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  • How do we build a society

    我們要如何建立一個

  • without fossil fuels?

    沒有石化燃料的社會?

  • This is a very complex challenge,

    這是個很複雜艱困的挑戰,

  • and I believe developing countries could take the lead in this transition.

    我相信發展中國家 可以為這個改變起帶頭作用。

  • And I'm aware that this is a contentious statement,

    我知道這樣的說法很有爭議性,

  • but the reality is that so much is at stake in our countries

    但現實問題是,如果我們把石化燃料

  • if we let fossil fuels stay at the center of our development.

    列為國家發展的重點, 我們將會付出慘痛的代價。

  • We can do it differently.

    我們必須創新。

  • And it's time, it really is time,

    而且是時候,真的是時候

  • to debunk the myth

    去揭穿

  • that a country has to choose between development on the one hand

    國家只能在經濟發展及 環境保護議題中擇一發展的迷思,

  • and environmental protection, renewables, quality of life, on the other.

    要經濟發展就沒有再生能源、 沒有生活品質,這種錯誤的迷思。

  • I come from Costa Rica, a developing country.

    我來自哥斯大黎加,一個發展中的國家。

  • We are nearly five million people,

    我們將近有五百萬的人口,

  • and we live right in the middle of the Americas,

    我們位處美洲的中心,

  • so it's very easy to remember where we live.

    所以很容易記得 我們居住的地方。

  • Nearly 100 percent of our electricity

    我們的電力,100%,

  • comes from renewable sources,

    來自再生能源,

  • five of them.

    有五種。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Hydropower, geothermal,

    水力發電、地熱發電、

  • wind, solar, biomass.

    風力發電、太陽能、生物質能。

  • Did you know that last year,

    不知各位是否知道,我們去年,

  • for 299 days,

    連續299天,

  • we did not use any fossil fuels

    我們沒有使用任何的石化燃料

  • in order to generate all our electricity?

    來生產我們的電力?

  • It's a fantastic achievement,

    這是一個了不起的成就,

  • and yet, it hides a paradox,

    但,這背後隱藏了一個 似是而非的論點,

  • which is that nearly 70 percent

    我們70%的

  • of all our energy consumption is oil.

    能源消耗都是石油。

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Because of our transportation system,

    因為我們的運輸系統

  • which is totally dependent on fossil fuels,

    幾乎完全仰賴石化燃料,

  • like it is in most countries.

    就像其他國家一樣。

  • So if we think of the energy transition as a marathon,

    所以如果我們將能源過渡, 視為一場馬拉松,

  • the question is, how do we get to the finish line,

    那麽問題來了,我們如何 才能到抵達終點線?

  • how do we decarbonize the rest of the economy?

    其餘的經濟發展要如何「脫碳」?

  • And it's fair to say that if we don't succeed,

    幾乎可以這麼說, 如果我們無法成功,

  • it's difficult to see who will.

    那其它國家也很難做到。

  • So that is why I want to talk to you about Costa Rica,

    這也是為什麼我要向各位談談 哥斯大黎加,

  • because I believe we are a great candidate

    因為我相信,我們在 不使用石化燃料的發展藍圖中

  • in pioneering a vision for development without fossil fuels.

    是一個不錯的候選人。

  • If you know one thing about our country,

    如果各位認識我們的國家,

  • it's that we don't have an army.

    其中一件事就是, 我們是沒有軍隊的。

  • So I'm going to take you back to 1948.

    所以接下來,我想帶各位 回到1948那年。

  • That year, the country was coming out of civil war.

    那一年,哥斯大黎加 剛從一場內戰中解脫。

  • Thousands of Costa Ricans had died,

    好幾千人死亡,

  • and families were bitterly split.

    好幾個家庭流離失所。

  • And yet, a surprising idea won the hearts and minds:

    但是,一個令人驚訝的想法 得到了大家的支持:

  • we would reboot the country,

    我們將重新建立我們的國家,

  • and that Second Republic would have no army.

    而且第二個共和國不會再有軍隊。

  • So we abolished it.

    所以我們廢除了軍隊。

  • And the president at the time,

    而當時的總統

  • José Figueres,

    何塞·菲格雷斯,

  • found a powerful way by smashing the walls of an army base.

    藉由敲毀軍事基地的圍牆, 向世人宣示全國人民的決心,

  • The following year, 1949,

    接下來的1949年,

  • we made that decision permanent in the new constitution,

    我們將這項決定永久地 列入國家的憲法裡,

  • and that is why I can tell you that story nearly 70 years later.

    這也是為什麼,將近70年後, 我可以向各位訴說這段故事。

  • And I'm grateful.

    我很感激,

  • I'm grateful they made that decision before I was born,

    我很感激他們在我出生之前 做了這個決定,

  • because it allowed me and millions of others

    因為這個決定, 讓我和好幾百萬個國人

  • to live in a very stable country.

    可以生活在一個非常穩定的國家裏。

  • And you might be thinking that it was good luck,

    各位可能會認為,那只是我們運氣好,

  • but it wasn't.

    但這並不是,

  • There was a pattern of deliberate choices.

    這一切是深思熟慮後,所下的決定。

  • In the '40s, Costa Ricans were given free education and free health care.

    在40年代,哥斯大黎加人民 擁有免費教育及醫療照顧的福利。

  • We called that social guarantees.

    我們把這些叫做社會保障。

  • By abolishing the army,

    廢除軍隊後,

  • we were able to turn military spending into social spending,

    我們可以將軍事上的開銷 移轉到社會福利上,

  • and that was a driver of stability.

    而這也是我們國家 能穩定成長的原因。

  • In the '50s --

    在50年代——

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • In the '50s, we started investing in hydropower,

    在50年代,我們開始投資水力發電

  • and that kept us away from the trap

    這也使我們避免落入

  • of using fossil fuels for electricity generation,

    用石化燃料發電的陷阱裡,

  • which is what the world is struggling with today.

    而現在全世界 都在這個陷阱中掙扎。

  • In the '70s we invested in national parks,

    在70年代,我們投資了國家公園,

  • and that kept us away

    而這也使我們遠離了

  • from the deeply flawed logic of growth, growth, growth at any cost

    「不惜一切代價發展、發展、發展」 大錯特錯的邏輯,

  • that you see others embracing, especially in the developing world.

    但這個畸形的理念卻被 許多發展中國家所推崇。

  • In the '90s, we pioneered payments for ecosystem services,

    在90年代,我們首先提出了 支付生態系統保護工作者工資的政策,

  • and that helped us reverse deforestation

    而這幫助我們逆轉了 森林砍伐的後果,

  • and boosted ecotourism, which today is a key engine of growth.

    同時促進了生態的旅遊, 這也是我們國家成長的重要引擎。

  • So investing in environmental protection

    所以,投資在環境保護上,

  • did not hurt our economy.

    並不會傷害我們的經濟,

  • Quite the opposite.

    反而成為了我們國家發展的大功臣。

  • And it doesn't mean we are perfect,

    但這並不代表我們是完美的,

  • and it doesn't mean we don't have contradictions.

    也不代表我們沒有矛盾過。

  • That's not the point.

    這不是重點,

  • The point is that, by making our own choices,

    重點是,因為我們自己的選擇,

  • we were able to develop resilience in dealing with development problems.

    我們得以發展出堅韌的意志力 來處理發展的問題。

  • Also, if you take a country like ours,

    而且,以我們國家為例,

  • the GDP per capita is around 11,000 dollars,

    我們的人均GDP大約1萬1美金,

  • depending on how you measure it.

    這要看你怎麼計算。

  • But according to the Social Progress Index,

    但根據社會進步指數的數據,

  • we are an absolute outlier

    將GDP轉到社會發展上面的比例,

  • when it comes to turning GDP into social progress.

    我們絕對是數一數二的。

  • Abolishing the army,

    廢除軍隊、

  • investing in nature and people,

    投資大自然與人民,

  • did something very powerful, too.

    這幾點,都對我們的發展 做出了不可磨滅的貢獻。

  • It shaped the narrative,

    這一切造就了我們的故事,

  • the narrative of a small country with big ideas,

    小國家也能做大事的故事,

  • and it was very empowering to grow up with that narrative.

    而我們的國家也伴隨著這個故事, 慢慢發展起來。

  • So the question is,

    那麽問題來了,

  • what is the next big idea for this generation?

    我們這一代的 要做的大事又是什麼呢?

  • And I believe what comes next

    而我相信,我們這一代為了將來,

  • is for this generation to let go of fossil fuels for good,

    會廢除石化燃料的使用,

  • just as we did with the army.

    就像我們廢除軍隊一樣。

  • Fossil fuels create climate change.

    石化燃料造成了氣候變化。

  • We know that,

    我們都懂這一點,

  • and we know how vulnerable we are to the impacts of climate change.

    我們也都知道,在面對氣候變遷時, 我們人類是不堪一擊的。

  • So as a developing country, it is in our best interest

    所以身為一個發展中國家,

  • to build development without fossil fuels

    在開發過程中,摒棄石化燃料的使用 對我們才是最佳的選擇,

  • that harm people in the first place.

    因為使用石化燃料, 就是在傷害我們自己。

  • Because

    因為

  • why would we continue importing oil

    如果我們的交通運輸可以用電力代替,

  • for transportation

    那又何必要繼續進口石油呢?

  • if we can use electricity instead?

    記得,

  • Remember,

    我們國家的電力

  • this is the country

    是來自河流中的水力、

  • where electricity comes from water in our rivers,

    來自火山的地熱、

  • heat from volcanoes,

    來自渦輪機的風力、太陽能板、

  • wind turbines, solar panels,

    生物廢料。

  • biowaste.

    廢除石化燃料的使用,意味著 交通系統也會跟著變革,

  • Abolishing fossil fuels means disrupting our transportation system

    所以我們就可以用電能來發動 汽車、公共汽車和火車,

  • so that we can power our cars, buses and trains with electricity

    而不再是用會汙染環境的石油。

  • instead of dirty energy.

    讓我告訴各位,哥斯大黎加的 交通運輸問題

  • And transportation, let me tell you,

    一直困擾著人民,

  • has become an existential issue for us Costa Ricans,

    因為現存的交通網路根本不適合我們,

  • because the model we have is not working for us.

    它引響了人民的權益,

  • It's hurting people,

    也傷害公司的利益、

  • it's hurting companies,

    同時也在影響著我們的健康。

  • and it's hurting our health.

    當政策與基礎建設都失敗的時候,

  • Because when policies and infrastructure fail,

    就會造成這樣的情形。

  • this is what happens on a daily basis.

    早上塞了兩個小時,

  • Two hours in the morning,

    晚上還要塞兩個小時

  • two hours in the evening.

    我不明白為什麼我們 必須接受這樣的常態,

  • I don't understand why we have to accept this as normal.

    每天要浪費這麼多的時間在路上, 是很令人不快的。

  • It's offensive

    而這條高速公路

  • to have to waste our time like this every single day.

    比起其它國家的塞車情況

  • And this highway is actually quite good

    還算是不嚴重的。

  • compared to what you see in other countries

    哥斯大黎加人民把這個叫做 ”Presa“ (西班牙語)。

  • where traffic is exploding.

    “ Presa” 是被囚禁的意思。

  • You know, Costa Ricans call this "presa."

    而本該是在一個國家裏 過著純凈生活的人們

  • Presa means "imprisoned."

    開始變得浮躁,暴力。

  • And people are turning violent

    這正在發生中。

  • in a country that is otherwise happy in pura vida.

    所以很多美好的事都受到了威脅。

  • It's happening.

    好消息是,

  • So a lot is at stake.

    當我們提到純凈無汙染的交通系統

  • The good news

    和不一樣的運輸系統時,

  • is that when we talk about clean transportation

    我們不是在討論 遙不可及的純凈樂土。

  • and different mobility,

    我們談的電能運輸 是目前已經正在發生的事。

  • we're not talking about some distant utopia out there.

    到2020年前,電動汽車與 傳統汽車的成本

  • We're talking about electric mobility that is happening today.

    預測會來到一致的水平,

  • By 2022, electric cars and conventional cars

    而且有的城市已經開始 嘗試使用電動公共汽車了。

  • are expected to cost the same,

    而這些酷炫的高科技產品

  • and cities are already trying electric buses.

    能替我們省很多錢,

  • And these really cool creatures

    還能降低汙染。

  • are saving money,

    所以,如果我們真的想擺脫 以石油為基礎的大眾運輸,我們是辦的到的,

  • and they reduce pollution.

    因為我們有著前所未有的機會。

  • So if we want to get rid of oil-based transportation, we can,

    這真的是非常激動人心。

  • because we have options now that we didn't have before.

    但當然,

  • It's really exciting.

    有些人會對這想法感到不快,

  • But of course,

    然後他們會跳出來跟你說,

  • some get very uncomfortable with this idea,

    整個世界只能被石油左右, 哥斯大黎加也在所難免,所以面對現實吧。

  • and they will come and they will tell you

    這是他們會給你灌輸的想法。

  • that the world is stuck with oil, and so is Costa Rica, so get real.

    那你知道如何回應他們嗎?

  • That's what they tell you.

    1948年,我們並沒有說 因為世界都仍在戰亂,

  • And you know what the answer to that argument is?

    所以我們繼續保留軍隊吧。

  • That in 1948, we didn't say the world is stuck with armies,

    不,我們做了一個勇敢的決定,

  • so let's keep our army, too.

    而且這個決定為世界 帶來了翻天覆地的改變。

  • No, we made a very