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  • Unlike us lucky endotherms, insects can’t regulate their own body temperatures.

    昆蟲不像我們這些幸運的內溫動物,他們無法調節自己的體溫

  • Theyre at the mercy of their environment.

    他們受環境的影響

  • So when the cold winter arrives, how do they keep from freezing?

    所以當冬天到來時,他們如何避免結冰呢?

  • They basically have three choices. They can leave for warmer places, they can wait it out,

    一般他們有三種選擇:離開到較溫暖的地區、等待冬天離去

  • or they can kick the bucket.

    或是他們就死掉了

  • Just like some birds, there are a few insects, like dragonflies or butterflies, that fly south for the winter.

    就像某些鳥類,或是少數的昆蟲,像是蜻蜓、蝴蝶,在冬天時飛向南方

  • The most famous of these has got to be the monarch butterfly.

    最有名的例子就是帝王斑蝶

  • There’s a population that normally lives in the northern U.S. and Canada, but spends

    有一個族群通常居住在美國北部以及加拿大,但是

  • the winter in the balmy mountain forests of Mexico.

    牠們一整個冬天會在墨西哥的溫暖山上的樹林中渡過

  • Of course, many insects have shorter lives than birds.

    當然很多昆蟲的壽命比鳥類還短

  • So, a special migratory generation of the monarchs flies south thousands of miles to Mexico without

    所以有個特殊、遷徙性的一代帝王斑蝶往南飛行幾千英里到墨西哥,沒有

  • reproducing, but it takes four or five generations to make the trip back north.

    繁殖,但是帝王斑蝶需要花費四到五個世代才能重返到北方

  • If an insect can't leave when winter arrives, option number two is to hunker down and wait

    如果昆蟲無法在冬天來臨時遷徙到其他地方,第二個選擇是留在這裡等到

  • for things to warm up again.

    氣候再回暖的時候

  • Insects like ladybugs, emerald ash borers, and mourning cloak butterflies burrow into

    有些昆蟲像是瓢蟲、白蠟窄吉丁蟲以及黃緣蛺蝶會鑽到

  • soil or leaf litter for warmth.

    土裡或落葉堆內保持溫暖

  • There, these adult insects enter a kind of

    在這裡,這些成蟲進入一種

  • hibernation called diapause, thanks to hormones triggered by the shorter days

    冬眠狀態,叫做滯育。由於荷爾蒙受到秋天時白天變短以及較冷的溫度刺激

  • and cooler temperatures of autumn.

    而觸發的一種機制

  • Their metabolic rates drop dramatically, so they don’t need as much food.

    牠們的代謝速率會顯著下降,所以他們不需要攝取太多食物

  • And some species even pump their tissues full of alcohols that act as a natural antifreeze.

    而有些種類甚至在組織內產生許多酒精當作天然的抗凍劑

  • Basically, these chemicals lower the freezing point inside their cells, which prevents damaging

    基本上這些在細胞內的化學物質降低細胞內組織液的凝固點,能夠避免會破壞細胞的

  • ice crystals from forming.

    冰晶產生

  • Now, plenty of insects, like crickets and grasshoppers, just throw in the towel when

    然而現今,有大量的昆蟲像是蟋蟀以及蝗蟲,就直接放棄生存

  • the temperature drops.

    當溫度下降的時候

  • The adults die off after reproducing in the fall, and the next generation spends the winter

    成蟲在秋天繁殖過後即死亡,而下一個世代會

  • as dormant eggs or larvae.

    用睡眠狀態的卵或是幼蟲型態度過冬季

  • These babies are usually pretty well-equipped for survival: Eggs and larvae can enter diapause

    這些幼蟲通常有很好的配備去求生存:卵與幼蟲可以向成蟲一樣進入滯育

  • just like adults can, and some get extra help from their doomed parents.

    或是有些昆蟲可以藉由牠們將死的親代得到額外的保護

  • Praying mantises, for example, envelop their eggs in a foam-like protective protein case.

    例如螳螂會將他們的卵包裹在一個泡沫狀、保護的蛋白質包裹內

  • These days, climate change is messing with the overwintering strategies of some insects.

    如今,氣候變遷正在擾亂某些昆蟲的度冬策略

  • And it’s even letting some less cold-tolerant species venture farther north.

    這甚至會導致有些較不耐寒的種類涉足到較遠的北方

  • Which... usually isn’t so great.

    這通常不會是很好的現象

  • Like, thanks to milder winters, the mountain pine beetle has been expanding its range and

    由於較溫暖的冬季,山松甲蟲擴大牠們的範圍

  • killing vast swaths of trees in western North America.

    且殺死在北美洲西部大片廣闊的樹林

  • So when it gets cold out, do you put on a coat and keep trucking?

    所以當天氣愈來愈冷,你會穿上外套並繼續過你的生活嗎?

  • Curl up under a blanket with hot chocolate until spring?

    蜷曲在毯子裡喝一杯熱巧克力直到春天嗎?

  • Or do you make like a monarch and head for the tropics?

    或是你會像帝王斑蝶前往熱帶地區呢?

  • Whatever your way of dealing, spare a thought for the insects that make it work without

    無論你任何的處理方式,替昆蟲著想,牠們無法自行

  • central heatingjust with some clever adaptations.

    體內產熱,只能利用一些聰明的適應方式

  • Thanks to Patreon patron Zach Lerman for asking, and thanks to all of our patrons who keep

    感謝觀眾 Zach Lerman 的提問,謝謝所有持續等待

  • these answers coming.

    答案的觀眾

  • If you'd like to submit questions to be answered,

    如果你有想問的問題需要被回答

  • go to patreon.com/scishow

    到 patreon.com/scishow 的網站

  • And don't forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

    並且不要忘記到 youtube.com/scishow 並且訂閱

Unlike us lucky endotherms, insects can’t regulate their own body temperatures.

昆蟲不像我們這些幸運的內溫動物,他們無法調節自己的體溫

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 昆蟲 幼蟲 溫暖 細胞 樹林 鳥類

昆蟲如何過冬? (How Do Insects Survive the Winter?)

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    g2 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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