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  • When Dorothy was a little girl,

    當Dorothy還是一個小女孩的時候,

  • she was fascinated by her goldfish.

    她對於小金魚深深著迷

  • Her father explained to her that fish swim by quickly wagging their tails

    她的父親向她解釋魚是透過快速擺動尾巴

  • to propel themselves through the water.

    在水中游動的

  • Without hesitation, little Dorothy responded,

    Dorothy毫不猶豫的回答說

  • "Yes, Daddy, and fish swim backwards by wagging their heads."

    「爸爸,除了前進,魚還會擺動自己的頭向後游哦!」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • In her mind, it was a fact as true as any other.

    在她認知當中,這和其他事情一樣都是事實

  • Fish swim backwards by wagging their heads.

    魚擺動頭部向後游

  • She believed it.

    她相信這樣的事情

  • Our lives are full of fish swimming backwards.

    而事實上,我們的人生中充斥著「向後游」的現象

  • We make assumptions and faulty leaps of logic.

    我們在做假設時,常常在邏輯上有一些缺陷

  • We harbor bias.

    便造成了誤差

  • We know that we are right, and they are wrong.

    我們認為自己永遠都是對的,而拒絕採納他人意見

  • We fear the worst.

    我們總往最壞的地方去想

  • We strive for unattainable perfection.

    我們一直盲目的追求完美

  • We tell ourselves what we can and cannot do.

    並且一再規範自己能做,以及不能做的事

  • In our minds, fish swim by in reverse frantically wagging their heads

    在我們的思考脈絡中,魚是透過搖動頭部來向反向游

  • and we don't even notice them.

    只是我們不曾注意過這件事情

  • I'm going to tell you five facts about myself.

    那麼現在,我要告訴你們五件關於我的事情

  • One fact is not true.

    其中有一個是假的

  • One: I graduated from Harvard at 19 with an honors degree in mathematics.

    一:我在19歲以優異成績從哈佛大學數學系畢業

  • Two: I currently run a construction company in Orlando.

    二:我目前在奧蘭多擁有一間建築公司

  • Three: I starred on a television sitcom.

    三:我是一個電視節目演員

  • Four: I lost my sight to a rare genetic eye disease.

    四:我因為先天基因造成眼睛上的疾病而失明

  • Five: I served as a law clerk to two US Supreme Court justices.

    五:我是美國最高法庭法官助理

  • Which fact is not true?

    你們猜猜看哪一個假的?

  • Actually, they're all true.

    事實上,全部都是真的

  • Yeah. They're all true.

    真的,他們都是事實

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • At this point, most people really only care about the television show.

    通常在這個時候,大部分的人都只在意電視節目的部分

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I know this from experience.

    這是我從過去經驗得知的

  • OK, so the show was NBC's "Saved by the Bell: The New Class."

    好吧,這個節目是NBC的 Saved by the Bell: The New Class."

  • And I played Weasel Wyzell,

    我扮演的是Weasel Wyzell

  • who was the sort of dorky, nerdy character on the show,

    在劇中差不多就是一個書呆子的腳色,

  • which made it a very major acting challenge

    對我這個13歲的男孩來說

  • for me as a 13-year-old boy.

    這也讓它成了一個很難詮釋的角色

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, did you struggle with number four, my blindness?

    現在,你們剛剛有一直在想第四點,我失明的這一項嗎?

  • Why is that?

    為什麼?

  • We make assumptions about so-called disabilities.

    我們常常對於所謂的身障人士做出先見的假設

  • As a blind man, I confront others' incorrect assumptions

    身為一個盲人,我每天都常常遇到

  • about my abilities every day.

    其他人對於我能力的不正確猜測

  • My point today is not about my blindness, however.

    然而今天的重點不在此

  • It's about my vision.

    而是關於我的視野

  • Going blind taught me to live my life eyes wide open.

    失明讓我學會如何用更廣闊的視野去過我的人生

  • It taught me to spot those backwards-swimming fish

    它教導我如何聚焦於那些

  • that our minds create.

    我們想像出來向回游的魚

  • Going blind cast them into focus.

    失明讓他們成為了一個聚焦點

  • What does it feel like to see?

    看的到的感覺怎麼樣?

  • It's immediate and passive.

    它是立即但被動的

  • You open your eyes and there's the world.

    你只要睜開眼,世界就在你面前

  • Seeing is believing. Sight is truth.

    眼見為憑

  • Right?

    對嗎?

  • Well, that's what I thought.

    我過去是這樣想的

  • Then, from age 12 to 25, my retinas progressively deteriorated.

    在我12歲到25歲的這段期間,視網膜的狀況持續的惡化

  • My sight became an increasingly bizarre

    我的視力開始變得模糊,或者說是奇怪,

  • carnival funhouse hall of mirrors and illusions.

    就像你在一個充斥著鏡子和幻覺的空間之裡看東西一樣

  • The salesperson I was relieved to spot in a store

    在一個店面裡,我認為是店員的人

  • was really a mannequin.

    其實只是一個人形模特兒

  • Reaching down to wash my hands,

    當我傾身要洗手,

  • I suddenly saw it was a urinal I was touching, not a sink,

    在雙手觸碰之後,

  • when my fingers felt its true shape.

    我才猛然驚覺我碰到的是小便斗而不是洗手槽

  • A friend described the photograph in my hand,

    有一個朋友跟我描述我手中照片的模樣,

  • and only then I could see the image depicted.

    只有這樣我才能知道在我手中的相片看起來如何

  • Objects appeared, morphed and disappeared in my reality.

    所有實體出現後,扭曲,最後消失

  • It was difficult and exhausting to see.

    要我看清楚東西很困難而且累人

  • I pieced together fragmented, transitory images,

    我必須將破碎、不清晰的影像,

  • consciously analyzed the clues,

    有條理地分析,

  • searched for some logic in my crumbling kaleidoscope,

    並透過想像,

  • until I saw nothing at all.

    才能將那些像是看萬花筒的畫面拼湊起來

  • I learned that what we see

    但也透過這樣,我才知道

  • is not universal truth.

    我們看到的事物並非普世皆然

  • It is not objective reality.

    那只不過是物體化的存在

  • What we see is a unique, personal, virtual reality

    我們認為是獨特、個人,或虛擬的生活

  • that is masterfully constructed by our brain.

    不過都是大腦精心製造出來的世界

  • Let me explain with a bit of amateur neuroscience.

    讓我以外行者的身分稍微解釋一下神經學

  • Your visual cortex takes up about 30 percent of your brain.

    外層視覺大約佔了大腦的百分之三十

  • That's compared to approximately eight percent for touch

    相較之下,觸覺只佔了大約百分之八,

  • and two to three percent for hearing.

    而聽覺僅僅占了百分之二到三

  • Every second, your eyes can send your visual cortex

    每一秒鐘,你的外層視覺

  • as many as two billion pieces of information.

    都會接收到成千上萬的資訊刺激

  • The rest of your body can send your brain only an additional billion.

    你身體的剩餘部位僅僅能提供一些額外的刺激

  • So sight is one third of your brain by volume

    因此,視覺基本上佔了大腦三分之一的「發言權」

  • and can claim about two thirds of your brain's processing resources.

    此外還能影響其他三分之二部分的處理資訊

  • It's no surprise then

    不過,這並不驚人

  • that the illusion of sight is so compelling.

    視覺能產生的效果是令人矚目的

  • But make no mistake about it: sight is an illusion.

    不過不要在這裡犯下一個邏輯錯誤:視覺等同於幻覺

  • Here's where it gets interesting.

    接下來我們要看為什麼事情這麼有趣

  • To create the experience of sight,

    要產生視覺,

  • your brain references your conceptual understanding of the world,

    你的大腦會引用你對世界的理解、概念、

  • other knowledge, your memories, opinions, emotions, mental attention.

    知識、記憶、想法、情緒,以及專注力等

  • All of these things and far more are linked in your brain to your sight.

    這些元素都被大腦和視覺做了連結

  • These linkages work both ways, and usually occur subconsciously.

    這樣的連結同時有兩種運作方式,而且經常是在潛意識下發生的

  • So for example,

    舉例來說,

  • what you see impacts how you feel,

    你對於結果的想法,

  • and the way you feel can literally change what you see.

    以及你的感受可以改變你看到的景象

  • Numerous studies demonstrate this.

    神經學的研究證實了這一點

  • If you are asked to estimate

    又例如,

  • the walking speed of a man in a video, for example,

    如果你被要求要估計一個影片上男子走路的速度,

  • your answer will be different if you're told to think about cheetahs or turtles.

    當你想到豹或烏龜的時候,答案是會有差異的

  • A hill appears steeper if you've just exercised,

    在你剛結束運動之後,一座小山丘可能會變得更陡,

  • and a landmark appears farther away

    如果你背著一個很重的背包

  • if you're wearing a heavy backpack.

    地標看起來會離自己很遠

  • We have arrived at a fundamental contradiction.

    我們都會遇到這些矛盾點

  • What you see is a complex mental construction of your own making,

    你所看到的東西很大的程度上是心理上認知造成的,

  • but you experience it passively

    但我們卻被動的去經驗這些視覺感受,

  • as a direct representation of the world around you.

    並認為這就是所謂真實的世界

  • You create your own reality, and you believe it.

    你創造了你的世界,而你也相信了這就是事實

  • I believed mine until it broke apart.

    在一切破碎之前,我也一直都這麼認為

  • The deterioration of my eyes shattered the illusion.

    然而視力的惡化讓我了解了這些都是幻覺

  • You see, sight is just one way

    這麼說吧,視覺不過就是

  • we shape our reality.

    我們創造世界的一種方式

  • We create our own realities in many other ways.

    除此之外,我們還運用很多其他的方法去創造屬於自己的事實

  • Let's take fear as just one example.

    接下來我們就舉恐懼為例吧

  • Your fears distort your reality.

    你對於事物的恐懼會扭曲你的世界

  • Under the warped logic of fear, anything is better than the uncertain.

    在某個特定的恐懼邏輯下,任何事情都比不確定性好

  • Fear fills the void at all costs,

    恐懼會以各種方式

  • passing off what you dread for what you know,

    將情緒充斥在你所有已知的事物中,

  • offering up the worst in place of the ambiguous,

    罪遭甚至還會

  • substituting assumption for reason.

    潛意識中對於你的理性決策造成影響

  • Psychologists have a great term for it: awfulizing.

    心理學家對於這個現象有個很好的描述:使惡化

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Right?

    對吧?

  • Fear replaces the unknown with the awful.

    恐懼會以糟糕的事物取代未知的事物

  • Now, fear is self-realizing.

    恐懼只是一種自我理解

  • When you face the greatest need

    當你覺得自己有必要

  • to look outside yourself and think critically,

    從其他角度看自己,並做出評斷,

  • fear beats a retreat deep inside your mind,

    恐懼會在你的腦中敲一記警鐘,

  • shrinking and distorting your view,

    開始影響、扭曲你的看法,

  • drowning your capacity for critical thought

    以各種分裂的情緒,

  • with a flood of disruptive emotions.

    大幅降低你評批性的想法

  • When you face a compelling opportunity to take action,

    當你面臨被迫要採取行動的時機,

  • fear lulls you into inaction,

    恐懼會暫時使你停止行動,

  • enticing you to passively watch its prophecies fulfill themselves.

    引誘你被動的去等待自己的預測被實現

  • When I was diagnosed with my blinding disease,

    當我被診斷出這個會造成視力退化的疾病,

  • I knew blindness would ruin my life.

    我知道失明會毀了我的人生

  • Blindness was a death sentence for my independence.

    這個詞對我來說是很沉重的負擔

  • It was the end of achievement for me.

    它是我追求成就的終點

  • Blindness meant I would live an unremarkable life,

    失明就意味著我不可能會得到成功的人生,

  • small and sad,

    它是隱晦而讓人傷心的,

  • and likely alone.

    也很有可能會讓我孤獨一生

  • I knew it.

    我當時就是這麼覺得

  • This was a fiction born of my fears, but I believed it.

    那是出自於我的幻想,然而我卻相信它了

  • It was a lie, but it was my reality,

    那是我的大腦捏造出來的謊言,但它卻成為了我世界的事實

  • just like those backwards-swimming fish in little Dorothy's mind.

    就像那些在Dorothy想像中反向游泳的魚

  • If I had not confronted the reality of my fear,

    如果我沒有和我自己的恐懼編造出來的現實產生衝突,

  • I would have lived it.

    我的一生也許就真的只能如我想像中一般悲慘黯淡

  • I am certain of that.

    我很確信這一點

  • So how do you live your life eyes wide open?

    那你們又該如何用更廣闊的眼界去生活呢?

  • It is a learned discipline.

    這是可被學習的原則

  • It can be taught. It can be practiced.

    它可以被教授,可以去練習

  • I will summarize very briefly.

    我講簡要的去總結

  • Hold yourself accountable

    對你人生的

  • for every moment, every thought,

    每個時刻、想法

  • every detail.

    以及細節負責

  • See beyond your fears.

    透視你的恐懼

  • Recognize your assumptions.

    認知你的預想

  • Harness your internal strength.

    利用你的內在力量

  • Silence your internal critic.

    使你心中內在的批評沉默

  • Correct your misconceptions about luck and about success.

    導正你關於一些關於運氣和成功連結的誤解

  • Accept your strengths and your weaknesses, and understand the difference.

    接受自己的優缺點,並且比較其中的差異

  • Open your hearts

    帶著廣闊的心胸,

  • to your bountiful blessings.

    面對你所會遇到的問題

  • Your fears, your critics,

    你的恐懼、批判,

  • your heroes, your villains --

    你的英雄,以及敵人

  • they are your excuses,

    全都是你的藉口,