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  • we don't talk a lot about dietary science here on scishow because frankly

    我們在科學節目上不提及飲食科學,因為老實說

  • it can seem like a hype factory design more generate clicks then to generate

    它就像一個複雜的工廠設計圖,大家想了解的,不是工廠如何蓋,而是如何運作

  • understanding people want to hear what to eat and what not to eat in order to

    大家會想要得知更多關於飲食上,該吃與不該吃的東西

  • be healthy

    為了變得更健康

  • the problem with that is that it's complicated it's too complicated to fit

    問題就是這太複雜啦,我無法寫一個大標

  • into a headline eating lots of fat will make you unhealthy but so will eating

    例如吃太多脂肪有害健康,但其他東西攝取過多

  • lots of anything studies show that cutting fat intake is useless when

    同樣會造成不好的影響,研究顯示,減少脂肪攝取量對於減重是沒用的

  • attempting to help people lose weight if those calories are replaced by something

    因為卡路里也能以其他媒介產生

  • else which they tend to be

    不管任何方式

  • now that is relatively straightforward chemically but it's boggled dietary

    現在有個與化學直接相關的物質,它讓大家在飲食上都卻步了

  • scientists and especially journalists writing about it for decades but the

    科學家,尤其是記者,幾十年來持續撰寫飲食文學

  • basics of what we understand aren't that complicated

    但其實我們印象中的飲食文學並沒那麼複雜

  • so let's get to the heart of fat

    一起來探索脂肪的奧秘

  • fats are molecules that organisms used to store energy they are very good at

    脂肪是有機物用來儲存能量的分子,分子的功能就是儲存能量

  • that and so they can be converted into lots and lots of energy for running an

    很多脂肪會被轉換成龐大的能量,為了讓有機體正常運作

  • organism

  • whether it's a seed growing into a plant or a neuron firing in your brain

    無論是種子發芽或是神經元的傳導

  • but basically the first thing to know about fat is that it is energy dense so

    有件重要的事情你必須知道,脂肪是能量的主要來源

  • per gram of fat has more than twice the energy of protein or carbohydrates

    每一克脂肪等於兩克的蛋白質或碳水化合物

  • that's like everything we eat are made of chemicals and those chemicals are

    我們吃下去的東西是化學物質所組成的,那些化學物質

  • primarily composed of long chains of carbon atoms each of those carbon-carbon

    主要是由碳原子鏈結而成,每一串碳鏈

  • bonds can be broken by your body and converted into usable energy the energy

    都能被身體分解並轉換成有用的能量

  • density of fat combined with the fact that people who ate high-fat diets tend

    脂肪的高能量對人們的認知產生影響,「攝取高脂肪的食物是不健康的」

  • to be less healthy was the original cause of the anti-fat craze that started

    結果那些反脂肪的狂人

  • in the sixties and continues at least to some extent today but it turns out that

    從60年代開始反對到現今,然而

  • fats are not inherently bad for you indeed they are an absolutely necessary

    脂肪不是壞東西,它在我們的飲食中扮演著重要的角色

  • part of the diet but there are definitely some fat that promote health

    某些脂肪對健康有非常大的幫助

  • more than others and some that are downright dangerous

    比起其它物質,不過某些脂肪是不合格的

  • you've heard of the main categories get to trans saturated or unsaturated

    你大概有聽過反式脂肪、飽和脂肪、不飽和脂肪

  • hydrogenated polyunsaturated omega-3 all of these words are chemistry terms that

    氫化脂肪、多元不飽和脂肪、三酸甘油脂,這些都是化學術語

  • get talked about a lot without discussing what they mean like at all

    說那麼多又完全沒解釋

  • but this is a show so let's go there carbon has four unpaired electrons so

    就由我來解釋給你聽吧,碳原子有四個不成對的電子

  • each carbon likes to bond to 4 other things this is methane carbon bonded to

    每個碳原子可以分別鏈結四個元素,這是甲烷,一個碳

  • four hydrogen's and yes I'm using snatam Barrett a Siam's molecular modeling kit

    和四個氫,沒錯我用的是snatam Barrett的牌子,泰國製的分子模型

  • which I'm really excited about if the carbon is in a saturated carbon chain

    我很興奮,這個是飽和碳鏈

  • two of those things will be other carbons unless it's the end of the chain

    碳元素四個鍵結中,有兩個會連接著碳元素,除非碳元素在整條鏈的末端

  • and two of those things are going to be hydrogen if this is what the carbon

    另外兩個鍵結則連接著氫元素,如果整條碳鏈

  • chain looks like with a bunch of carbon atoms each bonded to two carbons and the

    看起來像這樣,每個碳原子連接兩個碳元素

  • two hydrogen's that is a saturated fat which tend to be solid and are mostly

    和兩個氫元素,稱作飽和脂肪,是固態的

  • made by animals though also coconuts the thing that saturated fats are saturated

    且動物油通常是這種類型,當然椰子是例外

  • with is hydrogen

    它是氫化飽和脂肪

  • every carbon is bonded to two of them except for the last which is bonded to

    每個碳原子都有兩條碳鏈,除了末端的碳原子有三條

  • three and unsaturated fats are not saturated they have fewer hydrogen's how

    不飽和脂肪之所以不飽和是因為氫元素變少了

  • they've got at least one double bond between two carbons in the chain each

    整條碳鏈中,至少一個雙鍵出現在兩個碳原子之間

  • double bond means to fewer hydrogen's so unsaturated fats don't have as many

    雙鍵出現代表氫元素會變少,所以不飽和脂肪的氫元素比碳鏈的氫元素

  • hydrogen's as they could have / carbon atom and this is not as minor a change

    還少,但這不代表不飽和脂肪是次要的

  • as it might sound single bonds can rotate around their axis no problem but

    單鍵似乎可以旋轉,沒問題

  • double bonds lock a structure into place and that double bond can either lock the

    雙鍵則讓整個結構更加穩固,結構可能是彎曲的

  • chain into a kink or lock it straight in nature a double bond in a fat chain

    也可能是直線的,雙鍵在脂肪鏈中

  • almost always

    總是

  • locks it into a king this prevents the fat molecules from stacking into

    連結最厲害的元素,這避免脂肪分子堆疊成

  • lattices making them more likely to be liquid at room temperature so

    格子狀並使分子在室溫下變成液態

  • unsaturated fats tend to be liquid making them oils and come mostly from

    不飽和脂肪是液態油脂

  • plants and fish the case configuration is called the cis isomer

    通常會在植物和魚身上看到這種配置結構,稱作順式易構物

  • and the straight one is the trans isomer what isomer just means

    直鏈則稱作反式異構物,同分異構物的定義是

  • that the molecules have the same chemical formula but are different

    分子有同樣的化學式,但不一樣的外型

  • shapes and the different shapes matter a lot

    而不一樣的外型,當然有不一樣的特色

  • saturated fats are less healthy than unsaturated fats because they packed

    飽和脂肪相較於不飽和脂肪,是較不健康的,因為飽和脂肪

  • together easily and conform plaques in your arteries and can also interact with cholesterol

    容易黏著在一塊,在充滿血小板的動脈中適應力強,跟膽固醇易形成交互作用

  • making it build up in your bloodstream cis unsaturated fats which

    造成飽和脂肪在血液中無限擴增,順式不飽和脂肪

  • the rest of the world just calls unsaturated fats don't stack well and so

    也被稱為不飽和脂肪,不易黏著在一塊

  • don't form plaques so that difference exists but it isn't as big as we used to

    也不會形成血小板,所以也不會互相影響,但它們存在的空間沒有我們想像中大

  • think it was it turns out that our bodies are pretty good at dealing with

    人體很擅長處理

  • whatever we throw at it as long as it's fairly familiar worse by far are the

    我們丟給它的東西,目前為止我們得知最糟的物質

  • trans unsaturated fats

    就是反式脂肪

  • these are almost all manufactured by adding hydrogen's or partially

    由加上數個氫元素或部分氫化物

  • hydrogenated some unsaturated fat like soybean oil so trans fat and

    某些不飽和脂肪像是大豆油所製成,所以反式脂肪

  • hydrogenated fats are the same thing

    和氫化脂肪是一樣的東西

  • one refers to the process through which they are created in the other their

    只是以不同的方式呈現

  • chemical structure

    他們的化學式

  • these are fat that have double bonds and stack well in fact they stack even

    這些是帶有雙鍵的脂肪且易黏著,黏著力比

  • better than saturated fats and our biochemical systems are designed to

    飽和脂肪更強,人體的生化系統之功能在於

  • break them down and they interact badly with cholesterol a two percent increase

    瓦解它們,它們跟膽固醇交互作用相當強,每天攝取百分之二

  • in daily intake of trans fat corresponds with a twenty-three percent increase in

    的反式脂肪相當於有百分之二十三的機率

  • the chance of heart disease amazingly they were initially seen as a healthy

    會罹患心臟病,很令人震驚的是,它們剛起初居然被視為

  • alternative to saturated fats and are now in the process of being completely

    可替代飽和脂肪的健康物質,現在經過一些立法程序

  • banned in America now even inside these categories there's a ton of variation

    在美國已成了禁品,但這些物質依然有百萬種的變換方式

  • and inside that variation comes more active areas of research which is less

    為了這些變換方式,某些地帶不知名的研究

  • known for sure

    仍在如火如荼的進行中

  • polyunsaturated fats are fats with more than one double bond might be more or

    多元不飽和脂肪是,有多個雙鍵

  • less healthy than monounsaturated fats no one really agrees because they both

    比單元不飽和脂肪不健康,但沒人同意,因為兩者

  • have benefits and drawbacks and it matters where in the chain the double

    利弊共存,最重要的是雙鍵在整條鏈的位置

  • bonds are you should probably have some of both

    雙鍵在兩種脂肪中是必要的

  • and if the double bond is just before the third carbon from the end we call

    如果雙鍵位於omega端起的第三個碳原子處

  • that an omega-3 fatty acid and they seem to have a wide range of benefits they

    我們稱它為三酸甘油脂,有多種的功效,也是人體兩種必要的脂肪酸中

  • are also one of the two essential fatty acids the other being omega-6 essential

    其中一種,另外一種叫做omega-6

  • compounds are chemicals that our bodies need to function correctly but can't

    是我們身體正常運作所需的化學物質,那些物質是

  • manufacture on their own so we literally need to eat those kinds of fats in order

    身體無法自行產生的,所以我們還是必須攝取那些油脂

  • to survive and indeed we need to eat fat in general to survive it's good

    為了活下去,的確,攝取油脂是為了生存,適當的攝取量

  • for you in the correct quantities so those are the basics of fat you guys

    對身體是好的,所以我簡單介紹一些基本脂肪讓你們了解

  • they have tons of energy in them so they're great when you need calories but

    脂肪有龐大的能量,所以在你需要卡路里時,它們絕對是好物

  • they also make it super easy to eat too many calories they are absolutely

    當然別一不小心攝取過量,脂肪在我們飲食中是不可或缺的

  • necessary for life they taste good and are good for you but unsaturated fats

    它們的滋味很棒,對你身體很好,但不飽和脂肪更棒

  • are better and trans fats bite very will kill you thank you for watching this

    至於反式脂肪,會致人於死地,謝謝收看

  • episode of scishow which was brought to you by our patrons on patreon if you

    本科學節目,由 patreon 贊助

  • want to help support the show you can go to patreon.com/scishow

    如果你想要繼續收看本節目,你可以到 patreon.com/scishow

  • and if you're interested in statins i'm not sure if the Kickstarter is still

    如果你對他汀類藥物有興趣,我不知道Kickstarter 是否還在運作

  • going on but they're basically these little magnetic modeling guess they're

    這些有磁性的模型都非常酷

  • very cool we'll put a link in the description

    我們會放上連結啦

  • yeah

we don't talk a lot about dietary science here on scishow because frankly

我們在科學節目上不提及飲食科學,因為老實說

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B2 中高級 中文 脂肪 元素 飲食 物質 攝取 分子

脂肪的交易 (The Deal with Fat)

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    INN 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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