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  • At the height of the Cold War in 1961, the United States and Cuba severed diplomatic

    在 1961 年冷戰的高峰期,美國和古巴

  • ties.

    斷交

  • In the succeeding decades, the US government slapped on economic sanctions and travel restrictions,

    在之後的數十年,美國政府發動了經濟制裁

  • which, coupled with the policies of its repressive government, kept Cuba isolated and its people

    以及旅遊的限制來對古巴政府施壓,古巴因此被孤立,

  • trapped in poverty.

    人民也飽受貧困之苦

  • In 2015, diplomatic relations were restored, prompting major changes in the Cuban economy

    在 2015 年,兩國重新建交,連帶改變了古巴的經濟

  • and the lives of ordinary citizens.

    以及一般人民的生活

  • So, how has life changed for Cubans in the last few years?

    所以,在那幾年古巴人的生活有什麼樣的改變呢?

  • Well, one of the biggest changes for Cubans has been the sudden influx of American tourists.

    最大的變化就是突然有大量的美國旅客進入古巴

  • The US government has gone back and forth on travel restrictions since the Cold War,

    自冷戰以來,美國政府對旅遊限制一直舉旗不定

  • but for the most part, Americans have been legally barred from entering Cuba, unless

    但基本上,還是美國人被禁止進入古巴,

  • going as a journalist or as part of an organized tour group.

    除非是以記者的身分或是參加旅遊團。

  • However since 2014, the US has significantly eased travel restrictions, and even allows

    然而自從2014年,美國明顯放寬了旅遊限制,

  • Americans to spend money there.

    甚至允許國人在古巴消費。

  • As a result, the number of American tourists in Cuba has increased every year, in 2015

    如此以來,前往古巴的美國遊客便逐年增加,

  • by more than 75 percent.

    在 2015 年更增加了百分之 75 以上

  • Cubans, however, still need official permission to leave the country or even travel between

    然而,古巴人仍需要官方授權才能出境

  • provinces.

    或是在各省間移動

  • This is all happening as Cuba undergoes major economic reforms.

    這些會發生的原因在於古巴正在進行經濟變革

  • As a socialist country, most industries are owned by the state, and workers are paid a

    身為社會主義的國家,多數為國營企業,工人也都是

  • fixed monthly salary.

    固定月薪。

  • However since 2010, the government has slowly begun to allow self employment and private

    但從2010年開始,政府開始逐漸放寬允許自主就業

  • sector jobs.

    以及私營部門的工作。

  • Today, private employment extends to more than 200 occupations, many of which cater

    如今,私部門有超過 200 種職業,很多都是

  • to tourists.

    為了符合旅遊業需求。

  • As a result, many Cubans who were employed by the state, for instance as doctors, engineers

    也因此,被政府所雇用的古巴人,例如醫生、工程師

  • and farmers, working in their free time as taxi drivers or servers.

    以及農人,副業就會是計程車司機或是服務業者。

  • That’s because, counterintuitive as it may seem, these positions often pay more.

    這是因為,這些職業的薪水都異於常理的高

  • Nearly 500 thousand Cubans are currently registered as self-employed, however economists say that

    目前將近有50萬古巴人都是自主就業,然而,經濟學家表示

  • number is closer to 2 million, or about 40 percent of the workforce.

    人數已經來到200萬,是所有勞工的百分之40。

  • Alongside these economic and diplomatic reforms, internet access has becoming increasingly

    隨著經濟及外交的變革,連線上網也變得

  • prevalent.

    更加普遍。

  • Traditionally, internet in Cuba was shoddy, expensive, and limited to internet cafes.

    以往在古巴,網際網路價格高昂、品質差而且僅限於網咖使用。

  • I remember when I traveled to Cuba as a journalist in 2002, the Internet was only available to

    我記得在 2002 年,我以記者的身分去古巴的時候,網路只能在

  • foreigners in certain hotels.

    特定幾間旅館給外國人使用。

  • We brought our local Cuban guide to our hotel and introduced him to the internet for the

    我們帶著古巴的當地嚮導到我們的旅館,並首次

  • first time.

    向他介紹如何使用網路

  • And he was absolutely blown away.

    他驚嘆不已。

  • I will never forget the look on his face when he realized that news about the rest of the

    我絕不會忘記他那表情,就是當他發現關於世界的

  • world was just a click away.

    大小事只需要按個鍵就會出現

  • But things have changed in the last few years.

    但過去幾年事情又有了一些轉變

  • The government has created dozens of public wi-fi zones, opened more, and cheaper, internet

    政府設立了數個公共 wifi 區域,也開設了更多且更便宜的

  • cafes and increased connectivity speed.

    網咖,也改善了連線速度

  • American telecom companies can now sell computers and mobile phones in Cuba, and internet providers

    現在美國的電信公司能在古巴銷售電腦以及手機,

  • have partnered with the state.

    互聯網也與當地進行合作

  • But even though more Cubans are getting online, still only about 5% have web access at home,

    縱使越來越多的古巴人能連上網,仍然只有 5% 的人家中有網路,

  • and their activity is closely monitored by state officials.

    而且都被當地政府嚴密監控

  • So, change is happening.

    所以,開始有了一些轉變

  • But many vestiges of communism remain.

    但許多資本主義的痕跡還在

  • Political opposition is repressed, commercial property cannot be bought or sold and the

    政治的反對方被壓抑,商業資產不得進行買賣,

  • government controls all imports and exports.

    而且政府控制了所有的進出口

  • Cuba still has few wholesale markets, meaning that many restaurant and shop owners must

    古巴仍有少數批發市場,但意思就是,許多的餐廳及店家老闆

  • buy their inventory at retail prices or on the black market.

    必須要從零售或是黑市購買存貨

  • But besides their centrally planned economy, the biggest hurdle in the way of change is

    除了中央政府控制經濟,改變最大的阻礙還是

  • the US trade embargo, which prohibits most American companies from doing business in

    美國的貿易禁運令,大部分的美國公司被禁止

  • Cuba.

    在古巴從事商業行為

  • President Obama has pushed for a full lift of the ban, however the Republican-led congress

    歐巴馬總統更將這項禁令推到最高點,但共和黨主導的議會

  • has repeatedly voted against it.

    一直在反對這項禁令

  • There’s no doubt Cuba’s economy is improving, but until trade with the US resumes, ordinary

    毫無疑問的古巴的經濟進步了,但直到與美國的貿易恢復之前,

  • Cubans will continue to live in relative isolation.

    古巴人民的生活環境仍是被孤立的

  • As the amount of privately-owned businesses grow in Cuba, more entrepreneurs are looking

    當越來越多的民營企業在古巴,更多的企業也

  • for creative ways to work around the trade restrictions.

    在搜尋有效的方法來突破貿易限制

  • To learn more about what it takes to run a business under the embargo, check out this

    想知道更多在禁運令下要如何營運公司,

  • video from Seeker Stories.

    請觀看 Seeker Stories 所提供的這部影片

  • Thanks for watching Seeker Daily, please make sure to like and subscribe for new videos

    感謝觀看 Seeker Daily ,如果喜歡的話請訂閱每日推出的

  • everyday.

    新影片

At the height of the Cold War in 1961, the United States and Cuba severed diplomatic

在 1961 年冷戰的高峰期,美國和古巴

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資本主義如何改變古巴? (How Is Capitalism Changing Cuba?)

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    哈維 發佈於 2016 年 10 月 13 日
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