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  • After witnessing the violent rage shown by babies whenever deprived of an item they considered their own,

    目睹嬰兒因被剝奪一項認為是屬於自己的東西時所產生的暴怒後

  • Jean Piaget, a founding father of child psychology,

    Jean Piaget — 兒童心理學的創始之父

  • observed something profound about human nature.

    觀察到關於人性深刻的一面

  • Our sense of ownership emerges incredibly early.

    我們的擁有權意識出現的奇早

  • Why are we so clingy?

    但為什麼我們會如此的纏而不放?

  • There's a well-established phenomenon in psychology known as the endowment effect

    心理學有個被明確證實的現象,那就是稟賦效應

  • where we value items much more highly just as soon as we own them.

    此效應說明一旦我們擁有某項物品,就會更加的重視它

  • In one famous demonstration,

    在一項著名的例子中

  • students were given a choice between a coffee mug or a Swiss chocolate bar as a reward for helping out with research.

    學生因為幫忙做研究,所以可以從咖啡杯和瑞士巧克力棒之間做選擇當為獎賞

  • Half chose the mug, and half chose the chocolate.

    有一半的學生選擇咖啡杯,另一半的選擇巧克力棒

  • That is, they seemed to value the two rewards similarly.

    也就是說,他們似乎同樣重視這兩個獎賞

  • Other students were given a mug first

    一組學生首先獲得一個馬克杯

  • and then a surprise chance to swap it for a chocolate bar,

    接著他們獲得了一個驚喜的機會可以將手中的馬克杯換成巧克力棒

  • but only 11% wanted to.

    但結果只有 11% 的學生想要交換

  • Yet another group started out with chocolate,

    另一組學生則是先獲得巧克力棒

  • and most preferred to keep it rather than swap.

    結果也顯示學生選擇保留巧克力棒而非交換成馬克杯

  • In other words, the students nearly always put greater value on whichever reward they started out with.

    換句話說,幾乎所有的學生總是會將首先獲得的獎賞看作更有價值

  • Part of this has to do with how quickly we form connections between our sense of self and the things we consider ours.

    其中部份原因與我們迅速將自我意識和自認為屬於自己的事物形成連結有關

  • That can even be seen at the neural level.

    此現象甚至能夠在神經層面中觀察到

  • In one experiment, neuroscientists scanned participants' brains

    在一項實驗中,神經科學家對受試者的大腦進行了掃描

  • while they allocated various objects either to a basket labeled "mine,"or another labeled, "Alex's."

    他們將各種物品分配到標記為「我的」或標記為「Alex 的」的籃子中

  • When participants subsequently looked at their new things,

    隨後當受試者看到屬於他們自己的籃子中有放入新物品時

  • they're brains showed more activity in a region that usually flickers into life whenever we think about ourselves.

    大腦會顯示在某腦區有更活躍的現象,而此腦區經常會在我們思考自身時閃爍

  • Another reason we're so fond of our possessions

    另一個說明我們非常喜歡屬於自己的所有物的原因

  • is that from a young age we believe they have a unique essence.

    是由於從小我們便相信這些所有物具有獨特的本質

  • Psychologists showed us this by using an illusion

    心理學家們便透過使用錯覺來向我們證明此現象

  • to convince three to six-year-olds they built a copying machine,

    他們說服了三到六歲的小孩相信他們建造了一台複印機

  • a device that could create perfect replicas of any item.

    這台複印機可以完美的複製出任何物品

  • When offered a choice between their favorite toy or an apparently exact copy,

    當要求小孩在他們喜歡的玩具以及被複印機完美複製的玩具之間做選擇時

  • the majority of the children favored the original.

    大多數的小孩仍喜歡原本的玩具

  • In fact, they were often horrified at the prospect of taking home a copy.

    事實上,他們經常對於帶複製品回家感到恐懼

  • This magical thinking about objects isn't something we grow out of.

    這種對於物品一廂情願的現象並不會因為我們長大而消失

  • Rather it persists into adulthood while becoming ever more elaborate.

    相反的,還會持續到成年並且變得更加精緻化

  • For example, consider the huge value placed on items that have been owned by celebrities.

    舉例來說,將一項曾經被名人所擁有的物品冠上不斐的價值

  • It's as if the buyers believed the objects they'd purchased

    這就好像是買家們相信他們所購買的物品

  • were somehow imbued with the essence of their former celebrity owners.

    不知何故地浸透著前一位名人的本質

  • For similar reasons, many of us are reluctant to part with family heirlooms

    此現象說明了一些類似的原因,大部分的人並不願意和親人所遺留下來的物品分開

  • which help us feel connected to lost loved ones.

    因為這些物品能夠幫助他們感覺到與失去的愛人有所連結

  • These beliefs can even alter our perception of the physical world and change our athletic abilities.

    這些信念甚至能夠改變我們對於物理世界的知覺以及運動能力

  • Participants in a recent study were told they were using a golf putter once owned by the champion Ben Curtis.

    近期的研究中便顯示,當受試者被告知他們正在使用的高爾夫球推桿曾經被獲得冠軍的 Ben Curtis 擁有過時

  • During the experiment,

    在實驗的過程中

  • they perceived the hole as being about a centimeter larger than controlled participants using a standard putter

    他們會認為自己的球洞比起使用一般推桿的控制組大約大一厘米

  • and they sank slightly more putts.

    且他們會推進的更多的高爾夫球

  • Although feelings of ownership emerge early in life, culture also plays a part.

    雖然擁有權的感受出現在生命早期,但文化也會起作用

  • For example, it was recently discovered that Hadza people of northern Tanzania who are isolated from modern culture

    像是近期便發現,在坦桑尼亞北部與現代社會隔離的哈扎人

  • don't exhibit the endowment effect.

    並不會表現出稟賦效應

  • That's possibly because they live in an egalitarian society

    可能是因為他們生活在一個平等的社會

  • where almost everything is shared.

    幾乎所有一切都是共享的

  • At the other extreme, sometimes our attachment to our things can go too far.

    另一種極端的情況是,有時候我們會過度依賴所擁有的事物

  • Part of the cause of hoarding disorder is an exaggerated sense of responsibility and protectiveness toward one's belongings.

    囤積症的的部分原因就是因為我們對於擁有物有著誇大的責任感及保護性

  • That's why people with this condition find it so difficult to throw anything away.

    這就說明了,為什麼有著這種情況的人很難拋棄掉任何東西

  • What remains to be seen today is how the nature of our relationship with our possessions will change with the rise of digital technologies.

    至今仍有待觀察的是,隨著數位技術的興起,我們與所有物之間關係的性質會如何改變

  • Many have forecast the demise of physical books and music,

    許多人預測有形的書籍和音樂將會消失

  • but for now, at least, this seems premature.

    但至少現在還為時過早

  • Perhaps there will always be something uniquely satisfying about holding an object in our hands and calling it our own.

    或許,總有一些獨特的東西能夠讓我們握有手中並稱之為屬於自己的

After witnessing the violent rage shown by babies whenever deprived of an item they considered their own,

目睹嬰兒因被剝奪一項認為是屬於自己的東西時所產生的暴怒後

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 現象 學生 馬克杯 獎賞 屬於

【TED-Ed】為什麼我們會依戀自己的東西 (Why are we so attached to our things? - Christian Jarrett)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2017 年 01 月 09 日
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