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  • Tuberculosis, or TB, is one of the oldest and most common infectious diseases. About

    肺結核,簡稱TB,是最早出現也最常見的傳染病之一

  • one third of the world population is believed to be infected with TB. Fortunately, only

    據信世界上大約有三分之一的人口是肺結核病患

  • about 5% of these infections progress to active disease. The other 95% of infected people

    幸運的是,僅5%的肺結核會發展成開放性肺結核

  • are said to have a dormant or latent infection; they do not develop any symptoms, and do not

    剩下95%的病患則是非開放性肺結核,不會有症狀出現,不會傳染

  • transmit the disease. Tuberculosis is caused by a rod-shaped bacterium,

    肺結核是由桿狀的細菌所造成

  • or a bacillus, called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An infection is initiated following inhalation

    這種桿菌名叫「結核分枝桿菌」(Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

  • of mycobacteria present in aerosol droplets discharged into the atmosphere by a person

    開放性肺結核病患的飛沫可在空氣中停留數小時

  • with an active infection. The transmission process is very efficient as these droplets

    吸入含有結核菌的飛沫便會引起感染

  • can persist in the atmosphere for several hours and the infectious dose is very low

    肺結核的傳染性高,吸入一點就會引起感染

  • less than 10 bacilli are needed to start the infection.

    少於十個結核菌就能引發感染

  • Once in the lung, the bacteria meet with the body’s first-line defense - the alveolar

    結核菌進入肺部後會遇見身體的第一道防線:肺泡巨噬細胞

  • macrophages. The bacteria are ingested by the macrophages but manage to survive inside.

    肺泡巨噬細胞會吞噬結核菌,而結核菌能繼續存活在裡頭

  • Internalization of the bacilli triggers an inflammatory response that brings other defensive

    結核菌在巨噬細胞裡面會引起發炎反應,引來其他免疫細胞來到附近

  • cells to the area. Together, these cells form a mass of tissue, called a granuloma, characteristic

    這些細胞會在巨噬細胞外圍形成肉芽腫組織,這是肺結核的特色

  • of the disease. In its early stage, the granuloma has a core

    初期,肉芽腫的中心是受到感染的巨噬細胞

  • of infected macrophages enclosed by other cells of the immune system. As cellular immunity

    巨噬細胞由免疫細胞包圍

  • develops, macrophages loaded with bacteria are killed, resulting in the formation of

    免疫細胞作用之後,裡頭充滿結核菌的巨噬細胞會被殺死,造成肉芽腫中心壞死

  • the caseous center of the granuloma. The bacteria become dormant but may remain alive for decades.

    使肺結核進入潛伏期,但結核菌仍然能存活數十年

  • This enclosed infection is referred to as latent tuberculosis and may persist throughout

    這種包圍結核菌的感染為非開放性肺結核,病患可能一生都不會發病

  • a person's life without causing any symptoms. The strength of the body’s immune response

    人體的免疫系統反應決定感染是否終止

  • determines whether an infection is arrested here or progresses to the next stage. In healthy

    或者進入下一個階段

  • people, the infection may be stopped permanently at this point. The granulomas subsequently

    健康的人感染在這個階段就停止,肉芽腫接著癒合, 留下微小的鈣化傷口

  • heal, leaving small calcified lesions. On the other hand, if the immune system is compromised

    另一方面,如果免疫系統被其他免疫抑制藥影響

  • by immunosuppressive drugs, HIV infections, malnutrition, aging, or other factors, the

    或是病患得到愛滋病、營養不良、老年或其他原因

  • bacteria can be re-activated, replicate, escape from the granuloma and spread to other parts

    細菌就會活化,複製增生,逃出肉芽腫

  • of the lungs causing active pulmonary tuberculosis. This reactivation may occur months or even

    並散播到肺部其他地方造成開放性肺結核,初期感染後又復發

  • years after the initial infection. In some cases, the bacteria may also spread

    可能是數個月或者數年之後,有些案例中,細菌會透過淋巴系統或血液

  • to other organs of the body via the lymphatic system or the bloodstream. This widespread

    散播到其他器官

  • form of TB disease, called disseminated TB or miliary TB, occurs most commonly in the

    這種常見的肺結核類型叫做散播性結核或粟粒性結核

  • very young, the very old and those with HIV infections.

    最常發生在小朋友、老年人和愛滋病病患的人身上

  • Tuberculosis is generally treatable with antibiotics. Several antibiotics are usually prescribed

    抗生素通常能治癒肺結核,一些抗生素的療程通常要很多個月

  • for many months due to the slow growth rate of the bacteria. It’s very important that

    因為細菌的增生速度慢

  • the patients complete the course of the treatment to prevent development of drug-resistant bacteria

    重要的是,結核病病患要走完療程,避免細菌發展出抗藥性

  • and re-occurrence of the disease.

    也避免疾病復發

Tuberculosis, or TB, is one of the oldest and most common infectious diseases. About

肺結核,簡稱TB,是最早出現也最常見的傳染病之一

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B2 中高級 中文 細胞 病患 開放性 免疫 細菌 飛沫

結核病。疾病的發展、潛伏和活動性感染; (Tuberculosis (TB): Progression of the Disease, Latent and Active Infections.)

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    Study English 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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