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  • If you've ever learned another language,

    如果你學過別的語言

  • then you know that some words don't translate exactly.

    你就會知道有些字不能直接翻譯

  • For example, there's a language in New Guinea that

    例如,新幾內亞的語言裡

  • only has two words for color-- mola,

    只有兩個字來描述顏色--mola

  • meaning "bright," and mili, meaning "dark."

    是「亮」的意思,而mili則是「暗」

  • Now compare that to English.

    拿它和英文比較

  • We have lots of words for color--

    我們有很多詞彙可以形容顏色--

  • blue, green, teal, mauve, all that stuff.

    藍、綠、藍綠、淡紫之類的

  • But does the fact that we have different words for color

    但是我們用不同字來描述顏色

  • mean that we actually think about color differently?

    就代表我們對顏色的看法不同嗎?

  • And your answer to that question places you

    你對這個問題的答案關係到你在

  • on one position of the great language-thought debate.

    重要的語言-認知論辯中的立場

  • Which comes first?

    哪個先產生的?

  • And we have different theories that we

    我們對此有不同的理論

  • can place sort of on a spectrum.

    可以用練續光譜來看

  • And on one end, we have something called universalism.

    在光譜的一端,是普遍主義

  • This theory says that thought comes before language.

    這個理論認為認知先於語言

  • So your thoughts dictate the language that develops.

    所以你的想法支配發展出的語言

  • So going back to our New Guinean example,

    回到我們的新幾內亞案例

  • a universalist would say that that group of people

    普遍主義論者會說那些人

  • only thinks in terms of bright and dark,

    只用亮與暗來思考

  • and if they had concepts or ideas about other colors,

    而如果他們對其他色彩有概念或想法

  • then they would develop words for them

    那麼他們就會發展新的字

  • in order to express those thoughts.

    來闡述這些想法

  • So with universalism, we have the idea

    所以在普遍主義,我們了解到

  • that thought determines language completely.

    認知完完全全地決定著語言

  • And now here, at this point, we have the idea

    而在這裡,這個時間點,我們了解到

  • that thought influences language.

    認知會影響語言

  • Just a little bit gentler of a statement.

    這只是個婉轉一點的說法

  • And this is the idea that Piaget ascribed to.

    這是皮亞傑的理論所本

  • Piaget came up with a theory of cognitive development

    皮亞傑建構出一套幼兒的認知發展理論

  • in children, and it was because of this and his observations

    因為這套理論和他對孩童的觀察

  • of children that he believed that once children

    他相信一旦小孩

  • were able to think in a certain way,

    有能力以特定模式思考

  • then they developed the language to describe those thoughts.

    他們便發展出用以形容這些這些想法的語言

  • So, for example, when children learn that objects continue

    所以,舉例來說,當小孩明白儘管看不見物品

  • to exist even though they can't see them,

    它們仍持續存在

  • that's when they start to develop words

    這時他們便開始發展字詞

  • like "gone" and "missing," "find."

    像是「消失」、「不見」、「找到」

  • So their language development is influenced

    所以他們的語言發展是受到

  • by their cognitive development and their newly-discovered

    他們的認知發展和他們新開發的

  • ability to understand that objects exist,

    理解物體存在的能力所影響

  • even when they can't see them anymore.

    即使他們再也看不見它們

  • So that's what Piaget thought.

    這就是皮亞傑的想法

  • And now, a little further down, towards the more middle ground,

    現在,往下走一點,往較中立的立場

  • we have Vygotsky.

    是維高斯基

  • And Vygotsky thought that language and thought are

    維高斯基認為語言和認知

  • independent, but they converge through development.

    是獨立的,但經由發展,它們交會

  • So he didn't really say if language influenced thought

    他並沒有真的說語言是否影響認知

  • or if thought influenced language.

    或認知是否影響語言

  • He just said they're both there, they're both independent,

    他只說它們都存在著,它們都是獨立的

  • but eventually, you learn to use them at the same time.

    但最終,你學會同時用它們

  • Because Vygotsky believed that children

    因為維高斯基相信小孩

  • develop language through social interaction

    發展語言是經由

  • with adults who already know the language.

    與已經了解該語言的成人進行社會互動

  • And through that interaction, then they

    而透過這樣的互動,他們

  • learn to connect their thoughts and the language

    學會連結他們的想法和他們終於學會

  • that they eventually learn.

    的這種語言

  • OK, so now we're crossing over the middle ground

    好了,現在我們要走過中間地帶

  • into the world that believes language

    來到另一派的論點,相信語言

  • has an influence on thought.

    對認知是有影響的

  • And we have a couple of positions here,

    我們這裡有幾個立場

  • and they both fall under the category

    它們都屬於

  • of linguistic determinism.

    語言決定論的類別

  • So these are called the weak and the strong hypotheses.

    它們稱為弱和強假說

  • And this isn't a value judgment on how good they are

    而這並非對於它們有多好

  • or how well-established they are.

    或假說建立得多好的價值評論

  • It just refers to how much influence

    它僅指出它們認為語言對

  • they think language has on thought.

    認知造成的影響強度

  • So weak linguistic determinism says

    所以弱語言決定論者認為

  • that language influences thought.

    語言影響認知

  • It makes it easier or more common

    這把情況變得更簡單或更普遍

  • for us to think in certain ways depending

    讓我們進行特定模式的思考

  • on how our language is structured.

    根據我們語言建構的過程

  • So, for example, I'm going to read you a sentence,

    例如,我念一個句子給你

  • and I want you to draw it out or at least vividly imagine it.

    我要你把它畫出來,或至少生動的想像那個畫面

  • "The girl pushes the boy."

    「女孩推了男孩」

  • OK, so however you drew that out or imagined it,

    好,無論你怎麼畫或想像

  • if you drew it this way, with the girl on the left pushing

    如果你這樣畫,女孩在左邊

  • the boy toward the right, than your native language probably

    把男孩推向右邊,那麼你的母語可能是

  • reads from left to right, like English.

    從左到右書寫的,像是英文

  • If you drew the girl pushing the boy this way,

    如果你畫女孩這樣推男孩

  • with the girl on the right pushing toward the left,

    女孩在右邊推向左邊

  • then your native language might be

    那麼你的母語可能是

  • one that reads from right to left, like Hebrew.

    從右到左書寫的,像是希伯來文

  • Now, it's not that you can't or didn't even draw it

    並不是你不能或根本不是

  • the other way.

    用另一種方式畫

  • It's just that, depending on how your language is structured,

    只是視你的語言建構方式如何

  • it makes it more likely or easier

    讓你更可能或更輕易

  • for you to think about that action in a certain direction.

    往一個特定方向去想這個動作

  • Now, strong linguistic determinism

    強語言決定論

  • takes a more extreme view and says

    採取一個較極端的觀點,聲稱

  • that language determines thought completely.

    語言完全地決定認知

  • This is also called the Whorfian hypothesis,

    這又稱為沃爾夫假說

  • because the guy that came up with it, his name was Whorf.

    因為提出這個主張的人叫沃爾夫

  • And he observed that there is a Native American tribe called

    他觀察到有一個美國原住民部落叫作

  • the Hopi that don't have any grammatical tense

    Hopi,他們的語言中沒有任何

  • in their language, and he thought

    時態語法,他認為

  • that meant that they couldn't think

    這代表他們無法

  • about time in the same way.

    用同一種觀念看待時間

  • Later, people studying the language

    稍後,研究此語言的人

  • found that the Hopi have a different way

    發現Hopi用另一種不同的方法

  • of expressing past, present, and future.

    表達過去、現在、與未來

  • So we don't have an answer yet for which of these perspectives

    所以我們對於這些觀點何者正確

  • is the correct one, and people are still doing research

    仍未有答案,人們也還在研究

  • to try to discover which one is the most accurate.

    以試圖了解何者最精確

  • But now you're aware of the main perspectives

    現在你明白認知和語言間關係

  • on the relationship between thought and language.

    的主要觀點

  • And now, when you're learning a foreign language,

    現在,當你在學一個外國語言

  • you can think about how the language you're learning

    你可以想想你正在學的這個語言是如何

  • is influencing your thoughts, or vice-versa, how

    影響你的想法,反之亦然

  • your thoughts are affecting your interpretation of the language.

    你的想法是如何影響你對這個語言的翻譯

If you've ever learned another language,

如果你學過別的語言

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A2 初級 中文 語言 認知 影響 理論 想法 發展

語言和認知理論 (Theories of Language and Cognition)

  • 121 14
    Liao Jess 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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