和 促進人權是息息相關的。”

  • of course they should --

    這並不是說政府 不應該保護我們的安全—

  • but we need public oversight, transparency

    它們當然應該這麼做—

  • and accountability to the rule of law.

    但是我需要公眾監督,透明度

  • Meanwhile,

    和問責制來實行法治。

  • extremists are literally killing off civil society in some countries.

    同時,

  • Since 2013 in Bangladesh,

    極端主義者們在某些 國家正在逐漸消滅著公民社會。

  • over a dozen secular bloggers and community activists

    自2013年,在孟加拉國

  • have been literally slaughtered by extremists

    已經有超過十二位 世俗博客作者和社會活動家

  • while the government has done very little.

    被極端主義者們所屠殺

  • From the city of Raqqa in Syria,

    然而政府卻對此 無甚作為。

  • people like Ruqia Hassan and Naji Jerf have been assassinated

    在敘利亞的拉卡市,

  • for their reporting out of ISIS-controlled territory.

    像Rudi Hassan和Naji Jerf 這樣的人們被刺殺了

  • The citizen media group called Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently

    理由是他們在ISIS掌控的 領域範圍外進行報導。

  • relies on strong encryption to send out their reports

    公民媒體團體 “拉卡正遭無聲屠殺”

  • and shield themselves from interception and surveillance.

    依靠著高強度的數據加密 來把他們的報導發送出去

  • Yet authorities in countries like the United States,

    並使他們自己免遭 攔截和監視。

  • the United Kingdom and many other democracies

    然而一些官方機構們 來自美國、

  • are seeking to use the law

    英國和很多其他的民主國家,

  • to either weaken or outright ban strong encryption,

    他們正尋求著運用法律

  • because the bad guys are using it, too.

    去削弱或者完全禁止 高強度加密技術,

  • We have got to fight for the right of citizens to use strong encryption.

    原因是壞傢伙們也在利用著它。

  • Otherwise, dissent and investigative journalism

    我們需要去爭取公民使用 數據加密技術的權利。

  • are going to become even more difficult

    否則,異見和調查報導

  • in even more places.

    將會變得更為困難

  • And the bad guys -- the criminals and terrorists --

    在更多的地方。

  • are still going to find ways to communicate.

    而壞傢伙們— 罪犯和恐怖主義者—

  • Kudos to the companies that are standing up

    仍然會尋找其它傳播方式。

  • for their users' right to use encryption.

    致敬那些站起來維護

  • But when it comes to censorship,

    用戶使用加密技術權利的公司。

  • the picture is much more troubling.

    然而提到審查的話,

  • Yes, there's a real problem

    它的情況更加的令人擔憂。

  • of extremist content spreading all over the internet.

    是的, 現在有一個真實的問題

  • And Facebook, YouTube and Twitter are among the many companies

    就是極端主義內容 正在互聯網當中廣泛傳播著。

  • who report having taken down hundreds of thousands of pieces of content

    而Facebook、 Youtube、Twitter 還有眾多的公司

  • and deactivating accounts

    聲稱他們已清除了 無數內容片段

  • that are connected to the extremist's speech.

    並註銷了

  • The problem is their enforcement mechanisms are a complete black box,

    與極端主義演說相關的用戶帳號。

  • and there is collateral damage.

    問題是這些公司的執行機制 是一個複雜的黑匣子,

  • Take, for example, Iyad el-Baghdadi,

    並且會引起“附帶損害”。

  • an activist who makes fun of ISIS on Twitter.

    把Iyad el-Baghdadi作為一個例子,

  • He had his account deactivated,

    他是一位經常在Twitter上 開ISIS玩笑的積極份子。

  • because he shares a surname with a prominent ISIS leader.

    他的帳號被註銷了,

  • Last December,

    因為他和一位著名的 ISIS領導者擁有一樣的姓氏。

  • a number of women named Isis,

    去年十二月,

  • which also happens to be the name of an Egyptian goddess,

    有許多名字叫”Isis“的女生,

  • had their accounts deactivated.

    她們的名字恰好來源自 一位埃及女神的名字,

  • And this woman,

    這些女生的帳號卻被註銷了。

  • who lives in the United States and is a computer programmer,

    而當中有一位女生,

  • reported on Twitter about her deactivation on Facebook,

    一位住在美國的計算機程序員,

  • managed to get enough media attention to have her account reinstated.

    在Twitter上敘述了她 Facebook帳號被註銷的事情,

  • But that's the thing -- she had to get media attention.

    設法通過獲得媒體的 注意力來恢復她的帳號。

  • And journalists aren't immune.

    然而這就是問題的所在之處— 她需要獲得媒體的注意力

  • David Thomson,

    但是記者們並不是免疫的。

  • an expert on terrorism and reporter for Radio France International,

    大衛 湯姆森,

  • had reports deleted from his Facebook account

    一位恐怖主義方面的專家 兼法國國際廣播電台記者,

  • and had his account deactivated for several days,

    他在Facebook帳號 上的報道被刪除了

  • because they contained pictures of ISIS flags,

    他的帳號也被註銷了幾天,

  • even though he was just reporting on ISIS,

    原因是報道中 包含了ISIS旗幟,

  • not promoting it.

    儘管他僅僅在作 ISIS相關的報道,

  • And then we have stories from people like this Egyptian man,

    而不是在推廣它。

  • Ahmed Abdellahy,

    接下來我們有來自類似於這位 埃及男人的人們的故事,

  • who reported recently in an event in Washington DC

    Ahmed Abdellahy,

  • that some of his arguments with extremists --

    他最近在華盛頓的一個 活動中報告道

  • he now spends his time on social media arguing with ISIS followers,

    他與極端主義者的一些爭論—

  • trying to get them to turn away --

    他現在花費他的時間在社交媒體 上與ISIS追隨者們爭論,

  • some of his arguments with these extremists get deleted,

    嘗試去讓他們遠離(ISIS)—

  • which he believes has the effect of shielding them

    他和這些極端主義者們的 一些爭論內容被刪除了,

  • from alternative points of view.

    然而他相信這些爭論內容 能夠有效地庇護他們

  • It's unclear whether Facebook even knows the extent

    使他們免遭其它觀點影響。

  • of the collateral damage,

    我們不知道Facebook 是否了解到

  • or the other companies as well.

    附帶損害的程度,

  • But we do know that journalism, activism and public debate

    我們也不知道 其它公司是否有所了解。

  • are being silenced in the effort to stamp out extremist speech.

    然而我們知道的是 新聞、行動主義還有公開辯論

  • So with these companies having so much power over the public discourse,

    它們在這些公司致力於 撲滅極端言論的過程中被壓制了。

  • they need to be held accountable.

    對於那些能夠 控制公共話語的企業們,

  • They need to carry out impact assessment

    它們需要負起相對的責任。

  • to identify and fix the problems that we're clearly seeing.

    他們需要實行影響評估

  • They need to be more transparent about their enforcement mechanisms,

    從而去辨認和解決 我們能夠清楚看到的問題。

  • and they need to have clear appeal and grievance mechanisms,

    它們需要使它們的 執行機制更加透明化,

  • so people can get their content reinstated.

    它們還需要具備明確的 上訴和申訴機制,

  • Now, I've been talking for the last 10 minutes

    讓人們能夠使 他們的內容得到恢復。

  • about how governments and companies are making it more difficult

    至此,我已花了10分鐘

  • for people like these.

    講述了政府和企業們是如何 帶來更多的困難

  • This is a picture of members of the citizen media network,

    給這些人們。

  • Global Voices,

    這就是公民媒體網絡 的成員們的處境,

  • that I helped to cofound over 10 years ago

    全球之聲,

  • with my friend, Ethan Zuckerman.

    我在10多年前曾幫忙共同創立的

  • Interestingly, about 5 years ago, right after the Arab Spring,

    與我的朋友Ethan Zuckerman一起。

  • the data scientist Gilad Lotan

    有趣的是,大約5年前, 就在阿拉伯之春發生之後,

  • created a network map of the people in Global Voices

    數據科學家Gilad Lotan

  • who were heavy users of Twitter during the Arab Spring.

    製作了一個關於全球之聲 當中一些成員的網絡地圖

  • And he found that many of these people served as key information nodes

    這些成員是阿拉伯之春期間 Twitter的高度使用者。

  • between activists and journalists

    他發現這些人們 充當了關鍵信息節點這個角色

  • throughout the Tunisian and Egyptian revolution.

    在積極份子們和記者們之間

  • We've got to make sure that these people not only survive,

    在突尼斯革命和埃及革命 的整個過程中。

  • but are able to continue to thrive.

    我們必須確保 這些人不僅僅能夠活著,

  • Many of them are still active,

    還要確保他們 能夠茁壯成長起來。

  • other than the ones who have gone to jail

    他們當中有 很多人仍然活躍著,

  • or have been driven into hiding or exile.

    除了那些已經入獄的

  • All around the world,

    或者那些被迫躲藏或流放的。

  • people who are sick and tired of fear and oppression

    在世界各地,

  • are linking up in their communities and across borders.

    那些對恐懼和壓抑 感到厭惡和厭倦的人們

  • We've got to do everything we can to push our governments and companies

    正在他們的社區裡面、 在跨境地聯合起來。

  • to do a better job of protecting their rights.

    我們必須盡我們所能 去促使我們的政府和企業們

  • We've also got to be more mindful

    去更好地維護這些人的權利。

  • about how our own personal, political, consumer and business choices

    我們還必須更多地留意

  • affect people like these around the world.

    我們所作的個人的、政治的、 消費者和企業的選擇是如何

  • Also, if you follow the news,

    影響著世界上的這些人。

  • it's pretty clear that that alone isn't going to be enough.

    還有,如果妳們關注新聞,

  • We've got to take personal responsibility by joining --

    妳們會清楚知道 單單如此是並不足夠的。

  • or at very least, actively supporting --

    我們還必須承擔起 我們的責任去參與—

  • the growing ecosystem of individuals and groups

    或者至少,踴躍支持—

  • who are fighting for social justice,

    這個持續增長的生態系統 由個體和群體所組成

  • environmental sustainability,

    他們正爭取著社會正義,

  • government accountability,

    環境可持續性,

  • human rights, freedom of the press

    政府問責,

  • and a free and open internet,

    人權,出版自由

  • all around the world.

    還有一個自由開放的互聯網,

  • I believe that, ultimately, we can overcome

    在全世界內。

  • the digitally empowered networks of extremism, demagoguery and hate.

    我相信,最終, 我們能夠克服

  • But ...

    那些由極端主義、煽動行為以及 仇恨所組成的數字授權網絡。

  • we've got to do this by really beefing up the global networks

    但是...

  • of citizens around the world,

    要想達到這個目標 我們必須增強全球公民的網絡。

  • powered by people who are working hard every day,

    他們每天都在拼搏努力

  • and taking personal risk

    冒著個人風險

  • for a future world that is more peaceful, just, open and free.

    為了建造一個更加和平的, 僅僅是開放和自由的未來世界。

  • Thanks very much for listening.

    非常感謝妳們的聆聽。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

There's a big question at the center of life

譯者: Xiangyi Chen 審譯者: Conway Ye

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TED】麗貝卡-麥金農:我們可以在不犧牲權利的情況下對抗恐怖(We can fight terror without sacrificing our rights | Rebecca MacKinnon)。 (【TED】Rebecca MacKinnon: We can fight terror without sacrificing our rights (We can fight terror without sacrificing our rights | Rebecca MacKinnon))

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    Kristi Yang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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