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  • I sunburn super easily.

    我超容易曬傷的。

  • It just takes a few minutes sitting in my garden or on a beach, and then a couple days later my skin starts peeling off.

    只要在我家庭院或海灘坐上幾分鐘,幾天後,我就會開始脫皮。

  • It’s seriously pretty grossnot exactly the effect most people go for when they sunbathe.

    真的超噁心 — 這絕對不是普羅大眾做日光浴所追求的效果。

  • But, what really happens when you get a sunburn?

    但曬傷時,到底是發生什麼事啊?

  • I’m Anna Rothschild, and this is Gross Science.

    我是 Anna Rothschild,這裡是《噁心科學》頻道。

  • Most burns occur if you come in contact with something hot, like when you scald the roof of your mouth on a slice of pizza.

    大部分的燒傷在你碰觸到燙的東西時才會產生,比如說,吃比薩的時後燙到上顎。

  • But sunburns are actually not caused by heat.

    但曬傷其實不是因為高溫而造成。

  • Sunlight is made up of a bunch of different types of radiation.

    陽光是由一連串不同種類的光所組成。

  • One of them is infrared radiation, which is primarily what makes sunlight feel hot.

    其中一種為紅外光,它就是讓陽光產生熱的原因。

  • But there’s also visible light, which allows us to see sunlight, and then there’s ultraviolet radiation.

    還有可見光,它讓我們能看見陽光,另外還有紫外光。

  • Ultraviolet, or UV, radiation is what causes a sunburn.

    紫外線,或稱 UV 光,才是造成曬傷的元兇。

  • It can wreak havoc on skin cells by disrupting important molecules, like DNA.

    紫外線能藉由干擾皮膚細胞裡重要的分子,如 DNA,大肆破壞細胞。

  • So, your body does its best to protect you from it.

    所以身體會盡全力保護自己。

  • When UV radiation hits your skin, pigments called melanin absorb it, and shield your DNA from harm.

    當 UV 光照到肌膚時,黑色素會將其吸收,保護 DNA 不受其害。

  • Now, melanin is present in our skin cells all the timeit’s what gives your skin its particular color.

    黑色素一直都存在於皮膚細胞中 — 它就是讓我們有特定膚色的原因。

  • It’s created by special cells called melanocytes, which then distribute the melanin to other cells called keratinocytes.

    黑色素是由稱為黑色素細胞的特殊細胞製造,然後再被分配至角化細胞。

  • Those are the most common cells in your outermost layer of skin.

    角化細胞是外層皮膚最常見的細胞。

  • When your skin is exposed to UV, the melanocytes ramp up their melanin production, and also transfer more melanin to the keratinocytes.

    當肌膚照射到 UV,黑色素細胞就會提高黑色素的產量,並且運送更多黑色素至角化細胞。

  • This happens to varying degrees based on your genetic makeup, but that’s why your skin might turn darker, or tan, if youre out in the sun for a while.

    反應程度取決於你的基因組成,這就是為什麼你在太陽底下晃一會兒,皮膚就會變黑、變深。

  • But, the melanin defense is far from foolproofregardless of how dark your skin is, or how much you tan, some UV rays can sneak past.

    但黑色素的防禦是絕對不夠靠譜的 — 不管你本來膚色多黑、或把自己曬得多黑,有些 UV 光就是能避開這層防禦。

  • And when they do, they can damage your DNA.

    一旦通過防護,它們就會傷害你的 DNA。

  • This can actually happen in a few different ways.

    它傷害 DNA 的方式其實有好多種。

  • Sometimes the radiation will directly zap your DNA, damaging it in just a trillionth of a second.

    有時紫外線會直搗 DNA ,只需要不到兆分之一秒就能造成損傷。

  • Alternatively, UV rays can do something more sinisterthey can actually turn your melanin against you.

    或者,UV 可以更邪惡一點——讓你的黑色素造反。

  • The radiation can make your cells produce these harmful molecules called free radicals.

    紫外線可以讓細胞產生稱為自由基的有害物質。

  • Now, this is a little bit complicated, but essentially the free radicals excite an electron in your melanin. I'm excited!

    事情有點複雜,但基本上,自由基會激發黑色素的一顆電子。我被激發了!

  • The melanin then bumps into your DNA and excites an electron there. I'm excited too!

    被激發的黑色素碰到 DNA ,進而激發 DNA 的一顆電子。我也是!

  • which can cause the DNA to kink.

    ——那會讓你的 DNA 變得病懨懨。

  • Regardless of how it happens, once your cells are damaged they start producing warning molecules, signalling that something bad is going on.

    無論是怎麼發生的,一旦細胞受損,它們就會開始製造警示物質,藉此來傳送噩耗。

  • If enough cells produce the signal, your body will mount an inflammatory response, sending lots of different types of blood cells to the area to stop and repair the damage.

    如果產生這種訊息的細胞夠多,身體就會啟動發炎反應,派出各種血球細胞到曬傷的地方,來制止並修復傷害。

  • And it’s this influx of blood that causes the redness you typically see with a sunburn, depending on how light your skin is.

    也就是因為血液匯集,才會形成典型曬傷的發紅症狀,發紅的情況要看你的膚色有多白。

  • So, what about the peeling?

    那麼,脫皮又是怎麼回事呢?

  • Well, your skin cells are shedding all the time without you noticing it.

    皮膚細胞其實一直在脫落,只是你沒注意到。

  • You actually have stem cells in your skin that live for decades.

    其實皮膚裡有幹細胞,它可以存活數十年。

  • The stem cells produce layers of keratinocytes, which fall off and are replaced over time.

    幹細胞製造層層的角化細胞,它會隨著時間脫落及更新。

  • But those keratinocytes don’t mature properly when theyre damaged by UV.

    但被 UV 損傷的角化細胞,它們不會正常地長大成熟。

  • So instead of flaking off inconspicuously, they all clump up and peel off together.

    它們不會小片小片、默默地剝落;而是成群結隊,一起脫皮離開。

  • Now, your body actually has enzymes that repair a lot of the DNA damage caused by UV rays.

    其實身體裡有些酵素,它們能修復很多 UV 光所帶來的 DNA 傷害。

  • But, it can’t always repair all of it.

    但它不是每次都能修復所有的傷害。

  • And if the damage isn’t fixed in one of your stem cells, you might have a real problem.

    如果其中一個幹細胞裡的傷害沒被修復,事情就大條了!

  • When those cells replicate, they might create a mutation at the site of the damage.

    當幹細胞複製時,受傷的地方可能會發生突變。

  • And depending on where the mutation occurs, this could lead the cell to become cancerous sometime down the road.

    根據發生突變的不同位置,之後很可能會讓細胞轉變成癌細胞。

  • Remember, even if you don’t tend to burn, UV radiation can damage your DNA.

    記住,就算你不容易曬傷,UV 光還是會傷害你的 DNA。

  • So if you know youre going to be out in the sun for a while, make sure youre covered up or wearing sunscreen.

    所以如果知道自己等等要頂著太陽外出一下,請確保把自己遮好或是擦上防曬。

  • For me, being outside and exploring the world is super important for my happiness, and excites my curiosity.

    對我來說,在外探索世界是件超重要的樂事,它能激起我的好奇心。

  • But it’s way more fun to go on an outdoor adventure without coming home to disgusting peeling skin.

    但如果可以出外大肆探險、回家時又不會有噁心的脫皮的話,就太完美了。

  • Got a question about sunburns? Let me know in the comments.

    還對曬傷有問題嗎?留言讓我知道吧!

  • And for more gross science, hit subscribe.

    按下訂閱以了解更多《噁心科學》。

I sunburn super easily.

我超容易曬傷的。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 黑色素 細胞 曬傷 紫外線 皮膚 幹細胞

為什麼會曬傷? (What Really Causes Sunburns?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 10 月 22 日
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