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  • Hi, I'm John Green, welcome to Crash Course Literature!

    嗨,我是約翰葛林,歡迎來到文學速成班!

  • You can tell I'm an English teacher because I'm wearing a sweater, but you tell I'm the

    看得出來我是個英文老師,因為我穿著毛衣。但你也可以知道我是

  • kind of English teacher who wants to be your friend because I'm wearing awesome sneakers.

    想和你成為好友的英文老師,因為我穿著很棒的球鞋

  • This is actually season two of Crash Course Literature. If you want to watch season one,

    這是文學速成班第二季。如果你想看第一季的影片

  • you can do so over here. It's season four of Crash Course Humanities, it might even

    可以到這裡去看。這是人文速成班第四季,也可以當做

  • be like, season seven or eight if you count all the science stuff. Whatever let's just get started!

    所有科學類別的第七或第八季。總之我們開始吧!

  • [Theme Music]

    [主題音樂]

  • We're going to start at the beginning of literature, or, at least, a beginning of literature. Sing

    我們要從文學的起源開始,至少算是其中之一。

  • in me, Muse, and through me tell the story of a man who lets all his shipmates die, lies

    繆思女神,請賜予我靈感,讓我說出一個男子的故事。他殺死了他的所有船員

  • to everyone he meets, cheats on his wife with assorted nymphs, and takes ten years to complete

    向他遇到的所有人撒謊,用美女欺騙他的太太,還花了十年的時間完成一趟

  • a voyage that, according to Google Maps, should have taken two weeks. That man is, of course,

    Google地圖顯示只需要兩個禮拜的航程。這名男子,當然

  • one of the great heroes of the ancient world. Ladies and gentlemen, meet Odysseus, star

    是古代最偉大的英雄之一。各位先生女士,歡迎奧德修斯

  • of Homer's The Odyssey. Did I just say the odd at sea? That's a good pun. Not in the original Greek though.

    荷馬《奧德賽》裡的主角。我剛剛說了「海上軼事」嗎?真是個好雙關。但在希臘原文裡就不是了

  • Now everyone knows that you can't properly enjoy a book until you know a lot about its

    大家都知道,我們必須先認識作者才能好好的享受一本書

  • author, so before we discuss The Odyssey, we're going to begin with a biographical

    所以在討論《奧德賽》之前,我們要先從荷馬的生平概略開始

  • sketch of Homer, the legendary blind poet of ancient Greece. What's that?

    傳說中他是個眼盲的古希臘詩人。什麼?

  • Apparently we know nothing about him. Well, in fact we know that whoever wrote them didn't actually

    顯然我們對他一無所知。事實上,寫這些古詩的人並沒有真正地

  • write them, because they were composed orally. And was Homer even blind? Well, there are

    把詩寫下來,因為他們是口頭創作。而荷馬是盲人嗎?

  • some verses about blindness in the Homeric Hymns and there's a blind bard who appears in The Odyssey,

    荷馬史詩裡有些詩句和失明有關,而《奧德賽》裡也出現了一位眼盲的詩人

  • But if authors only wrote about characters who were like themselves, then James Joyce's

    但如果文人創作時只會寫出與自己相像的角色,那麼詹姆斯喬伊斯筆下的

  • characters would have all had one eye, and I would be an astonishingly handsome seventeen-year-old.

    人物,就會都只有一隻眼睛,而我會是個出人意表地帥氣的十七歲少年

  • As for the subject of Homer's poems, archaeological evidence tells us that the Trojan War occurred

    至於荷馬詩作的主題,考古學方面的證據告訴我們,特洛伊戰爭發生於

  • around the twelfth century BCE, although it probably included far fewer gods and similes

    約莫西元前十二世紀,儘管這些證據包含的遠少於相關史詩

  • than in the epics based on it. Then again, maybe not; it's not like we have pictures.

    所記載的神和比喻。然而同樣地,也可能不是在那個時間;我們似乎沒有概念

  • Anyway, Homer composed The Iliad and The Odyssey in the eighth century BCE, so centuries after

    總之,荷馬在西元前八世紀創作了《伊里亞德》和《奧德賽》,是它描述的故事

  • the events it describes. And then no one bothered to write them down for another two hundred

    發生後的好幾世紀。又接下來的兩百年,沒有任何人打算把它們記錄下來

  • years, which means that they probably changed a lot as they were passed down via the oral

    這意味著,這些史詩很可能在口頭流傳的過程中改變了許多

  • tradition, and even today there are arguments about which parts are original and which parts are additions.

    直至今日,哪些部份是原作、哪些是後人修飾依舊存有爭議

  • There were a lot of competing poems about the Trojan War, but Homer's were by far

    有許多關於特洛伊戰爭的詩作,但荷馬的版本是目前為止

  • the most famous, and they are now the most famous because they were also the only ones

    最有名的,因為荷馬史詩是

  • to survive the burning of the Library at Alexandria.

    亞歷山卓亞圖書館大火後,唯一倖存的作品

  • So The Iliad and The Odyssey are epic poems, and we define an epic as “a long narrative

    《伊里亞德》和《奧德賽》屬於史詩,我們將史詩定義為「長篇的敘事詩作

  • poem; on a serious subject; written in a grand or elevated style; centered on a larger-than-life hero.”

    主題莊嚴;敘述偉大故事或是以歌頌口吻寫成;以一個具有傳奇色彩的英雄為中心」

  • By the way, that was an example of dactylic hexameter, just like you see in epic poems.

    順帶一提,這是長短格六步格詩的範例,跟你在史詩裡看到的一樣

  • So the events of The Odyssey take place after those of The Iliad, so let's have a brief

    《奧德賽》的事蹟發生於《伊里亞德》之後,所以我們先看看思想泡泡的簡介

  • recap Thought Bubble. So Helen, the wife of Menelaus, runs off with Paris, a Trojan prince;

    墨涅拉奧斯的太太,海倫,與特洛伊的王子帕里斯私奔

  • or maybe she's abducted, it's not clear. Anyway, Menelaus's brother Agamemnon gathers

    她也有可能是被綁架,這不清楚。總之,墨涅拉奧斯的兄弟--阿加曼儂召集了

  • allies and goes to Troy to get her back but the war drags on for ten years, at which point

    盟軍要去特洛伊帶回海倫,但戰爭拖了十年之久,當時

  • everyone is really tired and bored and wants to go home, until things suddenly get pretty

    所有人都筋疲力盡、想要回家,直到情勢變得緊張

  • tense because Agamemnon seizes a concubine of Achilles' and Achilles gets really angry

    因為阿加曼儂抓走了阿基里斯的情人,讓阿基里斯很憤怒

  • and says he won't fight anymore. And things go really badly for the Greeks until Patroclus

    還說再也不願意繼續作戰了。情況變得對希臘盟軍非常不利,直到帕特羅克洛斯

  • - Achilles' best friend and maybe also lover, it's not clear - goes into battle in his

    - 阿基里斯最要好的朋友,也可能是情人,這不清楚- 代替他去作戰

  • place and does a pretty awesome job until he's slain by Hector, the Trojans' great warrior.

    表現得很不錯,最後卻被特洛伊的勇士赫克托爾給殺了

  • Which forces Achilles to reconcile himself with his own mortality and return

    這迫使阿基里斯接受自己終將死亡的命運,並且重返沙場

  • to the field where he becomes the ultimate death-dealing machine, slaying hordes of Trojans

    成為終極的殺人機器,殺死無數的特洛伊士兵

  • including Hector, whose body he drags behind his chariot because that's how Achilles

    包括赫克托爾,阿基里斯將他的屍體綁在馬車後方拖行,這就是阿基里斯的風格

  • rolls, until Hector's father, Priam, comes and begs for his son's corpse and Achilles relents

    直到赫克托爾的父親,普里阿摩斯,前來請求把他兒子的屍體帶回去,讓阿基里斯感到同情

  • and they have dinner together, and then the book ends with the war still going on and nothing really resolved.

    他們共進了晚餐,接著史書就記錄到這裡為止,戰爭仍然持續著、沒有被解決

  • And that's The Iliad. When The Odyssey opens, it's ten years later, and everyone is already

    這就是《伊里亞德》。《奧德賽》的開始在十年之後,除了奧德修斯以外,人們

  • back home except for Odysseus. His son Telemachus and his wife Penelope don't know if he's

    都已經回到家鄉。奧德修斯的兒子特勒馬科斯和妻子潘妮洛普不知道他的生死

  • dead or alive, but Homer reveals that he's on the Isle of Ogygia, imprisoned by the nymph

    但荷馬宣稱,奧德修斯被俄奇吉亞島上的女神

  • Calypso, who's so hot for Odysseus even though he spends his days laying on the beach

    卡呂普索囚禁,儘管奧德修斯每天只會躺在沙灘或哭泣,卡呂普索還是深愛著他

  • and crying that she won't let him go. But finally the gods intervene and after a series

    而不願意讓他走。最後其他神氏介入,而在一連串的冒險

  • of adventures and a whole lot of backstory he finally returns home to Ithaca in disguise

    與背景故事之後,奧德修斯終於暗中回到伊塔卡島上的家鄉

  • and kills several dozen suitors who have been drinking all of his wine, eating his beeves,

    並且殺死了數十個吃他的食糧

  • annoying his wife and plotting to kill his son. And it seems like a cycle of violence

    騷擾他的妻子、和策劃殺死他兒子的追求者。這樣一個冤冤相報的循環

  • is just going to continue on, probably forever, until the goddess Athena who loves Odysseus

    似乎就要繼續下去,可能是永遠,直到喜愛奧德修斯的雅典那女神

  • intervenes and restores peace. The end.

    干預並且重新帶來和平。結束。

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. So, some of the big questions around The Odyssey are Odysseus

    謝啦,思想泡泡。《奧德賽》衍伸的其中幾個疑問有奧德修思的

  • heroic characteristics, the epic's double standard for women, and whether you can ever

    英雄特質、史詩對女性的雙重標準、以及人們是否有可能終止

  • actually stop a cycle of violence. Odysseus hardly appears in The Iliad and he's not

    一個惡性循環。奧德修斯極少出現在《伊里亞德》裡,也不是個

  • a particularly great fighter; in fact, he's a pretty sleazy guy. He leads a night raid

    特別傑出的戰士;事實上他是個蠻低俗的人。他領導了一場夜間的突襲

  • into the enemy camp and kills a bunch of sleeping Trojans. That's not particularly glorious.

    在敵軍的營帳裡殺死了幾個睡夢中的特洛伊人。這並不特別光榮

  • But it is typical of Odysseus, who will pretty much do whatever it takes to survive. I mean,

    但這十足展現了奧德修斯的本性,他會不擇手段以求生存。

  • his distinguishing quality is metis, which means skill, or cunning. Odysseus is smart;

    他的最大的特質是狡黠,代表著技倆或奸詐。奧德修斯很聰明

  • he's really smart. I mean, he's an incredibly persuasive speaker and he can talk his way

    他真的很聰明。他有難以想像的說服力,能夠憑著一張嘴

  • out of the stickiest of situations, even ones that involve, like, Cyclopses. He's also

    擺脫最艱困的情境,連遇到卡呂普索那樣的情況也能脫身。他也是

  • kind of a monster of self-interest, and if he weren't so smug and overconfident he

    個充滿自信的怪獸,要不是他如此的躊躇滿志和過度自信

  • might have gotten home in less than, you know, like, a gajllion years.

    他可能要花上幾千萬年才能回家

  • The best example of this is probably Odysseus' encounter with the Cyclops. So Odysseus and

    奧德修斯與獨眼巨人的相遇大概是最好的例證。奧德修斯

  • his men land on the island of the Cyclops, and he and several of his guys settle into

    和他的手下來到了獨眼巨人所在的島嶼,他讓一些手下闖進

  • the Cyclops' cave, feasting on the delicious goat cheese that the Cyclops has hoarded,

    獨眼巨人的洞穴,大口享受巨人私藏的羊奶乳酪

  • and then, expecting the Cyclops to return and offer them gifts, because that's what

    還期望獨眼巨人回來的時候給他們一些禮物,因為被闖空門的人

  • you do when someone breaks into your house. I mean yes, there was an ancient Greek tradition

    就會這麼作。是沒錯,古希臘人有好客的傳統

  • of hospitality, but that's taking it pretty far; and for the record, it's also pretty

    但這樣實在太超過了;根據記載,這恰好是

  • much exactly what the suitors are doing in Odysseus' house, for which he kills them.

    追求者們在奧德修斯的家裡作的事,而奧德修斯為此殺了他們

  • So the Cyclops comes home and he's so thoroughly not psyched about these guys in his cave that

    獨眼巨人回到家後完全沒有被這些人激怒

  • he begins to eat them, and in response Odysseus gets the Cyclops drunk and then blinds him

    他開始吃人,奧德修斯因此把他灌醉,並用

  • with a flaming spear, which is fairly easy to do because of course he only has one eye.

    著火的矛刺瞎獨眼巨人,這蠻容易的因為他只有一隻眼睛

  • Odysseus has given his name as Noman, so when the Cyclops cries outNo man is hurting

    奧德修斯告訴巨人他叫諾曼 (音同 no man),所以當獨眼巨人大叫「諾曼在攻擊我!

  • me! No man is killing me!” the other Cyclopes don't come to his aide, because you know

    諾曼要把我殺了!」時,其他巨人沒有來救援他,因為

  • they think there's no man hurting him. It's a pun. It's a blindingly good pun. But then

    他們認為沒有人 (no man)在傷害他。這是個雙關,能掩人耳目的好雙關

  • when it seems like Odysseus might get away with it, he can't tolerate the idea that

    但在奧德修斯毫髮無傷的離開之前,他無法忍受

  • no manis going to get the credit so he announces his actual name, causing the

    讓「沒有人」搶走他的功勞,所以他宣告了自己真正的名字

  • Cyclops to call down curses on him, which culminates in all of his men being killed.

    巨人們也因此對他下了詛咒,讓他的所有手下遭到殺害

  • Just as a rule of thumb, you do not want to be friends with Odysseus, and you also don't

    根據經驗法則,你不會想當奧德修斯的朋友,但你也不會想當

  • want to be his enemy. Just stay away.

    他的敵人。離他遠一點

  • So Odysseus is a trickster and a liar and a pirate and a serial adulterer, and he's

    奧德修斯是個騙子、搶匪、通姦累犯

  • responsible for the death of a lot of people, and he also has probably the worst sense of

    他害許多人死去,他的方向感大概是希臘文學的所有角色裡

  • direction in all of Greek literature. But is he a hero? Yes. To the Greeks, heroism

    最差的一個。但他是個英雄嗎?是得。對希臘人來說

  • didn't mean perfection, it meant that you had an extraordinary attribute or ability,

    英雄不代表完美,而是代表你擁有某種超於常人的天賦或能力

  • and Odysseus definitely does. It's not for nothing that he's the favorite of Athena,

    奧德修斯絕對有。他會成為智慧女神雅典娜最愛的人

  • the goddess of wisdom. I mean, she applauds all of his tricks and stratagems, and she

    不是沒有原因的。雅典娜讚許、也鼓勵大家一起讚許

  • encourages us to applaud them too, even though from our contemporary perspective, he's a pretty shady dude.

    他的所有技倆與策謀,儘管從現代人的角度來看,奧德修斯算是個陰險的人

  • Speaking of contemporary perspective, one of Odysseus' least stellar qualities is

    從現代觀點來談,奧德修斯最不光彩的特質之一

  • his attitude toward women. He's really big on this sexual double standard in which the

    是他對待女人的態度。他有非常嚴重的性別雙重標準

  • exact same behavior types women as sluts and men as studs. Actually the whole epic in general

    同樣的行為,女人作了叫蕩婦、男人作了叫性感。其實整部史詩大致上都

  • is incrediblywait, why is my desk moving? Oh, the secret compartment is open. It must

    非常的 -- 等等,為什麼我的桌子在動?喔,秘密隔間打開了

  • be time for the open letter. What have we got today? Well, it's Medusa, a representation

    一定是公開信的時間。我們今天有什麼?是梅杜莎,她代表

  • of woman as a monstrous serpent.

    有蛇髮的女怪物

  • An open letter to the patriarchy: how are you so incredibly resilient? Also, please

    給父權制度的公開信:你為何會如此的堅韌?也請告訴我

  • explain something to me. How is it that the only way for someone to become like a good

    為何一個男人要彰顯他的健壯唯一的方法

  • heroic strong man is to have sex with lots of women, but if a woman has sex with lots

    是和許多女人上床,但一個女人和許多男人上床的話

  • of men, she's like tainted and impure and horrible? Patriarchy, I don't want to get

    她就如同被玷污、不純潔和糟糕一樣?父權制度,我不想

  • too deeply into math but in order for men to have sex with a lot of women, a lot of

    算太深奧的數學,但要讓一個男人和許多女人上床的話,就要有

  • women have to have sex with men. That's it, that's the only way, patriarchy! So

    很多女人和男人上床。就是這樣,這是唯一的方法,父權制度!

  • basically you're saying that the only way for men to achieve manliness is for women

    基本上你就是在說,唯一讓男人成為男子漢的前提,是要讓女人

  • to fail at womanliness! It's bad! Actually, it's evil! I hate you! Best wishes, John Green.

    女德敗壞!這很壞!是實上這很邪惡!我討厭你!葛林約翰敬上

  • Yeah, so the whole epic is incredibly paranoid about female sexuality. I mean the story that

    所以這整篇史詩都對女性的性行為非常偏執

  • haunts The Odyssey is that of Agamemnon, the leader of the Achaeans, who returns victorious

    《奧德賽》裡也穿插了希臘國王阿伽曼儂的故事,他打了勝仗回到家鄉

  • from the war, only to be murdered by his wife and her lover. And then when they meet in

    卻被太太和她的情夫謀殺。當他們在地下相遇時

  • the underworld, Agamemnon's ghost warns Odysseus that he better come home in secret

    阿伽曼儂的鬼魂警告奧德修斯,他最好在暗中返家

  • because Penelope might try and have him killed too. And the misogyny doesn't end there;

    因為潘妮洛普也可能試著殺害他。厭女情節不只到這裡

  • I mean this is a book full of monsters, and, Cyclops aside, a lot of them are female; like

    這本書充滿了怪物,而除了獨眼巨人外,多數的怪物都是女性

  • the Sirens who lure men to their deaths, or Scylla, who's basically an octopus with

    例如誘惑男人走向死亡的女海妖賽壬,或是錫拉,她算是有牙齒的章魚

  • teeth. Then of course there's Charybdis, a hole that sucks men to their doom. You can

    當然還包括卡力布狄斯,把男人吸進悲慘命運的黑洞

  • explore the Freudian implications of that one over at Crash Course Psychology.

    你可以在心理速成班了解與她相關的佛洛伊德理論

  • Meanwhile Odysseus sleeps with like every manner of magical lady and nearly marries

    奧德修斯和各種不同的仙女上過床,也幾乎和一整座島那麼多的公主結過婚

  • an island princess, but he assures us that he was always true to his wifein his heart.”

    但他可以保證,「在他心中」他一直都是真誠對待他妻子的

  • Which is nice, but it would be even nicer if he were true to his wife in his pants.

    這很好,但他要是在褲子裡真誠對待妻子的話會更好

  • Stan, who is ever the stickler for historical accuracy, would like me to acknowledge that

    史坦,他對歷史的正確性非常執著,希望我承認

  • Odysseus didn't wear pants because they weren't a thing in Greece yet, so he wasn't

    奧德修斯沒有穿褲子,因為古希臘還不存在著褲子,所以

  • true to his wife in like his toga or his loincloth or whatever.

    他在長袍或是纏腰帶裡對他的妻子不忠誠

  • Anyway, even as he's sleeping around, Odysseus is incredibly concerned with whether or not

    總之,儘管他到處與人上床,奧德修斯非常在意潘妮洛普是否還

  • Penelope is chaste. If she isn't, he'll likely kill her. After all, he later executes

    保有貞操。如果她沒有,他很有可能會殺了她。畢竟,奧德修斯事後

  • all the housemaids for sleeping with the suitors, and he's not even married to them.

    處死了所有和追求者上床的女傭,但他和女傭們根本沒有婚姻關係

  • The epic seems like it's building to a climactic scene wherein Odysseus is going to test Penelope’s

    這部史詩似乎在這段情節達到了高潮:奧德修斯要測試潘妮洛普的忠誠

  • faithfulness, but instead it's Penelope who tests Odysseus. When he reveals himself

    但變成潘妮洛普在測驗奧德修斯。當奧德修斯向她表明自己的身分時

  • to her, she doesn't recognize him. She forces him to prove himself by speaking the secret

    她沒有認出他來。她要求奧德修斯證明身份,說出她們新婚時的秘密

  • of their marriage bed, and only then does she embrace him in one of the most beautiful lines in all of Homer:

    之後她抱著奧德修斯說出了最美的台詞之一

  • And so she too rejoiced, her gaze upon her husband, her white arms round him pressed as though forever.”

    「她感到了欣喜,凝視著自己的丈夫,她白皙的手臂僅僅環抱著他,一如永恆」

  • Some ancient commentators believed the poem should end right there like any good romance

    一些古文的評論者認為這首詩應該在這裡結束,就如同羅曼史一般

  • would, with Odysseus and Penelope blissfully reunited, but it doesn't. See Odysseus and

    讓奧德修斯和潘妮洛普幸福的重聚,但故事還沒結束。奧德修斯

  • a couple of his friends, with a big assist from Athena, have slaughtered all the suitors

    和幾個朋友在雅典娜的大力協助下,屠殺了所有的追求者

  • and the serving maids, and that's a problem, because this isn't The Iliad. They aren't at war.

    和女傭,這便是問題所在,因為這不是《伊里亞德》。當時沒有戰爭

  • The Iliad is a poem of war, and it's main concern is kleos, which means glory or

    《伊里亞德》是戰爭的史詩,當中最重要的是榮譽,代表在戰場上贏得的

  • renown achieved on the battlefield that guarantees you a kind of immortality because your deeds

    榮耀獲名聲,它可以保你不死,因為你的事蹟

  • are so amazing that everyone's going to sing about you forever. Achilles didn't

    非常驚人,人們將會永遠地頌揚你。阿基里斯沒有

  • get to go home. He had two choices: he could stay and fight and win glory, or he could

    回到家鄉。他有兩個選項:留在特洛伊打仗並贏得榮耀,或是

  • go home and live a long and quiet life. In The Iliad, Achilles went for glory. But The

    回家過個長久寧靜的生活。在《伊里亞德》裡,阿基里斯選擇了榮耀。

  • Odyssey is about the alternative. It's about what we do after a war, how we put war away.

    但《奧德修斯》代表了另一個選項。它描繪了我們在戰爭結束後,如何放下戰爭

  • Odysseus isn't particularly good at this. He's sort of an ancient example of Post

    奧德修斯不是很擅長這麼做。他算是創傷後壓力症候群中心的

  • Traumatic Stress Disorder. He's been through so much that he doesn't know how to adjust

    古代案例。他經歷了太多戰爭,讓他無法重新適應和平的生活

  • to peacetime; his response to young men taking over his dining hall and barbecuing all of

    占領他的餐廳、烤光他的豬隻的年輕人,奧德修斯對他們的回應

  • his pigs is mass slaughter. And the slaughter of the suitors leads to their relatives coming

    是大屠殺。對追求者們的屠殺讓他們的親人

  • to try to slaughter Odysseus, and if Athena hadn't descended from Olympus, conveniently,

    前來刺殺奧德修斯,而若是雅典娜沒有從奧林卑斯山降臨,很方便地

  • and put a stop to it, pretty soon there would have been no one left on Ithaca alive. And

    並且阻止這一切,伊塔卡島上很快就會變得無人生還

  • that's a sobering final thought: if it weren't for divine intervention, the humans in this

    這是個警世的結局:若沒有天神的干預,故事裡的人們

  • story might have continued that cycle of violence forever. The Odyssey is a poem set in peacetime,

    很可能會永遠維持著這個惡性循環。《奧德賽》是和平時期的故事

  • but it reminds us that humans have never been particularly good at leaving war behind them.

    但它提醒了我們,人類從來都不善於放下戰爭

  • Next week we'll be discussing another story with lots of sex and violence and Greeks:

    下星期我們會討論另一個充滿性行為、暴力和希臘人的故事:

  • Oedipus. Thanks for watching. I'll see you then.

    《伊底帕斯王》。謝謝收看。我們下次見

  • Crash Course is made with the help of all of these nice people and it is brought to

    速成班系列是在這些很棒的人們的協助下完成的,由

  • you today by Crash Course viewer and Subbable subscriber Damian Shaw. Damian wants to say

    Crash Course viewer 和 Subbable 訂閱者達米蕭 呈現給你。達米想要

  • thanks for all your support to Bryonie, Stew, Peter, Morgan and Maureen. And today's video

    謝謝你們對Bryonie, Stew, Peter, Morgan 和 Mauree的支持。這部影片

  • is cosponsored by Max Loutzenheiser and Katy Cocco. Thank you so much for subscribing on

    也由Max Loutzenheiser 和 Katy Cocco共同贊助。非常感謝你訂閱

  • Subbable and supporting Crash Course so we can keep making it free for everyone forever.

    Subbable並且支持速成班系列,讓我們能夠持續為所有人製作免費影片

  • You can help the show continue and grow at Subbable.com. Thank you for watching, and

    你可以到Subbable.com幫助這個節目繼續成長。感謝你的收看

  • as we say in my hometown, don't forget to be awesome.

    老話一句,別忘了當個很棒的人

Hi, I'm John Green, welcome to Crash Course Literature!

嗨,我是約翰葛林,歡迎來到文學速成班!

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 CrashCourse 奧德修斯 史詩 巨人 特洛伊 戰爭

漫長而艱難的旅程,或《奧德賽》。201年文學速成班 (A Long and Difficult Journey, or The Odyssey: Crash Course Literature 201)

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    Dola Yang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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