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  • There's a few different versions -actually, many different versions - of learning styles.

    當我們談到學習風格時,有一些不同版本––不,是不少

  • But probably the most common one that you've heard of,

    最常聽到的一種也許是

  • is that some of us are auditory learners,

    我們當中的某些人屬於聽覺學習者

  • where we learn best by listening to things;

    也就是說,我們用聽來學習是最好的方式

  • some of us are more visual learners,

    我們中的某部分人則是視覺學習者

  • where we learn best by seeing things;

    也就是說我們的學習方式是靠看到東西

  • and some of us might be more tactile or kinesthetic learners,

    還有一些人是用觸覺或是肌肉運動知覺的學習者

  • where we learn best by actually doing things

    也就是我們實際進行操作時,學習效果最好

  • or engaging in physical activities.

    或是當我們進行身體活動時

  • How many of you have heard of that before?

    你們當中有多少人聽過這些?

  • Well, the good news and bad news:

    有好消息和壞消息

  • the bad news is, if you believe in learning styles, you're actually wrong.

    壞消息是,如果你相信所謂的學習風格,你真的錯了

  • I'll explain that in just a minute.

    我等一下就會解釋

  • But the good news is that it's not entirely your fault.

    好消息則是,這並不完全是你的錯

  • This belief in learning styles is incredibly pervasive.

    令人難以置信的是相信有學習方式的人非常多

  • It's so common that few people ever think to even question it. Right?

    多到幾乎沒有人去想過要去質疑,對吧?

  • It sounds so logical. It sounds so real.

    這聽起來非常合理,非常真實

  • But when put to the test, we found that learning styles don't exist.

    但是當我們進行了測試後發現,所謂的學習方式事實上並不存在

  • And there are tons of people that believe this.

    而卻有那麼多的人相信

  • When we survey, for example, students and teachers,

    當我們觀察時,舉例來說,學生以及老師們

  • we find that something like 90 percent of them

    我們發現有他們中有大約90%

  • or over 90 percent of people believe they have a learning style.

    或是超過90%的人相信自己有學習風格

  • And many teachers today are still told that part of their job,

    而且直到現在仍然有許多老師被告知這是他們這是工作的一部分

  • in order to be effective teachers,

    而為了要成為更好的老師

  • is to figure out what their students' learning styles are,

    必須要了解他們的學生的學習方式

  • and then accommodate them for the classroom.

    然後調整班級的教學方法

  • There are even a host of companies and organizations out there that support learning styles,

    甚至有一些公司或組織的老闆支持學習風格

  • and who, for a fee,will train you on how to maximize your potential or that of your students,by addressing learning styles and learning what yours are.

    然後這些人,為了賺錢,會訓練你如何讓你的學生的潛能發揮到最大化,藉由說明各種學習方式,以及讓你發掘自己的學習方式是什麼

  • But again, the key is, when put to the test,

    但是,再一次,重點是當進行了測試後

  • these learning styles don't exist; it doesn't make a difference.

    這些學習方式並不存在,而且不會造成差異性

  • I will say that when we survey people,

    我會說當我們對人們進行觀察時

  • many people say they have preferences.

    很多人會說他們有自己的偏好

  • So if I asked, "How would you like to learn something?"

    我會問:「你喜歡用什麼方式學東西呢?」

  • or "How would you like to study?",

    或是「妳喜歡怎樣學習?」

  • many of you might say, "I'd prefer to see it,"

    你們當中許多人可能會說:「我喜歡用看的」

  • or "I'd prefer to hear it," or "I'd prefer to actually do it."

    或是「我喜歡用聽的」或是「我喜歡實際操作」

  • So that's true.

    所以這是真的

  • But the key is that those preferences don't actually enhance your learning when we test them in experimental conditions.

    但是,重點是一旦我們進行測試後發現所謂的偏好並不能真的增進學習效果

  • And there are many different ways to test this,

    而且有許多不同的方法可以進行測試

  • but the basic design is this:

    不過基本的做法是

  • We bring in a bunch of different people

    我們帶進一大群不同的人

  • who supposedly have different learning styles.

    這些人當然都有不同的學習方式

  • We teach them in a variety of ways.

    我們用許多不同的方式來教他們

  • Then we see if teaching them in one way was somehow better for them or more effective than others.

    然後我們觀察是不是用某種方式教導他們會比較好或是比其他方式有效

  • So for example, let's say I had a list of words I wanted you to memorize.

    舉例來說,假設我有一張許多單字的清單,我希望你們背起來

  • In one group I might show you that list of words;

    在一個團體中我可能讓你看字的清單

  • I'll present the list of words for you.

    我會拿清單給你

  • Or in another group, similarly,

    而在另一個團體中,同樣地

  • I might show you images of those words.

    我可能讓你看那些字的圖像

  • In yet another group or another condition,

    而在另一個團體中或是另一種條件下

  • I might just let you listen to those words and hear them,

    我可能只讓你聽到那些字

  • so you wouldn't actually see anything,

    你並不會真的看到那些字

  • but you would hear someone saying: dog, hose, coat, etc.

    但是你會聽到有人說:「狗、管子、外套」等等

  • Now if learning styles existed, if it was true,

    現在,假設學習方式存在的話,假設這是真的

  • we would expect that visual learners, or so-called visual learners,

    我們的期待會是那些視覺學習者,所謂的視覺學習者

  • would be able to recall more words when they saw them.

    當他們看到那些字的時候會記得比較多的字

  • So, either when they saw the list or when they saw the actual images.

    不論他們是看到那個清單或是看到圖像時

  • And we would expect that so-called auditory learners

    而我們期待所謂的聽覺學習者

  • would be able to recall more words when they heard them, right?

    可以記得比較多的字當他們聽到那些字的時候,對嗎?

  • But the finding is, learning is actually the same.

    但是,結果是,學習成果是一樣的

  • The number of words you recall is exactly the same,

    你能記得多少字事實上都是一樣的

  • regardless of how the material is presented to you.

    不管用哪種方式來提供給你

  • I know that's just one example of one particular study,

    我知道這只是單一學習中的一個例子

  • but I’m asking you to trust me

    但是我要請你們相信我

  • that this has been replicated in many different contexts

    這個方式被重複在不同情境中使用過

  • with many different people of all different ages,

    在各種不同年齡的人當中

  • and tested in slightly different ways with exactly the same results.

    而且用了有些許差異的方式進行測試都得到了一樣的結果

  • In fact, there have been several meta-analysis papers

    事實上,有許多的後設分析報告

  • where they've looked at all the research on this topic for 40 years,

    觀察了所有與這個主題相關的研究長達40年的時間

  • and all of them have concluded the same thing:

    而且所有的結論都指向同一個結果

  • that there is still no evidence

    那就是仍然沒有任何證據

  • that matching teaching styles to supposed learning styles

    說明與學習風格相符的教學風格

  • or students' preferences actually makes a difference.

    或是與學生的偏好相符可以造成學習上的差異

  • But I would encourage you to look up some of this research on your own.

    但是我鼓勵你自己去查閱一些這方面的相關研究

  • In particular, these review articles.

    特別是這些相關的評論文章

  • So how is that possible?

    所以,這是怎麼一回事

  • I’m sure some of you are wondering, "How does that even make sense?"

    我相信你們當中的某些人正在懷疑的想著:「這怎麼可能呢?」

  • Because it sounds so good.

    因為這聽起來這麼棒

  • And there's a lot of different research on learning and memory to explain this,

    而且有那麼多不同的對於學習與記憶的研究可以來解釋

  • but one of the main ideas is that most of what we learn in the classroom

    但是其中一個重要的想法是我們在課堂中學到最多的

  • and most of what our teachers want us to know in particular

    和特別是我們的老師最想要我們知道的

  • is stored in terms of meaning,

    就是按照意義儲存

  • and it's not tied to one particular sense or one particular sensory mode.

    也就是不要依賴特定的一種感覺或感官模式

  • Now, just like people have preferences,

    就像人們有偏好

  • it's also true that some of you might have better visual memories

    確實在你們當中的某些人可能有比較好的視覺記憶

  • or better auditory memories or auditory processing skills

    或是比較好的聽覺記憶或是聽覺處理技巧

  • compared to other people,

    在與其他人相較之下

  • and that might be advantageous for certain type of tasks.

    並且對於進行某些種類的工作會較有優勢

  • So for example, if I wanted you to remember:

    像是,如果我想要你記住

  • What was the color of the coat on that last slide?

    上一張投影片中那件外套的顏色

  • or: How many windows were on that house on the last slide?

    或是,上一張投影片中的房子有多少個窗戶

  • then having a really good visual memory would help with that.

    那麼,當你擁有很好的視覺記憶時就可以起到作用

  • Likewise, if I had read you the list of words and I said,

    同樣的,如果我讀了一串的字詞並且問:

  • "Were they read in a high voice or a low voice?"

    「我是用較高的聲音或較低的聲音讀的呢?」

  • or, "Which words were read by a woman,

    或是「哪些字是由女生讀的

  • and which ones were read by a man?",

    那些字又是由男生讀的呢?」

  • then having a really good auditory memory would help with that.

    這時候擁有非常好的聽覺記憶就會有所幫助了

  • But those aren't typically the kinds of questions

    但是那些並不是典型的問題

  • that teachers are asking you to remember,

    不是那些老師們要求你們記住

  • or the things teachers want you to learn in the classroom.

    或是老師在課堂上希望你們學習的

  • Mostly what you learn in the classroom is much more conceptual,

    大部分你在課堂上要學的是更加屬於觀念的

  • or meaning based.

    或有意義根據的

  • It's not just what something looks like or what something sounds like.

    而不是一些看起來像或聽起來像的東西

  • And by the way, this finding, this whole idea, also helps to explain

    順帶一提,這項發現,這整個的想法也能夠用來解釋

  • why simple rehearsal strategies, like rereading your notes

    為什麼一些基本的複習策略,像是重複閱讀筆記

  • or just rewriting your notes,

    或是重複書寫筆記

  • even though they're very commonly used strategies,

    儘管這是一些很平常的使用策略

  • they tend to be not very effective,

    它們一般都不是非常有效

  • because rereading your notes or rewriting your notes

    因為重複的閱讀筆記或是重複的書寫筆記

  • doesn't necessarily help you understand the material.

    並不一定能幫助你理解所學到的東西

  • In order to retain information,

    為了能記住相關資訊

  • we have to organize it in a way that's meaningful.

    我們必須重組來讓它變成有意義的東西

  • We have to make connections to it,

    我們必須讓它成為有關聯性的資訊

  • connecting it to our experiences or coming up with our own examples

    與我們的經驗相關或是找出我們自己的解釋

  • or thinking of how we're learning something in one class,

    或是想想我們在一堂課上是如何學習的

  • and how that relates to what else we know.

    以及如何與我們所知的其他事物有相關性

  • That's what helps us remember it.

    這才能幫助我們記憶

  • There's a lot of research to support this idea

    有許多的研究來支持這個想法

  • that most of what we learn is stored in terms of meaning,

    我們所學到的東西大部分是用其意義來儲存

  • and not according to visual images or auditory sounds.

    而不是根據看到的圖像或聽到的聲音

  • But some of the best, most relevant research

    但是有一些最棒的相關研究

  • comes from these classic studies that were done in the 70s.

    是這些在70年代時所做的經典研究

  • Chase & Simon were interested in chess players' abilities

    引起Chase & Simon興趣的是棋手

  • to recall pictures of chessboard games in progress.

    能夠記住棋盤上比賽過程的圖像記憶能力

  • So what they would do is show players an image of a game in progress

    所以他們展示了比賽過程的圖像給棋手們看

  • for a short time -- typically, only five seconds or so --

    只給了短短的時間--基本上只有5秒左右

  • and then it would disappear.

    然後圖像就會消失

  • Then they would ask the players to recall where all the pictures were,

    然後他們會要求棋手重述圖片上棋子的位置

  • where all the pieces were in that picture.

    所有在圖片上的棋子的位置

  • And what they found was a big difference

    他們的發現了一個極大的差異

  • between novice players, or beginner players, and experts.

    在新手或是初學者以及專業棋手之間

  • Beginner players, when asked to recall where the pieces were,

    新手棋手們,當被要求重述各個棋子的位置時

  • could only remember about four pieces.

    只能記住大概4個棋子的位置

  • Experts, on the other hand, could actually identify almost all of them -

    專業棋手們,從另一方面來說,可以辨認出幾乎所有的棋子的位置

  • over 20 of them, they could correctly identify

    超過20個,他們可以正確的指出來

  • on the next game board when asked to recall these.

    當他們被要求在另一個棋盤上重述時

  • Again, they were interested in knowing: Why is this difference?

    接著,他們對於其中的差異性感到興趣

  • Why do we see this difference between beginners and experts?

    為什麼在新手與專業棋手間會有這樣的差異

  • It wasn't because, like you might be thinking,

    這並不像你所可能想到的那樣

  • that the experts had better visual memories than the beginners.

    專業棋手們有比新手好的視覺記憶

  • It was because the experts had more experience playing chess,

    而是因為專業棋手們擁有比較多的下棋的經驗

  • and more knowledge.

    以及較多的知識

  • In other words, this game board was more meaningful to them.

    也就是說,對他們而言棋盤上的棋子是有意義的

  • They could see the strategy involved.

    他們可以看見當中存在的策略

  • They could imagine what was happening

    他們可以想像出將會發生的事情

  • and why the players had their pieces positioned the way they did.

    以及棋手為什麼用哪種方式來擺放他們的棋子

  • And to further support this idea, they did a follow-up study.

    為了更進一步的來支撐這個想法,他們做了一個跟進研究

  • In the follow-up study,

    在這個跟進研究中

  • they showed the chess players pictures of randomly arranged chessboards.

    他們給棋手們看了幾個隨機的棋盤布局

  • That's this picture here.

    就像這張圖片

  • Now to you or I, or to a beginner chess player,

    對於你或我或是新手棋手們而言

  • these might look basically the same.

    這些可能看起來沒什麼不同

  • I mean, yeah, the pieces are in different places,

    我是指,嗯,棋子都放在不同的位置

  • but for the most part, they might be equally difficult to remember.

    但是,大致來說,他們可能都一樣的難以記憶

  • To an expert, though, we found big differences

    在專業棋手身上,我們卻發現了很大的不同

  • when presented with a randomly configured board.

    當他們看到這些隨意擺放的棋盤時

  • Once it was random,

    一旦旗子是隨意佈局時

  • experts no longer had an advantage in remembering pieces,

    專業棋手就沒辦法記住它們了

  • because it wasn't meaningful to them.

    因為,這個棋局對他們而言不再具有意義

  • Because there's no meaningful arrangement in the second piece,

    因為第2個棋子的設置是沒有意義的

  • they lost that advantage, which again, it just shows us further evidence

    他們便失去了優勢,這也就是,再一次的給了我們更進一步的證據

  • that we store information in terms of meaning,

    證明我們儲存資訊是依賴意義

  • and not according to a sensory mode.

    而且不是根據感官模式

  • And this basic finding, by the way, has been extended to other contexts,

    這項基本發現,順帶一提,已經有許多相關的延伸研究

  • everything from chess to basketball,

    從棋藝到籃球

  • to computer programming and to dance.

    到電腦程式還有跳舞

  • We store information in terms of meaning

    我們儲存資訊是依照其意義

  • and not limited to particular sensory modes.

    而且不是限制在某個特定的感官模式

  • So that's the first reason.

    這是第一個理由

  • Another reason why this learning-styles theory doesn't pan out

    其他的用來解釋為什麼學習方式並不有效的理由

  • is that the best way to teach something or learn something

    是學習或教授最好的方式

  • really depends on what it is you want to learn.

    事實上是取決於你想要學什麼

  • It depends on the content itself.

    這取決於內容本身

  • Now, if I wanted you, for example,

    現在,如果我想要你,假設一下

  • to know what a bunch of different songbirds looked like,

    去了解一大堆不同種類的鳴鳥

  • the best way to teach you that

    而教會你的最好的方式

  • is to let you look at pictures of those songbirds,

    就是讓你看這些鳴鳥的圖片

  • or let you see them in real life.

    或是讓你看到真正的鳥

  • But note that that's true for everybody,

    但是請注意,這對於每個人都是成立的

  • not just because you're a visual learner.

    而不是因為你是個視覺學習者

  • That's because looking at them is what I'm asking you to do,

    而是因為看牠們正是我要求你做的事情

  • to remember what they look like.

    來記住牠們的樣子

  • On the other hand, if I wanted you to remember what they sounded like

    從另一方面來說,如果我想要你記住牠們的聲音

  • or be able to distinguish between different songs of different songbirds,

    或是能夠辨別每一種鳴鳥的不同聲音

  • then letting you hear them would be the best way.

    那麼讓你聽見牠們的聲音就會是最好的方式

  • But again, that applies to everybody.

    但,依然,這可以運用在每個人身上

  • Just like if I wanted you to know what different flowers smell like.

    就像我想要你認識不同的花朵的味道

  • The best way to teach you that

    教你的最好方式就是

  • is to let you experience those flowers by smelling them.

    讓你親自聞聞那些花

  • But that doesn't mean you're an olfactory learner,

    但是,這並不表示你就是個嗅覺學習者

  • or that you learn everything better through smelling.

    或者你學所有的東西都要靠聞的

  • I mean, take a minute to imagine

    我的意思是,讓我們花一分鐘去想像一下

  • what that would look like in a math class

    如果是那樣的話,到了數學的課堂上會變成什麼樣子

  • or an anatomy class or a physics class.

    或是在解剖課或是物理課

  • And as absurd as that sounds, it's really important to remember

    聽起來就很荒謬,記住這點真的很重要

  • that the same problems, the same criticisms apply

    那就是同樣的問題,適用同樣的評論

  • whether we're talking about so-called olfactory learners

    不論我們是討論所謂的嗅覺學習者

  • or whether we're talking about auditory learners or visual learners

    或是我們討論的是聽覺學習者或視覺學習者

  • or even kinesthetic learners.

    或者甚至是運動肌肉知覺學習者

  • The last three might seem more palatable or more reasonable,

    上面三種似乎比較好下嚥或比較合理

  • but the same issues apply.

    但也是同樣的問題

  • It really depends on what I'm asking you to learn, the best way to teach it.

    這真的是取決於我要求你學的是什麼,就採用最適合的方法去進行教學

  • But that also brings me to another point,

    但是這也同樣的帶來了另一個重點

  • this idea that many things can be taught using multiple senses.

    就是許多事情可以使用多種不同知覺進行學習的想法

  • So it's not just limited to one, for example.

    也就是並不只能限制使用其中一種,舉個例子

  • So, say I wanted you to learn the game of football.

    就說我要你們去學習有關足球比賽的知識

  • Probably the best way to teach you football

    教你們的最好方法可能

  • is to get you out there and play football,

    就是讓你上場踢足球

  • to actually practice and have that physical experience playing.

    去真正下場練習,親身體驗

  • But you would also probably benefit from being able to watch a football game,

    但是你也可能從觀看球賽中得到幫助

  • or being able to look at schematics or drawings

    或者是可以經由圖解或是圖片

  • of the different formations and different positions,

    來了解不同的隊形及攻守位置

  • just like you'd probably also benefit from hearing coaching

    就像你也可能可以用聽取教練的指導來學習

  • or hearing feedback as you're playing.

    或是從踢球時聽到的回應來學習

  • You're getting the kinesthetic experience, the visual and the auditory.

    你不但用了運動肌肉知覺的經驗還有視覺以及聽覺

  • Similarly, if a music teacher wanted you to know

    同樣地,如果一個音樂老師想要你學習

  • the different parts of a symphony orchestra,

    一個交響樂團的各部

  • then going to an orchestra and listening to one would be beneficial.

    那麼,聽聽交響樂樂曲可能會有幫助

  • But it would also add to the experience

    但是,這同樣可以使用親身體驗

  • if you had the capability to touch the instruments,

    如果你有機會摸到那些樂器

  • or maybe to learn how to play them.

    或是也許去學習如何彈奏樂器

  • Or to actually watch one live.

    或是真正的去聽一場現場演奏會

  • Again, it's not that different modes make it meaningful to different

    再一次的,這不是因為不同的模式產生意義在使用不同

  • people based on their learning style.

    學習風格的人身上

  • It's not like all the visual learners are only going to learn by seeing it.

    這不是說所有視覺學習者就只透過看來學習

  • It's because incorporating multiple sensory experiences

    而是因為結合了多種感官經驗

  • into one lesson makes it more meaningful.

    在一個課程中使其更加具有意義

  • So then you might be wondering:

    現在,你也許會想

  • Why does this myth persist?

    為什麼這種迷思一直存在

  • There's a few different explanations.

    這當中有一些不同的解釋

  • The first one is quite simply that everybody believes it.

    第一種是簡單到大家都對它深信不疑

  • It's so common that you never even think to question it.

    它太過於常見以至於沒有人去想過對此提出質疑

  • How could so many people be wrong?

    怎麼可能這麼多的人都錯了呢?

  • If so many people believe it, how is it possible that it's wrong?

    如果有這麼多的人都相信這是對的,這怎麼可能會是錯的呢

  • But as you know, just because something is commonly believed

    但是,正如你所知道的,並不會因為某些事普遍被大家所相信

  • doesn't necessarily make it true.

    就表示這件事一定是真的

  • Remember, just as an example, at one point we used to think

    記住,就像這個例子,曾經有一度我們認為

  • that the Earth was the center of the universe