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It begins with a bit of discomfort
and soon becomes a pressing sensation that's impossible to ignore.
Finally, it's all you can think about,
and out of sheer desperation,
you go on a hunt for a bathroom until "ahh."
Humans should urinate at least four to six times a day,
but occasionally, the pressures of modern life forces us to clench and hold it in.
How bad is this habit, and how long can our bodies withstand it?
The answers lie in the workings of the bladder,
and oval pouch that sits inside the pelvis.
Surrounding this structure are several other organs
that together make up the whole urinary system.
Two kidneys,
two ureters,
two urethral sphincters,
and a urethra.
Constantly trickling down from the kidneys is the yellowish liquid known as urine.
The kidneys make urine from a mix of water and the body's waste products,
funneling the unwanted fluid into two muscular tubes called ureters.
These carry it downward into the hollow organ known as the bladder.
This organ's muscular wall is made of tissue called detrusor muscle
which relaxes as the bladder fills allowing it to inflate like a balloon.
As the bladder gets full, the detrusor contracts.
The internal urethral sphincter automatically and involuntarily opens,
and the urine is released.
Whooshing downwards, the fluid enters the urethra
and stops short at the external urethral sphincter.
This works like a tap.
When you want to delay urinating, you keep the sphincter closed.
When you want to release it, you can voluntarily open the flood gates.
But how do you sense your bladder's fullness
so you know when to pee?
Inside the layers of detrusor muscles are millions of stretch receptors
that get triggered as the bladder fills.
They send signals along your nerves to the sacral region in your spinal cord.
A reflex signal travels back to your bladder,
making the detrusor muscle contract slightly
and increasing the bladder's pressure so you're aware that it's filling up.
Simultaneously, the internal urethral sphincter opens.
This is called the micturition reflex.
The brain can counter it if it's not a good time to urinate
by sending another signal to contract the external urethral sphincter.
With about 150 to 200 milliliters of urine inside of it,
the bladder's muscular wall is stretched enough
for you to sense that there's urine within.
At about 400 to 500 milliliters, the pressure becomes uncomfortable.
The bladder can go on stretching, but only to a point.
Above 1,000 milliliters, it may burst.
Most people would lose bladder control before this happens,
but in very rare cases,
such as when a person can't sense the need to urinate,
the pouch can rupture painfully requiring surgery to fix.
But under normal circumstances,
your decision to urinate stops the brain's signal to the external urethral sphincter,
causing it to relax and the bladder to empty.
The external urethral sphincter is one of the muscles of the pelvic floor,
and it provides support to the urethra and bladder neck.
It's lucky we have these pelvic floor muscles
because placing pressure on the system by coughing,
sneezing,
laughing,
or jumping could cause bladder leakage.
Instead, the pelvic floor muscles keep the region sealed
until you're ready to go.
But holding it in for too long,
forcing out your urine too fast,
or urinating without proper physical support
may over time weaken or overwork that muscular sling.
That can lead to an overactive pelvic floor,
bladder pain,
urgency,
or urinary incontinence.
So in the interest of long-term health,
it's not a great habit to hold your pee.
But in the short term, at least, your body and brain have got you covered,
so you can conveniently choose your moment of sweet release.
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【TED-Ed】憋尿真的對身體不好嗎? (Is it bad to hold your pee? - Heba Shaheed)

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韓澐 發佈於 2017 年 1 月 5 日   Cloud 翻譯   Mandy Lin 審核

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不知道各位 VoiceTubers 會不會跟小編一樣,一忙起來就忘了去尿尿了?這部影片用科學的角度,告訴我們膀胱憋尿的方法。就讓我們一起來瞧瞧吧!

1sensation0:09
"sensation" 的意思是「生理上的感覺」,或是「因某個負面經驗而產生的感覺」。
Holding pee will cause an uncomfortable sensation.
憋尿會讓人有不舒服的感覺。

Kate had an uncomfortable sensation of being watched when she was on a bus this morning.
今天早上凱特搭公車的時候,她有種不舒服的感覺,好像有人正在看著她。


但是如果加上 "al" 變成形容詞,意思就會是「令人興奮的」或「令人驚喜的」。
Trump's supporters are still excited about the sensational victory in the presidential election.
川普的支持者,對於選舉中那次令人興奮的勝利,至今還是非常開心。


*同場加映:
【TED】極限運動:高空滑翔 (Extreme wingsuit flying (The TEDTalk))


2out of sheer desperation0:15
"sheer" 是個形容詞,意思是「絕對的」、「完全的」。而 "out of desperation" 的意思是「出於絕望」。如果我們要說一個人出於絕望,而鋌而走險,就可以說 "take a risk out of desperation" 。
No matter how bad the situation is, you shouldn't just take a risk out of desperation.
無論情況多糟,你都不該在絕望的情況下鋌而走險。


小編在這裡也介紹一下以 "out of" 開頭的常見片語:

1. out of condition 「不健康」
Maggie's eating habits are out of condition.
瑪姬的飲食不健康。


2. out of action「(人)因為受傷或生病,而無法正常活動」。
John's flu has gotten him out of action for this week.
流感已經讓約翰這個星期都無法正常做事了。


3. out of control 「失控」
The condition of bird flu in Germany has already been out of control.
德國的禽流感疫情已經失控了。


3withstand0:31
"withstand" 的意思是「夠堅強或強壯,足以對抗...」。
It's difficult for polar bears to withstand being ice-free in summer.
北極熊要撐過夏天的無冰期,是非常困難的。


或是「有能力處理...困境」。
Could John withstand the media pressure and public rumors after he becomes well-known?
約翰出名之後,是否能夠處理媒體壓力跟大眾輿論呢?


*同場加映:
TED-Ed:中暑時會發生什麼事?


4whoosh1:27
"whoosh"的意思是「飛快地移動」,聽起來跟「咻」的音非常接近喔!
The motorbike loudly whooshed passed us and nearly scared me to death.
那輛摩托車咻地一聲從我們身邊經過,差點把我嚇死了。


*同場加映:
三隻小豬 (The Three Little Pigs)


5aware2:00
"be aware" 後面可以加 "of + 名詞" 或 "that+子句"。
People should still be aware of possible dangers even if the surrounding environment seems safe.
即便附近環境看起來很安全,人們還是得意識到可能的危險。


如果是「提高...的意識」,可以用 "raise awareness"。
The government should raise its awareness of the damages caused by climate change.
政府應該提升對於氣候變遷所造成的災害的意識。


如此看來,憋尿真的對身體不好呢!如果長期憋尿,我們的膀胱可是會抗議的。大家忙碌之餘,別忘了起身到廁所解放,「健康」一下喔!

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