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  • It begins with a bit of discomfort

    開始時有點不舒服

  • and soon becomes a pressing sensation that's impossible to ignore.

    然後漸漸一股迫切感覺,讓人無法忽視

  • Finally, it's all you can think about, and out of sheer desperation, you go on a hunt for a bathroom until "ahh."

    最後,你可想而知,不顧一切你直接衝往廁所,直到「解放」

  • Humans should urinate at least four to six times a day,

    人類一天應該要小便至少四到六次

  • but occasionally, the pressures of modern life forces us to clench and hold it in.

    但是偶然地,現代生活的壓力強迫我們收緊和撐著這個念頭

  • How bad is this habit, and how long can our bodies withstand it?

    這個習慣有多糟?我們身體禁得起忍耐多久?

  • The answers lie in the workings of the bladder,

    答案就在膀胱的工作方式

  • and oval pouch that sits inside the pelvis.

    它位於骨盆內的橢圓形袋子

  • Surrounding this structure are several other organs

    圍繞在膀胱附近的數個器官

  • that together make up the whole urinary system.

    它們一起形成整個的泌尿系統

  • Two kidneys,

    二顆腎臟

  • two ureters,

    二條輸尿管

  • two urethral sphincters,

    二塊尿道的括約肌

  • and a urethra.

    還有一個尿道

  • Constantly trickling down from the kidneys is the yellowish liquid known as urine.

    不斷地從腎臟滴下來黃色液體是尿液

  • The kidneys make urine from a mix of water and the body's waste products,

    腎臟的功能是混合水和身體產生的廢棄物製造尿液

  • funneling the unwanted fluid into two muscular tubes called ureters.

    如漏斗般將無用的液體導入二根肌肉管狀器官稱為輸尿管

  • These carry it downward into the hollow organ known as the bladder.

    將這些液體往下運到一個中空的器官就是膀胱

  • This organ's muscular wall is made of tissue called detrusor muscle

    這個器官的肌肉壁由一層薄膜,稱為逼尿肌

  • which relaxes as the bladder fills allowing it to inflate like a balloon.

    讓膀胱在滿的時候鬆弛,讓它膨脹像是一個氣球

  • As the bladder gets full, the detrusor contracts.

    當膀胱有要滿了,逼尿肌開始收縮

  • The internal urethral sphincter automatically and involuntarily opens,

    內部的尿道括約肌自動非自願地打開

  • and the urine is released.

    然後排尿

  • Whooshing downwards, the fluid enters the urethra

    尿液飛快的向下移動進入到尿道

  • and stops short at the external urethral sphincter.

    停在外部的尿道的括約肌

  • This works like a tap.

    這個作用像是一個水龍頭

  • When you want to delay urinating, you keep the sphincter closed.

    當你想要晚點再上時,就讓括約肌保持關閉

  • When you want to release it, you can voluntarily open the flood gates.

    當你想要小便時,你可以自願地再把水門打開

  • But how do you sense your bladder's fullness

    但你如何感知你膀胱要滿的狀態

  • so you know when to pee?

    使你知道何時去撒尿

  • Inside the layers of detrusor muscles are millions of stretch receptors

    在逼尿肌的內層有數百萬延伸出的感覺器官

  • that get triggered as the bladder fills.

    在膀胱滿的時候被觸發

  • They send signals along your nerves to the sacral region in your spinal cord.

    它們發出信號沿著神經到位於脊椎神經的薦骨區域

  • A reflex signal travels back to your bladder,

    一個反射信號送回到你的膀胱

  • making the detrusor muscle contract slightly,

    讓逼尿肌輕微地收縮

  • and increasing the bladder's pressure so you're aware that it's filling up.

    增加膀胱的壓力,所以你就察覺到膀胱要滿了

  • Simultaneously, the internal urethral sphincter opens.

    同時地,內部的尿道的括約肌打開

  • This is called the micturition reflex.

    這個稱為排尿反射

  • The brain can counter it if it's not a good time to urinate

    在大腦可以反對它,如果這並非一個對的時間去小便

  • by sending another signal to contract the external urethral sphincter.

    藉由送出另一個信號去收縮外部尿道的括約肌

  • With about 150 to 200 milliliters of urine inside of it,

    當它裡面大約有 150 到 200 毫升左右的尿液

  • the bladder's muscular wall is stretched enough

    膀胱的肌肉壁還足夠伸展

  • for you to sense that there's urine within.

    讓你意識到裡面有尿

  • At about 400 to 500 milliliters, the pressure becomes uncomfortable.

    達到大約 400 到 500 毫升,有一股壓力開始覺得不自在

  • The bladder can go on stretching, but only to a point.

    膀胱還能夠伸展,但只剩一點空間

  • Above 1,000 milliliters, it may burst.

    超過 1000 毫升,它會炸裂

  • Most people would lose bladder control before this happens,

    大部份的人們都會控制在膀胱失控前,解除警報

  • but in very rare cases,

    但有一些罕見例子

  • such as when a person can't sense the need to urinate,

    像當一個人他無法感覺到尿意

  • the pouch can rupture painfully requiring surgery to fix.

    會感到膀胱會痛苦地破裂,需要外科醫生修復它

  • But under normal circumstances,

    但在一般情況下

  • your decision to urinate stops the brain's signal to the external urethral sphincter,

    你下決定要小便就會停止大腦發送信號給外部括約肌

  • causing it to relax and the bladder to empty.

    讓肌肉放鬆,排出膀胱的尿液

  • The external urethral sphincter is one of the muscles of the pelvic floor,

    外部尿道的括約肌是骨盆底的其中一塊肌肉

  • and it provides support to the urethra and bladder neck.

    它提供支撐在尿道和膀胱頸

  • It's lucky we have these pelvic floor muscles

    很幸運我們擁有這些骨盆底肌肉

  • because placing pressure on the system by coughing,

    因為當泌尿系統受到擠壓,發生咳嗽

  • sneezing,

    打噴嚏

  • laughing,

    大笑

  • or jumping could cause bladder leakage.

    或跳躍都會造成膀胱洩漏

  • Instead, the pelvic floor muscles keep the region sealed

    然而,骨盆底的肌肉封起這部位

  • until you're ready to go.

    直到你打算小便

  • But holding it in for too long,

    但若維持這個狀態太久、

  • forcing out your urine too fast,

    排出的速度太快、

  • or urinating without proper physical support

    或小便時沒有適合的物理支撐

  • may over time weaken or overwork that muscular sling.

    可能會隨著時間虛弱或肌肉的懸帶工作過度

  • That can lead to an overactive pelvic floor,

    導致骨盆底肌肉過度活躍

  • bladder pain,

    膀胱疼痛

  • urgency,

    緊急

  • or urinary incontinence.

    或尿失禁

  • So in the interest of long-term health,

    所以為了長遠健康的利益

  • it's not a great habit to hold your pee.

    忍住不去小便不是一個好習慣

  • But in the short term, at least, your body and brain have got you covered,

    但從短期來看,至少你的身體和大腦可以幫你應付一陣子

  • so you can conveniently choose your moment of sweet release.

    讓你選擇一個方便甜美的時刻去解放

It begins with a bit of discomfort

開始時有點不舒服

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 膀胱 尿液 肌肉 信號 腎臟

【TED-Ed】憋尿真的對身體不好嗎? (Is it bad to hold your pee? - Heba Shaheed)

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    韓澐 發佈於 2017 年 01 月 05 日
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