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  • Nothing stuck to Mafia boss John Gotti

    黑手黨老大約翰-高蒂什麼都沒有粘住

  • who evaded justice for years by bribing and threatening jurors and witnesses.

    他通過賄賂和威脅陪審員和證人來逃避司法多年。

  • That earned him the name the Teflon Don

    這讓他獲得了 "鐵弗龍唐 "的稱號

  • after one of the slipperiest materials on Earth.

    以地球上最滑的材料之一為原型。

  • Teflon was in the spacesuits the Apollo crew wore for the moon landing,

    阿波羅隊員登月時穿的宇航服裡就有特氟龍。

  • in pipes and valves used in the Manhattan Project,

    在曼哈頓項目中使用的管道和閥門中。

  • and maybe in your kitchen as the nonstick coating on frying pans and cookie sheets.

    也許在你的廚房裡,可以作為不粘鍋和餅乾片的塗層。

  • So what is this slippery solid, and why doesn't anything stick to it?

    那麼這個滑膩的固體是什麼,為什麼什麼東西都不粘在上面呢?

  • Teflon is a brand name for polytetrafluoroethylene,

    特氟龍是聚四氟乙烯的品牌名稱。

  • or PTFE.

    或PTFE。

  • It was stumbled upon accidentally in 1938 by a 27-year-old American chemist

    它是在1938年由一位27歲的美國化學家偶然發現的。

  • named Roy Plunkett

    羅伊-普朗克特

  • while he was trying to develop a non-toxic refrigerant fluid for DuPont,

    當他試圖為杜邦公司開發一種無毒的冷凍液時。

  • a chemicals company.

    一家化工公司。

  • The strange, white substance that formed inside his lab canister

    在他的實驗室罐子裡形成的奇怪的白色物質。

  • was chemically inert,

    是化學惰性的。

  • meaning it wouldn't react with other substances.

    意味著它不會與其他物質發生反應。

  • It also had an extremely low coefficient of friction,

    它的摩擦係數也極低。

  • making other materials slide right off it.

    使其他材料從上面直接滑落。

  • Teflon's properties make it perfect when you need something slippery,

    特富龍的特性使它成為你需要滑溜的東西時的完美選擇。

  • chemical resistant,

    耐化學性。

  • or waterproof,

    或防水。

  • which means it has a lot of applications.

    這意味著它有很多應用。

  • It can be found all over the place,

    遍地都能找到。

  • as a coating on raincoats,

    作為雨衣的塗層。

  • industrial ball bearings,

    工業球軸承。

  • artificial joints,

    人工關節。

  • circuit boards,

    電路板。

  • and even the Rocky Mountains-themed roof of the Denver International Airport.

    甚至是以落基山脈為主題的丹佛國際機場的屋頂。

  • The incredible properties of PTFE come from its molecular structure.

    聚四氟乙烯令人難以置信的特性來自其分子結構。

  • It's a polymer,

    它是一種聚合物。

  • meaning it's made of long chains of repeating units of atoms strung together.

    意味著它是由長長的原子重複組織、部門鏈串聯而成的。

  • A PTFE chain has a backbone of carbon atoms,

    聚四氟乙烯鏈有一個碳原子的骨架。

  • each of which is attached to two fluorines.

    每一個都連接到兩個氟。

  • The fluorine atoms surround the carbon like armor,

    氟原子像盔甲一樣包圍著碳。

  • spiraling around the chain,

    繞著鏈子旋轉。

  • and the bond between carbon and fluorine is incredibly tight.

    而碳和氟之間的結合是非常緊密的。

  • Like a couple that ignores everyone except each other,

    就像一對情侶,除了對方,誰都不理誰。

  • carbon and fluorine interact so strongly

    碳氟互動強烈

  • that the normal, intermolecular forces that help substances stick to each other

    正常的、幫助物質相互粘附的分子間力量。

  • don't stand a chance.

    不要;39;站在一個機會。

  • Even the famously adhesive feet of geckos usually can't get a grip.

    即使是壁虎那雙著名的粘性腳,通常也抓不住。

  • But wait!

    但是,等等!

  • If PTFE doesn't stick to anything,

    如果PTFE不粘任何東西。

  • how can it be so firmly attached to something like a pan?

    怎麼能和平底鍋這樣的東西牢牢相連呢?

  • One method involves sandblasting the pan

    一種方法是對鍋進行噴砂處理

  • or etching it with chemicals to make it rough.

    或用化學藥品蝕刻,使其變得粗糙。

  • Then, a special primer is applied, which acts like glue.

    然後,塗上一層特殊的底漆,它的作用就像膠水一樣。

  • Its exact composition is a trade secret guarded by each manufacturer.

    它的確切成分是每個製造商所保守的商業祕密。

  • The pan is sprayed with liquid PTFE

    鍋內噴有液體PTFE

  • and heated to around 800 degrees Fahrenheit.

    並加熱到華氏800度左右。

  • The layers then solidify into a smooth, slick coating.

    然後層層凝固成光滑、滑膩的塗層。

  • When you later cook eggs in this PTFE-coated pan,

    當你以後用這個塗有聚四氟乙烯的鍋煮雞蛋時。

  • the extra tight carbon-fluorine bonds

    額外緊密的碳氟鍵

  • just ignore the water and fat and protein molecules in the eggs.

    只要忽略雞蛋中的水和脂肪以及蛋白質分子就可以了。

  • Without those interactions,

    如果沒有這些互動。

  • the food just slides around without sticking.

    食物只是滑來滑去而不粘連。

  • You might wonder if it's safe to cook in a PTFE-coated pan.

    你可能會想知道在PTFE塗層的鍋裡做飯是否安全。

  • The answer is yes, if you're careful.

    答案是肯定的,如果你'小心的話。

  • PTFE is stable at moderate temperatures, like you'd use to cook eggs or fish,

    聚四氟乙烯在適度的溫度下是穩定的,就像你'd用來煮雞蛋或魚。

  • but above 500 degrees Fahrenheit, it starts to degrade,

    但超過華氏500度,就會開始退化。

  • and heating it further releases fumes that can make you feel sick.

    並進一步加熱釋放出煙霧,會讓你感到噁心。

  • An empty pan can reach 500 degrees fast over high heat,

    空鍋大火可以快速達到500度。

  • but most kitchens are ventilated well enough to dissipate the fumes.

    但大多數廚房的通風效果很好,可以將油煙散去。

  • People used to also think that accidentally consuming PTFE

    過去人們還認為,不小心吃了聚四氟乙烯

  • that flaked off a scratched pan was bad for you,

    刮傷的平底鍋剝落對你不好。

  • but the current consensus is that it's harmless.

    但目前的共識是,它'是無害的。

  • Because PTFE doesn't interact with other chemicals very well,

    因為聚四氟乙烯與其他化學物質的相互作用不是很好。

  • it isn't thought to break down inside your body.

    它不是'以為會在你的身體內分解。

  • Whether it's safe to manufacture Teflon is another story.

    製造特氟龍是否安全是另一回事。

  • DuPont and its spin-off company Chemours

    杜邦公司及其衍生公司Chemours;

  • now face lawsuits worth millions of dollars.

    現在面臨價值數百萬美元的訴訟。

  • They've been accused of polluting the environment for decades

    他們被指責汙染環境幾十年了。

  • and exposing employees and local communities

    並讓員工和當地社區瞭解

  • to health risks associated with a toxic chemical called PFOA.

    與一種名為PFOA的有毒化學品有關的健康風險。

  • That chemical was involved in manufacturing Teflon.

    這種化學品參與了特氟隆的製造。

  • As for John Gotti,

    至於約翰-高蒂

  • in 1992, the Mob boss was finally convicted of five counts of murder,

    1992年,黑幫老大最終被判定五項謀殺罪名成立。

  • among other charges.

    以及其他指控。

  • That prompted the head of the FBI office in New York City to announce,

    這促使聯邦調查局駐紐約市辦公室主任宣佈。

  • "The Teflon is gone.

    "特富龍不見了。

  • The don is covered in Velcro, and all the charges stuck."

    唐人用魔術貼蓋住,所有的收費都卡住了.&quot。

Nothing stuck to Mafia boss John Gotti

黑手黨老大約翰-高蒂什麼都沒有粘住

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【TED-Ed】為什麼瓶子裡的膠水不會黏在一起 (Why doesn`t anything stick to Teflon?)

  • 862 68
    Jenson Wong 發佈於 2016 年 12 月 30 日
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