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  • Hi. It's Mr. Andersen and welcome to the immune system podcast. In this podcast

    你好. 我是安德森,歡迎收看免疫系統的播客。在這個播客裡

  • I wanted to start with a little history. These are some beautiful illustrations from the

    我想先從一點歷史開始。這些美麗的插圖都是來自一本長達千頁的書

  • Florentine Codex which is thousands of pages long. It was created over about 45 years by

    書名是 - Florentine Codex。這本書花了超過45年的時間製作

  • this guy, this friar. And basically what we did was he studied Aztec culture and how it

    作者是這位修士。基本上他研究阿茲特克文化以及它如何

  • changed over his lifetime. So we've converted a lot of this to English and you can find

    在他的一生中改變。然後我們已經把很多他的內容翻譯成英文

  • some if it on Wikipedia. It's just fascinating. So you could see these rituals and these chieftains.

    你可以在維基百科上找到相關的資訊。它們非常吸引人。你看這些傳統儀式和頭目(首領)。

  • And he would describe all of it. But a sad part of that is that he describes how small

    他描繪了這一切。但可悲的是他描述了天花

  • pox came and devastated the Aztec. And it's one of the reasons why the Spanish were able

    如何降臨,然後摧毀了阿茲特克人。這就是其中一個西班牙人能夠

  • to conquer them. And so they didn't have a immunity to it. And that's what this is about.

    征服阿茲特客人的原因。總而言之,這一切都是因為他們對天花沒有免疫力。

  • So basically what happens with any kind of a infection, a viral infection like this,

    基本上任何類型的感染,或是病毒感染,

  • is you have a virus. And that virus is essentially going to gain entry inside your cells. It's

    都是病毒造成的。這些病毒必需進入到你的細胞內。

  • going to use the machinery of your cell to make copies of itself. And more copies of

    它利用你的細胞,複製更多的自己,做出更多的病毒。

  • itself. And more copies of itself. And eventually it's going to destroy the cell and it's going

    最終,他會摧毀那細胞,然後散佈出去,感染其他的細胞。

  • to spread off to infect other cells. And so that seems awful. In other words when you

    這一切似乎很可怕。換句話說,當你感冒時,

  • get a cold what's happening is that your cells are making viruses which are spreading to

    你的細胞正在製造病毒,然侯傳染到更多的細胞。

  • more cells. And if it weren't for our immune system we would be devastated by all the viruses

    而如果不是因為我們的免疫系統,我們將遭受到我們身旁所有病毒的摧折。

  • that are around us. And so we have to have protection. And so I like the analogy of a

    因此,我們必須要有保護。我喜歡的把這比喻為

  • castle. A castle needs protection as well. And so if you're building a castle, you have

    城堡。城堡也需要保護。所以如果你正在蓋一個城堡,

  • to think about a few ways to defend yourself. First of all you have to defend yourself from

    你一定要想想如何保護自己。首先,你要保護自己

  • the outside. So it's good to have a moat. It's also good to have a really large wall.

    受到外部的干擾,所以有條護城河還不錯。蓋座圍牆也是個好選擇。

  • So it's hard for people to get over it. And this castle's great because it's got water

    這樣外人就不容易進去。這個城堡很棒,因為它周圍有水

  • on all sides of it. You also have to have soldiers. So if anybody were to ever get close

    你還必須有士兵。這樣如果任何人接近大門

  • to the gate you could shoot them with arrows or pour hot tar on them. But if they were

    你可以用箭射他們或潑他們焦油。但是如果他們

  • to breach the wall you have to be able to fight them there as well. But probably when

    能闖到圍牆,你還是要和他們奮戰。

  • you're defending a castle a more important thing is you have to have intelligence. You

    但當你在保護城堡時,更重要的事莫非於有智力了。

  • have to have spies that are sent out to surrounding areas to do reconnoissance and figure out

    你必須派間諜去附近偵察或蒐集情報

  • what's going on. To recognize invaders when then come. And so I'm going to quit talking

    瞭解入侵者何時會來。現在我要結束城堡這話題。

  • about castles and we're going to talk about the immune system. But the same thing works

    我們要來談免疫系統。但同樣的事情也在我們身體中發生著。

  • inside us. And so the idea of a castle wall. Let's start with that. And so what protects

    從城牆開始。到底是甚麼在保護我們不受到感染

  • us from infection, our castle wall is going to be our skin. And so what our skin provides

    城堡的城牆就像是我們的皮膚。我們的皮膚提供我們一層屏障

  • us with is it provides us with a barrier. So there's going to be a barrier of cell,

    所以這屏障是一堆的細胞

  • dead cells, on the top. And keratin on the top. It's also going to have a really low

    在頂部(上層)的是死掉的細胞。然後角蛋白在它的上面。 所以它的pH直非常低。

  • pH which makes it hard for any kind of bacteria to live there. And we're also going to have

    pH值正是造成細菌很難生存的原因

  • chemicals on the surface of our skin that are going to disrupt certain viruses. And

    在我們的皮膚表面還有些化學物質會破壞某些病毒

  • also we're going to have bacteria that crowd out our skin. And so it makes it hard for

    同時我們還有一層細菌覆蓋在我們的皮膚上

  • other bacteria to gain entry. We have what are called normal flora that just live on

    所以這讓其他的細菌難進入到我們體內。我們有個叫"皮膚正常微生物叢"的東西在我們皮膚上

  • our skin. And so all of this is going to provide protection against infection. But occasionally

    所以這些東西全部都在保護我們受到感染。

  • you know that that get's breached. Occasionally you cut yourself or a pin prick or something

    但偶爾,他們還是會被侵入。有時你會割傷或刺傷自己。

  • like that gains entry. And so that would be just like the soldiers making it over the

    劃出傷口,讓細菌有機會進入到你身體裡。這就像是士兵們翻牆進入城堡一樣。

  • wall. And so what do we have? Well we have a call to arms. We have inflammation. So basically

    結果勒?我們要下令軍隊開戰了。我們發炎了。

  • we have chemicals that are released that cause our body to respond to that. Now you constantly

    導致我們的身體釋放化學物質做為回應。

  • are being infected, especially if you are a teenager because you get acne. So what is

    現在的你不段的受到感染。尤其是青年們,因為你們有青春豆

  • acne? Acne is essentially an infection in the pores of your skin. So it's bacteria that

    什麼事青春痘?它基本上就是皮膚上的孔受到感染造成的。

  • are living and feeding inside our body. And so how do we fight that? Well we'll plug it

    所以它們就是住在我們身體裡從我們這裡得到能量的細菌。 那我們怎麼抵抗它們?

  • up for one thing, but we have swelling. So we're going to increase the heat. But basically

    它們會腫脹。所以我們要增加他的溫度。但基本上

  • we're going to send soldiers in there. And those soldiers are the macrophages. Those

    我們將在派兵去那。這些士兵是"巨噬細胞"。

  • are going to be the eaters or the big eaters. And what they're going to do is they're going

    它們就像體內的清道夫。而他們要做的事就是

  • to find anything that's not part of our body and they're going to eat it. So any invader

    把發現不是我們身體的一部分東西都"吃"掉。

  • is called antigen. And so basically what a macrophage will do is it will notice that

    任何的入侵物被稱為"抗原"。巨噬細胞會找到不是我們身體的一部分

  • this is not part of our body. It will grab on to it. It will take it into the macrophage.

    它會抓住它然後把他帶入巨噬細胞內。

  • It'll secrete lysosomes and enzymes into it which break it up. It will lots of times present

    它會分泌溶酶體和酶到它裡面,破壞它。

  • that on its surface, but eventually gets rid of it. And so this is an actual picture of

    很多時候它都會在表面上,他是最終都還是會把他踢出去。

  • a macrophage. And you can see it's grabbing I don't know if it's viruses or bacteria on

    這照片就是一個巨噬細胞。你可以看到它抓一個病毒或細菌我也不確定

  • either side. And so that's great. But the one thing about it is it attacks anything

    這棒極了!但重點是他會攻擊任何不是我們身體一部分的東西

  • that's not us. In other words if you get a heart implant from someone else, or you get

    換句話說,如果你有心臟植入,或者你有心臟移植手術

  • a heart transplant, those macrophages are going to attack it as well. It's going to

    這些巨噬細胞也會攻擊它。然後把他們摧毀掉

  • kill that. And so we also have what's called a specific immune response. Specific immune

    因此我們也有"后天免疫系统"

  • response is more like the spies. And so basically here's an antigen again. An antigen is going

    后天免疫系统就像是間諜。這是個抗原。

  • to have specific proteins on its surface. But to fight that we use what are called antibodies.

    這抗原的表面上的特定的蛋白質。要對抗它們,我們必需要用抗體

  • And so the name antigen means an antibody generator. In other words it generates the

    抗原的名字就是指抗體產生器(以英文來說Antigen = 'Anti'body 'gen'erator)。換句話說,它會製造

  • formation of antibodies. So what are antibodies? Antibodies are going to be proteins produced

    抗體的形狀。那麼什麼是抗體?抗體就是我們身體製造的蛋白質

  • by our body. And basically they all look the same. They're this Y kind of a shape. So they're

    基本上他們看起來都一樣。他們長得像這樣 - Y形狀的。

  • a Y shape like this. We produce almost an infinite number and an infinite variety of

    我們出和各式各樣不同種類的抗體和數不清的抗體

  • them. But at the top of the Y you're going to have different shapes. In other words,

    但在頂部的Y要具有不同的形狀

  • you're going to have a shape that looks like this. But you're also going to have an equal

    換句話說,你可能會友形狀看起來像這樣。但你也可能會有像這樣的形狀

  • shape that might look like this. And you're going to have an equal shape that might look

    或看起來像這樣。或有一個相同的形狀看起來可能像這樣

  • like this. And so we're going to have all of these different shapes at the top. But

    所以我們將有所有這些不同形狀的頂部。

  • we're only going to produce the shape for the one thing that we're infected by. So basically

    但我們只打算製造出可以對抗侵入我們身體的抗原的特定的行狀

  • the antibody will dock to the antigen. And when it does that basically it marks the antigens

    抗體會綁住抗原。當它綁住抗原時,它對抗原作上了記號

  • so macrophages can find it. And it also makes it harder for them to do their job. Imagine

    所以巨噬細胞能找到它。這也使得他們更難完成他們的工作。想像一下

  • if I had another antibody here. And another antibody here. And another antibody here.

    如果我在這裡有另一個抗體。另一個抗體在這裡。另一個抗體在這裡。

  • It's hard for them to do their job. And so when you gain immunity, specific immunity

    這是很難讓他們完成工作。因此當你獲得免疫 - 后天免疫系統

  • or specific immune response what that means is you have the ability to produce these antibodies.

    后天免疫系統讓你有能力製造這些抗體。 這就是為什麼當你感冒時,你不會再得到相同的感冒。

  • And that's why when you have a cold you're not going to get that same cold again. And

    所以我們怎樣才能做到這一點呢?如和辦到的呢? 我們需要淋巴細胞(淋巴球)。

  • so basically how do we do this? Or how does this work? Well we need what are called lymphocytes.

    淋巴細胞是白血球的一種。基本上淋巴細胞分為兩種。

  • Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells. And so basically there are two types of lymphocytes.

    可分為T细胞和B细胞

  • There are B lymphocytes and then there are T lymphocytes which will get to in just a

    好吧。B淋巴細胞是在骨髓中製造的。他們負責

  • second. Okay. So B lymphocytes are made in the bone marrow. And they're responsible for

    體液免疫反應。我將在播客中再提到這單字很多次。

  • a humoral response. Now this term I'm going to show you a couple more times in this podcast.

    體液是指在液體中。像是在血液中。

  • Humoral means in the fluid or in the humers of your body. So that means in the blood.

    在淋巴裡,淋巴管,在組織液(間質液)。

  • In the lymph material. In the lymph vessels. In the interstitial fluid. And so humoral

    體液反應,就是任何時候,有細菌在我們身體的液體裡。

  • response, what I want you to think about is going to be anytime there are viruses free

    B淋巴細胞的工作就是製造抗體。

  • in the fluids of our body. And what the B lymphocytes do is they produce antibodies.

    那麼它們是如何做到呢?基本上你有一個NaiveB細胞(=還未接觸抗原的B細胞) 他將去感應他抗原的形狀

  • So how does that work? Basically you have a naive B cell. It's going to sense the shape

    我等一下會告訴你他怎麼做到的。

  • of the antigen. I'll tell you how that works in just a second. But basically what it's

    但它主要就是製造抗體。因此B淋巴細胞的工作就是是要造特定的抗體給特定的抗原

  • going to do is it's going to produce antibodies. And so what B lymphocytes do is they produce

    換句話說,如果我們被細菌感染

  • all of these antibodies that are specific for the antigen. So in other words if we're

    我們稱這個病毒A1,我們將製造特抗體給特定的抗原

  • infected by this virus, we'll call this virus A1, then we're going to produce antibodies

    我們也將製作記憶B細胞,使我們對特定的細菌有一輩子的免疫力

  • for that specific antigen. We're also going to produce memory B cells so that we have

    所以那些是B淋巴細胞 你也許想說

  • that immunity for the rest of our life. So those are the B lymphocytes. And so you might

    如果他們攻擊我們身體內的病毒,那麼T淋巴細胞做什麼呢?

  • think, if they attack the viruses out inside our body then what do the T lymphocytes do?

    T淋巴細胞是負責細胞介導反應。這是什麼意思呢?

  • Well the T lymphocytes are responsible for cell mediated response. What does that mean?

    他們將瞄準並殺死我們身體內已經被感染的細胞。

  • They're going to target and kill the cells inside our body that are already infected.

    好吧。那麼什麼是T淋巴細胞嗎?他們在哪裡製造?答案是胸腺

  • Okay. So what are the T lymphocytes? Where are they made? They're made in the thymus

    胸腺在我們的心臟上面。基本上他們製造

  • gland which kind of sits on the top of our heart. Basically what they do is they create

    自然殺傷T細胞。因此殺傷T細胞是活化的T細胞。

  • what are called kill T cells or killer T lymphocytes. And so a killer T cell is an activated T cell.

    基本上它會在我們的身體內找到所以被細菌感染的細胞

  • Basically what it will do is it'll find any of the cells inside our body that are infected

    它會綁住它們然後殺死那些細胞。

  • with a virus. It'll dock next to them and it will kill our own cells. And so it's going

    他不僅會殺死我們的身體內被病毒感染的細胞。甚至會殺死癌細胞

  • to kill any of the cells inside our body that are infected by the virus. Or even cancerous

    所以它是在胸腺中製造的,然後使我們的細胞死亡

  • cells, it's going to kill them. So it's made in the thymus and it produces cell death inside

    所以T淋巴細胞負責細胞介導,意思是殺死我們體內被感染的細胞

  • us. And so the T lymphocytes are responsible for this cell mediated, I mean killing cells

    我來總結一下下,這上面是體液免疫反應

  • inside, our cells that are infected. B lymphocytes are going to be in the humers of our body.

    那麼是什麼細胞負責的呢?答案是B細胞。

  • And so if I were to summarize this a little bit, this would be the humoral response up

    這下面是細胞介導。負責的是T細胞。

  • here. So what type of cells are responsible for that? Those is going to be the B cells.

    讓我們先來看看左邊這裡發生了什麼事?

  • And here's the cell mediated down here. Those are going to be the killer T cells. And so

    有個被巨噬細胞吃掉的抗原。巨噬細胞將會把抗原用碎。

  • before we get to that let's look over here on the left side. So basically what's happening?

    然後把碎片從表面釋出。因此我們使用一種化學物質叫MHCII(major histocompatibility complex II)。

  • We have an antigen that is eaten by a macrophage. That macrophage is going to chop up that antigen.

    這是第二型主要組織相容性複合體。它要他的表面上呈現抗原的形狀

  • It's going to present pieces of it on its surface. And so we use a chemical called MHC2.

    然後我們將用到這個超級重要的細胞,叫做輔助型T細胞

  • It's major histocompatibility complex 2. It's going to present the shape of that antigen

    輔助型T細胞將綁住然後偵測抗原的形狀

  • on it's surface and now we get this cell right here which is super important. It's call the

    它使用另一種蛋白叫做CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4 表面抗原分化簇4受体)

  • T helper cell. What the T helper cell is going to do is it's going to dock and it's going

    來檢測抗原的形狀。輔助型T細胞則是負責啟動

  • to physically sense the shape of that antigen. It uses another protein called CD4. And it's

    體液和細胞介導的免疫反應。 讓我們來看看什麼輔助型T細胞要做什麼

  • going to sense the shape of that antigen. The helper T cell is responsible for initiating

    輔助型T細胞是要把那麼形狀告訴B細胞

  • both the humoral and the cell mediated immune response. So let's see what helper T cell

    所以它可以產生更多的抗體。它要激活巨噬細胞。因此它可以殺死更多的細胞

  • is going to do. Helper T cell is going to tell that shape to the B cells. And so it

    因此它是負責體液免疫的反應。

  • can produce more antibodies. It's going to activate macrophages. So it can kill more

    輔助型T細胞也將激活殺傷性T細胞。因此,他們可以殺死細胞

  • of them inside the humers of our bodies. So it's responsible for that humoral response.

    被感染了的病毒。因此,如果是不為這些東西

  • And the helper T cell is also going to activate the killer T cells. So they can kill the cell

    要不是因為輔助型T細胞,我們將不會那麼幸運。可悲的是,輔助型T細胞

  • mediated, or excuse me, the cell's that are infected by a virus. And so if isn't for these

    會被艾滋病毒或患有艾滋病的人感染。所以你可以了解為什麼

  • guys, if it isn't for the helper T cells, we're out of luck. Now sadly, helper T cells

    這是一個非常糟糕的事情。因為沒有輔助性T細胞,我們沒辦法正常抵抗我們遭受到的感染。

  • are the cells that are infected by HIV or people who have AIDS. And so you can see why

    所以如果你有HIV,你是不會死的。你是會死於一些平常我們能夠抵抗的病毒

  • that's a really bad thing. Because without the helper T cells we can't fight normal infections.

    讓我們再來重新看一次動畫吧

  • So if you have HIV you don't die of that. You're dying of normal infections that we

    這是我們的抗原。請記住,這是我們的侵略者。所以基本上

  • would fight off. So let me kind of do this in cartoon style. If we were to animate it

    我們的巨噬細胞將吃掉它。因此,巨噬細胞會把他抓進去

  • again. So what we've got here is our antigen. Remember that's our invader. And so basically

    然後分泌酶進入它 目的是消化抗原。

  • what's going to happen is it is going to be eaten by a macrophage. So the macrophage will

    然後擺脫它。 但它也是要會留下一點點的碎片。

  • take it in. It will secrete enzymes into to it which are going to digest that antigen.

    抓住這重要的的主要組織相容性複合體。這將把他的形狀帶到其表面,

  • It will get rid of it. But it's also going to grab on to a little bit of that. It's going

    現在,我們有輔助型T細胞。輔助型T細胞將綁住巨噬細胞

  • to grab on with this major MHC. It's going to take it's shape out to its surface and

    它的要感應抗原的形狀。

  • now we have helper T cell. What's helper T cell going to do? Helper T cell is going to

    現在它成為活化的輔助型T細胞。回想一下剛剛的流程圖

  • dock with that macrophage. And it's going to sense the shape of that antigen. It's now

    他會哪裡去了呢?它可以激活巨噬細胞。但更重要的是

  • going to become an activated helper T cell. So thinking back to that flow chart just a

    它會激活B細胞。現在,我們已有一個激活的B細胞。這將激活

  • second ago, where does it go next? Well it can activate macrophages. But more importantly

    殺傷T細胞。現在通過克隆選擇(株落選擇),它基本上是他們要做無性繁殖

  • it's going to activate B cells. So now we've got an activated B cell. It's going to activate

    因此我們將會有一大堆的活化B細胞。

  • killer T cells. And now through clonal selection it's basically, they're going to make clones

    然後還會有一大堆的活化殺傷T細胞。所以想想看

  • of themselves. We're going to have a whole bunch of activated B cells. We're going to

    這裡上面將是體液反應。這裡下面將是細胞的介導反應

  • have a whole bunch of activated killer T cells. So now, thinking about it, this on the top

    所以基本上我們抵抗這些抗原

  • is going to be the humoral response up here. And this down here is going to be the cell

    我們將抗體黏到它身上,做上記號,所以巨噬細胞可吃掉它,摧毀它

  • mediated response. And so basically we can fight those antigens out here in the humers

    我們還稍微滅活他們。但是如果你看這裡,這殺傷性T細胞

  • of the body. We do that by sticking antibodies to it so macrophages can eat it, break it

    綁住我們身體內已經被抗原感染的細胞。

  • down. We also inactivate them a little bit. But if you look down here, that killer T cell

    然後它會分泌酶進入它,把他摧毀。因此就是把他殺死

  • is docked with a cell inside our own body that's already infected by an antigen. And

    所以基本上我們所做的是我們殺了抗原

  • so it's going to secrete enzymes into it that are going to break that down. So it's going

    然後,我們已經殺死被感染的細胞。因此,這需花一點時間

  • to kill that. And so basically what we have done is we've killed them in the humers or

    但是這將是你的免疫反應。而且他是針對那特定的抗原。

  • in the fluids of the body and then we've killed cells that are infected. And so this takes

    在有那特定的抗原之前,我們不會產生抗體。

  • awhile. But it's going to be your immune response. And it's specific to that antigen. Until we

    來討論感冒了,因為我現在感冒了,現在基本上會發生什麼事是

  • get that specific antigen, we're not going to produce the antibodies for it. So let's

    該病毒會在我的身體內開始繁殖

  • talk about a cold, because I'm getting a cold right now. So basically what happens is you're

    它會花我一點時間來製造B細胞和殺傷T細胞

  • exposed to the cold right here. The virus is going to start reproducing inside my body

    所以會有一段滯後時間,但基本上我要去

  • and it's going to take me a little while for me to start building memory, excuse me, B

    製造一大堆的抗體和效應T細胞。所以它們在我體內的數量將提高

  • cells and killer T cells. And so there's going to be a lag time but essentially I'm going

    這段時間是我感覺自己感冒了。

  • to produce a whole bunch of antibodies and effector T cells. So that's going to increase

    這是我的感覺到我自己我感冒了,但真正發生的事情是

  • inside my body. And this time right here is where I actually feel like I have a cold.

    我的身體讚爛病毒抗戰病殺死它們。所以說如果我在未來再碰到相同的感冒

  • So this is me feeling like I have a cold, but really what's happening is it's my body

    那麼在未來我會再接觸到它。但由於

  • fighting and killing off all the viruses. And so let's say I get exposed to that same

    我要這麼多的抗體而且能製造那麼快。然且因為我有這些

  • cold again in the future. Well in the future I'm going to get exposed to it. But since

    記憶B細胞和記憶性T細胞在那。我將會在意識到自己感冒前

  • I have so many antibodies I'm going to produce them so quickly. And since I have these memory

    殺死掉它們。 這可能是好年後。

  • B cells and memory T cells that are just hanging out, I'm going to fight off and kill that

    現在怎麼會感冒的解決這個問題?恩,他們就有一大堆

  • infection before I even realize that I have a cold. And this could be years later. Now

    不同類型的感冒,我想有一百多種不同類型的鼻病毒。

  • how could colds get around this, and they do get around it? Well they can have a bunch

    但是他們也可以發生變異。並且如果它們發生變異,他們改變的抗原的形狀。

  • of different types and colds I think have a hundred different types of rhinoviruses.

    所以這些抗體便是行不通的了。 所以這是免疫反應。

  • But they also can mutate. And if they mutate they change the shape of the antigen. And

    如果你把它想成把侵略者趕出城堡。

  • now those antibodies aren't going to work anymore. And so that's the immune response.

    你至少更近一步地了解了免疫系統。我希望這些有幫助。:)

  • If you think of it this way, it's like keeping the invaders out of the castle. You're at

  • least one step closer to understanding the immune system. And I hope that's helpful.

Hi. It's Mr. Andersen and welcome to the immune system podcast. In this podcast

你好. 我是安德森,歡迎收看免疫系統的播客。在這個播客裡

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 細胞 抗原 抗體 病毒 免疫 形狀

免疫系統 (The Immune System)

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    yenping, Hsieh 發佈於 2016 年 11 月 15 日
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