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  • I want to talk about the transformed media landscape,

    我想先談論媒體工具轉變的整個架構 I want to talk about the transformed media landscape,

  • and what it means for anybody who has a message they want to get out

    和這對於任何訊息想要散播到世界各地的人來說 and what it means for anybody who has a message they want to get out

  • to anywhere in the world.

    意味著什麼 to anywhere in the world.

  • And I want to illustrate that by telling a couple of stories

    我將以圖表的方式來說幾個 And I want to illustrate that by telling a couple of stories

  • about that transformation.

    關於這樣的轉變的故事 about that transformation.

  • I'll start here. Last November there was a presidential election.

    我先從這邊開始,去年11月有場總統大選 I'll start here. Last November there was a presidential election.

  • You probably read something about it in the papers.

    你們也許曾由報章讀到這些事 You probably read something about it in the papers.

  • And there was some concern that in some parts of the country

    而這當中有人擔心在這國家中有部份地區 And there was some concern that in some parts of the country

  • there might be voter suppression.

    可能有選民抑制 there might be voter suppression.

  • And so a plan came up to video the vote.

    因此一個拍攝投票過程的計畫產生了 And so a plan came up to video the vote.

  • And the idea was that individual citizens

    當時的概念是每位 And the idea was that individual citizens

  • with phones capable of taking photos or making video

    擁有攝影功能手機的公民 with phones capable of taking photos or making video

  • would document their polling places,

    可以記錄他們的投票所 would document their polling places,

  • on the lookout for any kind of voter suppression techniques.

    來尋找任何形式的選民抑制技術 on the lookout for any kind of voter suppression techniques.

  • And would upload this to a central place.

    並將他們的記錄上傳到一個中心 And would upload this to a central place.

  • And that this would operate as a kind of citizen observation.

    這將如公民觀察一般運作 And that this would operate as a kind of citizen observation.

  • That citizens would not be there just to cast individual votes.

    民眾不只是在投票所投票 That citizens would not be there just to cast individual votes.

  • But also to help insure the sanctity of the vote overall.

    也幫助確保整體票選的神聖性 But also to help insure the sanctity of the vote overall.

  • So this is a pattern that assumes we're all in this together.

    這個模式預設集體的參與 So this is a pattern that assumes we're all in this together.

  • What matters here

    重點是 What matters here

  • isn't technical capital.

    這並非技術資本 isn't technical capital.

  • It's social capital.

    這是社會資本 It's social capital.

  • These tools don't get socially interesting

    這些工具必須在技術上不再新奇後 These tools don't get socially interesting

  • until they get technologically boring.

    才會在社會上變得有意思 until they get technologically boring.

  • It isn't when the shiny new tools show up

    這些閃亮的新工具並不是在剛出現的時候 It isn't when the shiny new tools show up

  • that their uses start permeating society.

    就始滲透社會,被大眾利用 that their uses start permeating society.

  • It's when everybody is able to take them for granted.

    而是當他們已經普遍後 It's when everybody is able to take them for granted.

  • Because now that media is increasingly social,

    因為當媒體工具不斷地社交化 Because now that media is increasingly social,

  • innovation can happen anywhere

    創新可以發生在任何地方 innovation can happen anywhere

  • that people can take for granted the idea that we're all in this together.

    人們可以理所當然的認為,大家都有參與的能力 that people can take for granted the idea that we're all in this together.

  • And so we're starting to see a media landscape

    因此,我們正在開始看到一個 And so we're starting to see a media landscape

  • in which innovation is happening everywhere.

    創新無所不在的媒體架構 in which innovation is happening everywhere.

  • And moving from one spot to another.

    從一個點到另一個點 And moving from one spot to another.

  • That is a huge transformation.

    那是個巨大的轉變 That is a huge transformation.

  • Not to put too fine a point on it, the moment we're living through,

    簡單來說,我們目前正在經歷的 Not to put too fine a point on it, the moment we're living through,

  • the moment our historical generation is living through

    我們這歷史性的一代正在經歷的 the moment our historical generation is living through

  • is the largest increase in expressive capability

    是人類史上表達能力 is the largest increase in expressive capability

  • in human history.

    最大的增長 in human history.

  • Now that's a big claim. I'm going to try to back it up.

    這是很大膽的聲稱,我會試著證明它 Now that's a big claim. I'm going to try to back it up.

  • There are only four periods in the last 500 years

    在過去五百年,只有四個時期中的 There are only four periods in the last 500 years

  • where media has changed enough to qualify for the label Revolution.

    媒體轉變足以稱為革命 where media has changed enough to qualify for the label Revolution.

  • The first one is the famous one, the printing press.

    第一個最著名,印刷媒體 The first one is the famous one, the printing press.

  • Movable type, oil-based inks, that whole complex of innovations

    活字印刷、油墨,那一系列的創新 Movable type, oil-based inks, that whole complex of innovations

  • that made printing possible

    實現了印刷術 that made printing possible

  • and turned Europe upside-down, starting in the middle of the 1400s.

    在十五世紀中期,它徹底的顛覆了整個歐洲 and turned Europe upside-down, starting in the middle of the 1400s.

  • Then a couple of hundred years ago

    然後幾百年前 Then a couple of hundred years ago

  • there was innovation in two way communication.

    雙向溝通有了創新 there was innovation in two way communication.

  • Conversational media, first the telegraph, then the telephone.

    交談式的媒體,首先是電報,然後電話 Conversational media, first the telegraph, then the telephone.

  • Slow, text based conversations,

    緩慢的,先是文字式的談話 Slow, text based conversations,

  • then real-time voice based conversations.

    然後才是即時式的的語音交談 then real-time voice based conversations.

  • Then, about 150 years ago,

    然後,大約一百五十年前 Then, about 150 years ago,

  • there was a revolution in recorded media other than print.

    有一個印刷以外的記錄媒體的革命 there was a revolution in recorded media other than print.

  • First photos, then recorded sound,

    首先照片,然後錄音 First photos, then recorded sound,

  • then movies, all encoded onto physical objects.

    再來是影像,一切都被編譯至有形物體中 then movies, all encoded onto physical objects.

  • And finally about 100 years ago, the harnessing of electromagnetic spectrum

    最後大約一百年前,光電技術的使用 And finally about 100 years ago, the harnessing of electromagnetic spectrum

  • to send sound and images through the air, radio and television.

    使得能以空氣、無線電波和電視傳送聲音和圖像 to send sound and images through the air, radio and television.

  • This is the media landscape as we knew it in the 20th century.

    這就是我們熟知的二十世紀的媒體架構 This is the media landscape as we knew it in the 20th century.

  • This is what those of us of a certain age

    這也是伴隨我們成長 This is what those of us of a certain age

  • grew up with, and are used to.

    我們所習慣的媒體 grew up with, and are used to.

  • But there is a curious asymmetry here.

    但這有個奇怪的不對稱 But there is a curious asymmetry here.

  • The media that is good at creating conversations

    善於創造對話的媒體 The media that is good at creating conversations

  • is no good at creating groups.

    不善於創造群組 is no good at creating groups.

  • And that's good at creating groups

    而善於創造群組的媒體 And that's good at creating groups

  • is no good at creating conversations.

    不善於創造對話 is no good at creating conversations.

  • If you want to have a conversation

    在這個世界上,如果你想要有一段對話 If you want to have a conversation

  • in this world, you have it with one other person.

    你必須找另一個人 in this world, you have it with one other person.

  • If you want to address a group, you get the same message

    若要對一組人發表言論,就必須將相同的訊息 If you want to address a group, you get the same message

  • and you give it to everybody in the group.

    傳給組裡每個人 and you give it to everybody in the group.

  • Whether you're doing that with a broadcasting tower or a printing press.

    無論你是用廣播還是印刷 Whether you're doing that with a broadcasting tower or a printing press.

  • That was the media landscape

    這就我們在二十世紀的 That was the media landscape

  • as we had it in the twentieth century.

    媒體架構 as we had it in the twentieth century.

  • And this is what changed.

    這是所發生的改變 And this is what changed.

  • This thing that looks like a peacock hit a windscreen

    這看似孔雀撞上擋風玻璃的圖案 This thing that looks like a peacock hit a windscreen

  • is Bill Cheswick's map of the Internet.

    是Bill Cheswick的網路地圖 is Bill Cheswick's map of the Internet.

  • He traces the edges of the individual networks

    他追蹤個人網絡的界限 He traces the edges of the individual networks

  • and then color codes them.

    然後用顏色標代碼 and then color codes them.

  • The Internet is the first medium in history

    網路是歷史上第一個 The Internet is the first medium in history

  • that has native support for groups

    能同時支持群體 that has native support for groups

  • and conversation at the same time.

    和對話的媒體 and conversation at the same time.

  • Where as the phone gave us the one to one pattern.

    電話提供我們一對一的模式 Where as the phone gave us the one to one pattern.

  • And television, radio, magazines, books,

    而電視、廣播、雜誌、書籍 And television, radio, magazines, books,

  • gave us the one to many pattern.

    為我們提供了一人對多人的模式 gave us the one to many pattern.

  • The Internet gives us the many to many pattern.

    網路則提供了多人對多人的模式 The Internet gives us the many to many pattern.

  • For the first time

    這是媒體本身首次 For the first time

  • media is natively good at supporting these kinds of conversations.

    適用於支持多類型的對話 media is natively good at supporting these kinds of conversations.

  • That's one of the big changes.

    這是大變化之一 That's one of the big changes.

  • The second big change

    第二個大的變化 The second big change

  • is that as all media gets digitized

    是所有媒體的數位化 is that as all media gets digitized

  • the Internet also becomes the mode of carriage

    使得網路成為所有其他媒體 the Internet also becomes the mode of carriage

  • for all other media.

    的載體 for all other media.

  • Meaning that phone calls migrate to the Internet.

    也就是說,電話遷移到網路上 Meaning that phone calls migrate to the Internet.

  • Magazines migrate to the Internet. Movies migrate to the Internet.

    雜誌遷移到網路上。電影遷移到網路上 Magazines migrate to the Internet. Movies migrate to the Internet.

  • And that means that every medium

    這代表著,每個媒體 And that means that every medium

  • is right next door to every other medium.

    都和其它媒體相鄰 is right next door to every other medium.

  • Put another way,

    換句話說 Put another way,

  • media is increasingly less just a source of information.

    媒體不再只是訊息的來源 media is increasingly less just a source of information.

  • And it is increasingly more a site of coordination.

    而且日益成為協調站 And it is increasingly more a site of coordination.

  • Because groups that see or hear or watch or listen to something

    因為看到、聽到、或觀察到東西的族群 Because groups that see or hear or watch or listen to something

  • can now gather around and talk to each other as well.

    現在可以聚在一起互相討論 can now gather around and talk to each other as well.

  • And the third big change

    第三個大的變化 And the third big change

  • is that members of the former audience, as Dan Gilmore calls them,

    是Dan Gilmore所謂的之前的觀眾, is that members of the former audience, as Dan Gilmore calls them,

  • can now also be producers and not consumers.

    現在也可以是製作人,而不只是消費者 can now also be producers and not consumers.

  • Every time a new consumer

    每當一個新的消費者 Every time a new consumer

  • joins this media landscape

    加入這個媒體架構之中 joins this media landscape

  • a new producer joins as well.

    一個新的製作人也可同時加入 a new producer joins as well.

  • Because the same equipment,

    因為同樣的設備 Because the same equipment,

  • phones, computers,

    電話、電腦 phones, computers,

  • let you consume and produce.

    能同時讓你消費和生產 let you consume and produce.

  • It's as if, when you bought a book, they threw in the printing press for free.

    這就好比你買一本書,他們免費送你印刷機 It's as if, when you bought a book, they threw in the printing press for free.

  • It's like you had a phone that could turn into a radio

    好比你的手機,當你按對了鈕 It's like you had a phone that could turn into a radio

  • if you pressed the right buttons.

    會變成電台 if you pressed the right buttons.

  • That is a huge change

    這對我們所習慣的媒體架構來說 That is a huge change

  • in the media landscape we're used to.

    是個巨大的變化 in the media landscape we're used to.

  • And it's not just Internet or no Internet.

    而這不只是有網路或沒網路之分 And it's not just Internet or no Internet.

  • We've had the Internet in its public form

    我們已經擁有公共網路 We've had the Internet in its public form

  • for almost 20 years now.

    將近二十年了 for almost 20 years now.

  • And it's still changing

    而它仍隨著社會化 And it's still changing

  • as the media becomes more social.

    不斷地改變 as the media becomes more social.

  • It's still changing patterns

    即使是對於擅長使用網路的族群來說 It's still changing patterns

  • even among groups who know how to deal with the Internet well.

    它的模式仍不斷的在變化 even among groups who know how to deal with the Internet well.

  • Second story,

    第二個故事 Second story,

  • last May, China in the Sichuan province

    去年五月,中國四川省 last May, China in the Sichuan province

  • had a terrible earthquake, 7.9 magnitude,

    發生了一場可怕的芮式規模七點九級地震 had a terrible earthquake, 7.9 magnitude,

  • massive destruction in a wide area, as the Richter Scale has it.

    是廣泛區域上的大規模摧毀 massive destruction in a wide area, as the Richter Scale has it.

  • And the earthquake was reported as it was happening.

    而地震在發生當時就有報導 And the earthquake was reported as it was happening.

  • People were texting from their phones. They were taking photos of buildings.

    人們從手機發簡訊,用手機拍攝建築 People were texting from their phones. They were taking photos of buildings.

  • They were taking videos of buildings shaking.

    他們拍攝正在搖晃的建築物 They were taking videos of buildings shaking.

  • They were uploading it to QQ, China's largest Internet service.

    他們把這些資訊上傳到QQ,中國最大的網路平台 They were uploading it to QQ, China's largest Internet service.

  • They were Twittering it.

    他們上推特去推 They were Twittering it.

  • And so as the quake was happening

    因此地震發生的當下 And so as the quake was happening

  • the news was reported.

    新聞也跟著在報導 the news was reported.

  • And because of the social connections,

    而且由於社交聯繫 And because of the social connections,

  • Chinese students coming elsewhere, and going to school.

    從異鄉來上學的中國學生 Chinese students coming elsewhere, and going to school.

  • Or businesses in the rest of the world opening offices in China.

    或在中國開分公司的外國企業 Or businesses in the rest of the world opening offices in China.

  • There were people listening all over the world, hearing this news.

    世界各地都有人在傾聽這項新聞 There were people listening all over the world, hearing this news.

  • The BBC got their first wind of the Chinese quake from Twitter.

    BBC從推特第一時間得到中國地震的消息 The BBC got their first wind of the Chinese quake from Twitter.

  • Twitter announced the existence of the quake

    推特在美國地質調查局在網上 Twitter announced the existence of the quake

  • several minutes before the US Geological Survey

    公開提供訊息的前幾分鐘 several minutes before the US Geological Survey

  • had anything up online for anybody to read.

    早已宣佈地震的消息 had anything up online for anybody to read.

  • The last time China had a quake of that magnitude

    上一次中國發生相同級數的地震 The last time China had a quake of that magnitude

  • it took them three months to admit that it had happened.

    政府等了三個月才承認地震確實發生 it took them three months to admit that it had happened.

  • (Laughter)

    (眾笑) (Laughter)

  • Now they might have liked to have done that here,

    他們這次地震可能也想要這麼做 Now they might have liked to have done that here,

  • rather than seeing these pictures go up online.

    而不用理會網路上的照片 rather than seeing these pictures go up online.

  • But they weren't given that choice.

    但他們別無選擇 But they weren't given that choice.

  • Because their own citizens beat them to the punch.

    因為他們的公民比他們快了一步 Because their own citizens beat them to the punch.

  • Even the government learned of the earthquake from their own citizens,

    政府甚至是從自己公民獲悉地震 Even the government learned of the earthquake from their own citizens,

  • rather than from the Xinhua News Agency.

    而不是從新華社(Xinhua News Agency) rather than from the Xinhua News Agency.

  • And this stuff rippled like wildfire.

    訊息如同野火燎原 And this stuff rippled like wildfire.

  • For a while there

    有一段時間 For a while there

  • the top 10 most clicked links on Twitter,

    全球短信服務,推特 the top 10 most clicked links on Twitter,

  • the global short messaging service,

    上到前十名點擊率最高的連結 the global short messaging service,

  • nine of the top 10 links were about the quake.

    前九名連結都和地震的消息有關 nine of the top 10 links were about the quake.

  • People collating information,

    人們整理資料 People collating information,

  • pointing people to news sources,

    指引人們到新聞來源 pointing people to news sources,

  • pointing people to the US geological survey.

    指引人們到美國地質調查局 pointing people to the US geological survey.

  • The 10th one was kittens on a treadmill, but that's the Internet for you.

    第十名的連結是跑步機上的貓,不過這就是網路 The 10th one was kittens on a treadmill, but that's the Internet for you.

  • (Laughter)

    (眾笑) (Laughter)

  • But nine of the 10 in those first hours.

    但第一時間內,前十名有九個跟地震有關 But nine of the 10 in those first hours.

  • And within half a day donation sites were up.

    且半天之內,募款網站已上線 And within half a day donation sites were up.

  • And donations were pouring in from all around the world.

    人們紛紛從世界各地捐錢救災 And donations were pouring in from all around the world.

  • This was an incredible, coordinated global response.

    這協調一致的全球反應令人不可思議 This was an incredible, coordinated global response.

  • And the Chinese then, in one of their periods of media openness

    然後中國,在這媒體開放的時期之一 And the Chinese then, in one of their periods of media openness

  • decided that they were going to let it go.

    決定放鬆控制 decided that they were going to let it go.

  • That they were going to let this citizen reporting fly.

    他們決定將讓公民自由報導 That they were going to let this citizen reporting fly.

  • And then this happened.

    然後發生了一件事 And then this happened.

  • People began to figure out, in the Sichuan Provence,

    人們開始發現,在四川省 People began to figure out, in the Sichuan Provence,

  • that the reason so many school buildings had collapsed,

    之所以有如此多所學校倒塌 that the reason so many school buildings had collapsed,

  • because tragically the earthquake happened during a school day,

    因為地震不幸的發生在上課的日子 because tragically the earthquake happened during a school day,

  • the reason so many school buildings collapsed

    而為何這麼多所學校建築倒塌 the reason so many school buildings collapsed

  • is that corrupt officials had taken bribes

    是因為腐敗的官員受賄 is that corrupt officials had taken bribes

  • to allow those building to be built to less than code.

    讓學校建築不合規定標準 to allow those building to be built to less than code.

  • And so they started, the citizen journalists started

    因此,公民記者也開始報導這類事件 And so they started, the citizen journalists started

  • reporting that as well. And there was an incredible picture.

    有張令人難以置信的照片 reporting that as well. And there was an incredible picture.

  • You may have seen in on the front page of the New York Times.

    您可能在紐約時報頭版看過 You may have seen in on the front page of the New York Times.

  • A local official literally prostrated himself in the street,

    一名當地官員 A local official literally prostrated himself in the street,

  • in front of these protesters.

    為了疏散民眾 in front of these protesters.

  • In order to get them to go away.

    當街向示威民眾下跪 In order to get them to go away.

  • Essentially to say, "We will do anything to placate you.

    大意是說, 「我們將做任何事來安撫你。 Essentially to say, "We will do anything to placate you.

  • just please stop protesting in public."

    但請停止公眾抗議。 」 just please stop protesting in public."

  • But these are people who have been radicalized.

    但這些人已受到刺激 But these are people who have been radicalized.

  • Because thanks to the one child policy

    拜一胎化政策所賜 Because thanks to the one child policy

  • they have lost everyone in their next generation.

    他們失去了所有下一代的人 they have lost everyone in their next generation.

  • Someone who has seen the death of a single child

    經歷唯一的孩子死去的父母 Someone who has seen the death of a single child

  • now has nothing to lose.

    已經沒什麼好失去了 now has nothing to lose.

  • And so the protest kept going.

    因此,抗議持續著 And so the protest kept going.

  • And finally the Chinese cracked down.

    最後,中國政府開始嚴厲打擊抗議活動 And finally the Chinese cracked down.

  • That was enough of citizen media.

    公民媒體超越了極限 That was enough of citizen media.

  • And so they began to arrest the protesters.

    他們開始逮捕示威者 And so they began to arrest the protesters.

  • They began to shut down the media that the protests were happening on.

    官方開始封鎖這些報導抗議事件的媒體 They began to shut down the media that the protests were happening on.

  • China is probably the most successful

    中國也是許是全世界最成功的 China is probably the most successful

  • manager of Internet censorship, in the world,

    管理並監督它們網路系統的政府 manager of Internet censorship, in the world,

  • using something that is widely described as the Great Firewall of China.

    利用廣為人知的工具如中國防火長城(Great Firewall of China) using something that is widely described as the Great Firewall of China.

  • And the Great Firewall of China

    而中國防火長城 And the Great Firewall of China

  • is a set of observation points

    設下許多監測點 is a set of observation points

  • that assume that media is produced by professionals,

    這些監測點假設,媒體訊息是由專業人士製作 that assume that media is produced by professionals,

  • it mostly comes in from the outside world,

    它們主要是來自外面的世界 it mostly comes in from the outside world,

  • it comes in in relatively sparse chunks,

    而且相對分散而大量的來 it comes in in relatively sparse chunks,

  • and it comes in relatively slowly.

    又相對的緩慢 and it comes in relatively slowly.

  • And because of those four characteristics

    因為有這樣的四個特點 And because of those four characteristics

  • they are able to filter it as it comes into the country.

    他們可以過濾進到國家內的資訊 they are able to filter it as it comes into the country.

  • But like the Maginot Line,

    但是就像馬奇諾防線(Maginot Line) But like the Maginot Line,

  • the great firewall of China was facing in the wrong direction

    中國防火長城正在面對它們錯誤判斷 the great firewall of China was facing in the wrong direction

  • for this challenge.

    而造成的挑戰 for this challenge.

  • Because not one of those four things was true in this environment.

    因為環境中四個特點都不成立 Because not one of those four things was true in this environment.

  • The media was produced locally. It was produced by amateurs.

    這些媒體多半製造自本地和業餘人士 The media was produced locally. It was produced by amateurs.

  • It was produced quickly. And it was produced at such an incredible abundance

    它快速製造,而且製造和傳播的量大到難以置信 It was produced quickly. And it was produced at such an incredible abundance

  • that there was no way to filter it as it appeared.

    導致無法去過濾這些快速出現的資料 that there was no way to filter it as it appeared.

  • And so now the Chinese government, who for a dozen years,

    所以現在中國政府在經過數十年的努力下 And so now the Chinese government, who for a dozen years,

  • has quite successfully filtered the web,

    已經發展出可以成功過濾網路資訊的系統 has quite successfully filtered the web,

  • is now in the position of having to decide

    它可以正確且即時的決定 is now in the position of having to decide

  • whether to allow or shut down entire services.

    是否開放或切斷整個網路伺服器 whether to allow or shut down entire services.

  • Because the transformation to amateur media

    因為傳遞資訊者多是業餘的媒體組織 Because the transformation to amateur media

  • is so enormous that they can't deal with it any other way.

    所以他們無法有效面對中國政府的控管 is so enormous that they can't deal with it any other way.

  • And in fact that is happening this week.

    而這樣的事實正發生於過去的幾個星期 And in fact that is happening this week.

  • On the 20th anniversary of Tiananmen

    在天安門事件(Tiananmen)二十周年之際 On the 20th anniversary of Tiananmen

  • they just two days ago announced

    中國政府在兩天前即宣佈 they just two days ago announced

  • that they were simply shutting down access to Twitter.

    他們將完全的切斷進入推特的方式 that they were simply shutting down access to Twitter.

  • Because there was no way to filter it other than that.

    因為他們無法過濾這樣的資訊所以這麼做 Because there was no way to filter it other than that.

  • They had to turn the spigot entirely off.

    他們關閉所有進入推特的網路節點 They had to turn the spigot entirely off.

  • Now these changes don't just affect people who want to censor messages.

    現在這些改變不只影響要監控訊息的人 Now these changes don't just affect people who want to censor messages.

  • They also affect people who want to send messages.

    他們甚至直接影響這些想要傳送訊息的人們 They also affect people who want to send messages.

  • Because this is really a transformation of the ecosystem as a whole.

    因為這些轉變影響的是整個資訊傳播生態 Because this is really a transformation of the ecosystem as a whole.

  • Not just a particular strategy.

    而不只是特定的策略 Not just a particular strategy.

  • The classic media problem, from the twentieth century

    二十世紀的傳統媒體問題 The classic media problem, from the twentieth century

  • is how does an organization have a message

    他們只是一群有訊息的團體 is how does an organization have a message

  • that they want to get out

    他們想走出一條路 that they want to get out

  • to a group of people distributed at the edges of a network.

    將訊息能夠傳送到群體網絡的最外圍 to a group of people distributed at the edges of a network.

  • And here is the twentieth century answer.

    而二十世紀媒體問題的答案 And here is the twentieth century answer.

  • Bundle up the message. Send the same message to everybody.

    就是包裝訊息,並將相同的訊息傳給每個人 Bundle up the message. Send the same message to everybody.

  • National message. Targeted individuals.

    國家的訊息、特定的單位 National message. Targeted individuals.

  • Relatively sparse number of producers.

    相對數量較少的訊息傳播者 Relatively sparse number of producers.

  • Very expensive to do.

    這是花費昂貴的事情 Very expensive to do.

  • So there is not a lot of competition.

    所以它並不會有許多的競爭 So there is not a lot of competition.

  • This is how you reach people.

    這是影響人們的方式 This is how you reach people.

  • All of that is over.

    如今這些都已經過去了 All of that is over.

  • We are increasingly in a landscape where media is global.

    我們正處於從末有過的全球化媒體架構 We are increasingly in a landscape where media is global.

  • social, ubiquitous and cheap.

    社交的,無所不在而便宜的方式 social, ubiquitous and cheap.

  • Now most organizations that are trying to send messages

    現在大部份的組織都試著傳遞訊息到外面的世界 Now most organizations that are trying to send messages

  • to the outside world, to the distributed collection of the audience,

    去收集觀眾的意見 to the outside world, to the distributed collection of the audience,

  • are now used to this change.

    而我們現今也習慣了這樣的變化 are now used to this change.

  • The audience can talk back.

    觀眾可以自由的談論 The audience can talk back.