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  • 2016 has been the worst year for carbon emissions in 66 million years, and with Donald Trump

    2016是6600萬年以來碳排放狀況最嚴重的一年,而且隨著川普

  • as the new president-elect, that may not get better anytime soon.

    成為美國準總統,短期內情況可能會每下愈況

  • Such extreme pollution, has demanded a solution from world leaders.

    像這樣嚴重的污染,需要世界各地的元首共同來解決

  • One proposed idea is called a carbon tax, and is championed by environmentalists, and

    其中一個提案就叫做「污染稅(碳稅,下稱污染稅)」,環保人士都擁護這個想法,甚至

  • even some conservatives.

    連一些保守派人士也支持

  • But what exactly is a carbon tax and could it actually work?

    但污染稅到底是什麼?真的有用嗎?

  • Well, a carbon tax establishes a price on greenhouse gas emissions so companies are

    污染稅就是將溫室氣體排放訂定出一套收費標準,所以企業排放溫室氣體

  • charged for every ton of emissions they produce.

    會依公噸來收費

  • The idea is that the tax will incentivize companies to lower their carbon emissions

    這個污染稅的想法能夠促使企業減少碳排放量

  • and find new technologies that decrease their carbon needs.

    並找出新科技以減少碳排放的需求

  • Aka empowering the marketplace to find solutions without adding more regulations.

    也就是說,使市場能夠自己找出解決方案,而不用以法規強加在企業上

  • It’s this last point that is particularly appealing to conservatives.

    剛剛提到的最後一點也是為什麼對保守人士也很有吸引力

  • But, realistically, if companies have to pay an additional fee, chances are that energy

    但是,實際來說,如果企業必須要支付額外的費用,能源花費

  • costs will rise.

    有可能將會上升

  • One way to offset the increase in energy costs to the consumer is to make the tax, revenue-neutral.

    要抵銷能源花費上漲的一個方式就是讓污染稅的租稅政策不會改變政府稅收總金額,也就是所謂的稅收中性

  • This means that while energy costs would rise, people would see the money returned to them

    就是指當能源花費提高時,民眾可以將付出去的錢再拿回來

  • instead of the government either via a reimbursement check or by a reduction in income taxes.

    政府不會直接把錢還給民眾,而是透過報銷支票或是降低所得稅

  • Carbon taxes already exist in Denmark, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia,

    污染稅已經在丹麥、芬蘭、愛爾蘭、荷蘭、挪威、斯洛法尼亞、瑞士

  • Switzerland, and Chile.

    、智利等地開始實行

  • Sweden was the first country to institute a carbon tax and they did so back in 1991.

    瑞典是第一個設立污染稅的國家,而且從1991年就已開始

  • Currently, it’s a tax of $150 per ton and arguably it has been the most successful at

    目前,每公噸需收費150元美元,而且瑞典可以說在改變使用者習慣並少碳排放量

  • changing behaviors and reducing carbon emissions as it fueled new green heating technologies.

    最成功的國家,也因此促進了新綠能加熱科技的進步

  • In 2008, British Columbia, Canada instituted a carbon tax with the intention of using the

    在2008年,加拿大卑詩省也開始收取污染稅,試圖要以此

  • revenue to reduce income taxes.

    收入以降低所得稅

  • But whether or not it has been successful depends on who you ask.

    但是這個是不是個成功的措施,就要看你是問誰了

  • Although it did appear to slightly reduce carbon emissions, critics say that the tax,

    雖然有略微減少碳排放量,仍受到批評,一公噸才收

  • between $10 and $30 a ton, was too low to change industry behavior.

    10元到30元美元的污染稅,金額太低很難能夠改變產業習性

  • In fact, Oil company ExxonMobil supports a Carbon tax between $40 and $80 per ton, believing

    事實上,艾克森美孚石油公司贊助每公噸污染稅40元到80元美元,該公司相信

  • that stability and a regulatory environment will help them in the long term.

    對他們來說,穩定且經調適後的環境長期以來會有所助益

  • So why are carbon taxes controversial?

    所以為什麼污染稅會有爭議呢?

  • Well, opponents of the tax say that it would hurt country GDPs, especially developing countries

    反對污染稅的人表示此舉會將低國內生產總額,尤其對開發中國家來說

  • that rely on high-emissions industries.

    重點產業都是高碳排放量的

  • And others argue that any financial benefits from the tax being revenue-neutral could actually

    也有其他人爭論稅收中性的做法其實對大企業有財務上的利益

  • benefit big business rather than low and middle class people.

    而位處中低階層的人民卻無法受惠

  • Overall the environmental community is on board with a carbon tax but there’s a heated

    整體來說,環保社群的觀念已經藉由污染稅的實施深植人心,但是另外有個

  • debate about what to do with the tax revenues and whether they should go directly back to

    對於汙染稅稅收用途的激辯卻越演越烈,是不是應該直接回饋給

  • the consumer or be used to help progress to a greener economy.

    消費者呢?還是要用來協助綠色經濟的進步呢?

  • And as part of the Paris Climate Agreement, the United States has committed to reduce its

    在巴黎氣候協定中,聯合國各國成員承諾要在2025年之前

  • greenhouse gas emissions by 26 to 28 percent by 2025.

    將溫室氣體排放量減少百分之26到28

  • But climate change legislation has seen little progress in Congress, and with the election

    但是在美國議會關於氣候變遷的立法卻遲遲沒有進展,而且隨著

  • of Donald Trump, who has criticized the Paris Agreement, many are unsure the deal will remain

    川普的勝選,而且川普本人曾大肆批評巴黎氣候協定,許多人都不確定當時的承諾

  • in place.

    是否還會算數

  • So where does that leave us?

    所以我們該如何因應?

  • Still needing to figure out how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    依然需要找出如何能夠減少溫室氣體排放量

  • As environmentalist Bill Mckibben says, “Carbon should not flow unpriced into the atmosphere,

    環保人士比爾‧麥基班 (Bill McKibben)表示:「不應該毫無代價的讓碳排放到大氣中,

  • any more than you should be allowed to toss your garbage in the street.”

    比是否可以把垃圾丟在街上重要多了。」

  • We at Seeker are committed to bringing you stories that will inform and inspire you.

    Seeker的我們有義務帶給大家這些故事,能夠讓你們知道並讓你們有所啟示

  • In this next episode, meet 24 year old Louis Bird, an inexperienced rower who embarked

    在下一集中,大家會與年僅24歲的路易斯貝德 (Louis Bird) 見面,他是一位菜鳥划船手

  • on the journey of his life across the Pacific Ocean, all to connect with the memory of his father.

    他一生中在太平洋上奔波,這和他與他父親的回憶有所相關

  • I'm coming to the place that ultimately ended my father's life.

    我來到的地方,就是當初我父親身故的地方

  • I hadn't prepared for the fact that it would be as difficult as it has been.

    那時候我還沒有辦法接受這麼殘酷的事實

  • But now, I've made a breakthrough and I feel a lot more comfortable on the boat.

    但是現在,我已經進步很多,現在我在船上已經更加地如魚得水

  • We're over halfway, I'm enjoying myself.

    我們已經過了一半了,我感覺很開心愉悅

  • Thanks for watching Seeker Daily, please make sure to like and subscribe to see new videos

    感謝觀賞Seeker Daily,別忘記要幫我們按讚並追蹤我們,你每一天都可以看到

  • everyday.

    新影片

2016 has been the worst year for carbon emissions in 66 million years, and with Donald Trump

2016是6600萬年以來碳排放狀況最嚴重的一年,而且隨著川普

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 排放量 稅收 溫室 氣體 企業 減少

汙染稅到底有沒有用? (Does A Tax On Pollution Actually Work?)

  • 684 49
    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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