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  • You've probably heard of Pavlov's dogs,

    你也許聽過巴夫洛夫的狗,

  • the phrase that often summarizes

    這句話通常是在說

  • Dr. Ivan Pavlov's early 20th century research,

    伊凡.巴夫洛夫博士在 20 世紀初的一項研究,

  • in which he demonstrated that we can alter

    在研究中他用實驗證明在狗身上

  • what stimuli elicit a reflective response in canines.

    我們可以改變外在刺激來引出同樣的反射反應。

  • He showed this by sounding a bell

    我們可以這樣來證實,

  • just before he presented

    先對一群狗搖鈴,

  • his group of dogs with meat powder.

    接著拿出肉粉。

  • After many presentations of the bell,

    搖了幾次鈴,

  • followed by tasty meat powder,

    而每次都接著帶出美味的肉粉以後,

  • the dogs eventually began to salivate

    狗漸漸一聽到鈴聲

  • at just the sound of the bell.

    就會流口水。

  • They salivated even when

    就算在沒有肉粉的情況下

  • there was no meat powder present.

    牠們還是會流口水。

  • This phenomenon isn't limited to dogs.

    這個現象不侷限在狗身上。

  • Consider the placebo effect,

    想一下「假藥效應」, (譯註:又稱安慰劑效應。)

  • in which a pill with no active substances

    就是說一顆沒有任何療效的藥丸

  • brings about a response

    帶來一種

  • similar to a pill with a substance present.

    似乎有療效的感覺。

  • What changes here is our reaction to our ailment,

    在這裡,改變的其實是我們對病痛的反應,

  • such as perceiving less pain

    像是感到疼痛減輕,

  • and not the ailment itself.

    而不是疼痛真的減緩。

  • Or, consider the love humans have for a parent.

    或者想一想人類對父母親的愛。

  • Some would argue that this love is instinctual,

    有些人會主張這種愛是與生俱來的,

  • and they may be partially right.

    而他們也有可能有部份是對的。

  • But, the argument fails to account

    然而,這論點沒辦法解釋

  • for the equal amount of love

    當小孩被養父母扶養時

  • that children adopted later in life

    他們在往後的生活中對養父母也產生

  • hold for their adoptive parents.

    同樣那麼多的愛。

  • But the behaviorist argument can account

    但是行為學家的論點可解釋

  • for both accounts of love.

    這兩種愛。

  • A parent, biological or not,

    父母親,不管有沒有血緣關係,

  • is constantly paired with things like

    會持續性地和許多東西關聯在一起,

  • food,

    像是食物、

  • smiles,

    微笑、

  • toys,

    玩具、

  • affection,

    情感、

  • games,

    遊戲、

  • protection,

    保護、

  • and entertainment.

    以及娛樂。

  • And a parent's constant association

    而父母親長期與這些

  • with these wonderful or crucial aspects of a child's life

    小孩生命中如此美好或重要的事物相結合,

  • has a similar, albeit more complicated,

    儘管更複雜, 這就像是

  • effect that meat powder had on Pavlov's salivating dogs.

    肉粉對巴夫洛夫流口水的狗的影響一樣。

  • In other words, if one's parent is predictive

    換句話說,如果父母親常能提供

  • of really good or really important things,

    很棒或很重要的事物,

  • then one's parent becomes

    那麼父母親也成了

  • a really good and important thing, too.

    很棒及很重要的事物。

  • And there is also romantic advice to be gained

    而從巴夫洛夫的觀察中,

  • from Pavlov's observations.

    也可以得到一些浪漫的啟示。

  • We all need food to survive, right?

    我們都需要食物,對吧?

  • And someone who can provide such things

    而如果某人可以提供美味的食物,

  • in a delicious, saliva-producing manner

    令人垂涎,那這人就扮演了

  • stands to become our human equivalent of a ringing bell.

    相當於鈴聲的角色。

  • In other words,

    也就是說,

  • if you can cook one or more scrumptious meals

    如果你為你愛慕的人

  • for a potential love interest,

    準備了美味的一餐,

  • there's a good chance that you'll be viewed

    那未來很有機會在對方眼中

  • more favorably in the future,

    你會更令人喜愛,

  • even if you didn't prepare the delicious food.

    就算下次你沒有準備美味的食物。

  • And who wouldn't want the love of their life

    而誰不想得到

  • drooling over them?

    一生摯愛的追求呢?

  • But life is not just bell rings and salivation.

    但人生並不只是鈴聲和口水。

  • There's also a dark side to this type of learning,

    這類制約學習的過程中也有負面的效果,

  • called "taste aversion".

    叫做「味覺厭惡」, (譯註:又稱加薩效應。)

  • Taste aversion occurs when we ingest some food

    當我們吃了讓我們生病的食物時

  • that eventually makes us sick,

    味覺厭惡會產生,

  • and, as a result, we avoid that food,

    結果,我們會避免吃這種食物,

  • sometimes for the rest of our lives.

    有時候一輩子都不會再吃。

  • Taste aversion is so powerful

    味覺厭惡極具影響力,

  • that the effect can be seen

    儘管是在幾小時後才發病,

  • even if the illness is experienced hours later

    或是那項食物實際上並不是生病的主因,

  • and even if the food itself did not actually make us sick.

    我們還是可以看到同樣的效果。

  • Such is the case when we have the flu, and, by accident,

    好比說我們得了感冒,而意外地

  • we ingest some food moments prior to vomiting.

    我們吃了某樣食物,之後吐了。

  • In this case, we know that the food

    在這情況下,我們知道食物

  • did not cause the vomiting,

    並沒有造成嘔吐,

  • but our bodies don't know that.

    但我們的身體並不知道。

  • And the next time we encounter that food,

    而下次我們再遇到同樣的食物,

  • we are likely to refuse eating it.

    我們很可能就會拒絕吃它。

  • Now, imagine the potential consequences

    現在,想像一下在第一次約會中

  • of undercooking a meal on a first date.

    餐點沒煮熟所潛在的結果。

  • If the food makes your date sick,

    如果食物讓你的伴侶不舒服,

  • it is possible for them

    對方很有可能

  • to associate that bad feeling with not just the food,

    不單單把這個不好的感覺與食物作連結,

  • but with your food in particular.

    而是特別和「你」的食物作連結。

  • If the episode was traumatizing enough,

    如果這插曲已經夠糟了,

  • or if it also happens on a subsequent date,

    或是之後的約會也發生類似的事情,

  • they may come to relate you with the consequences,

    對方也許把你和結果作連結,

  • just like Pavlov's dogs

    就像巴夫洛夫的狗一樣,

  • related the bell with the meat powder.

    把鈴聲和肉粉作連結。

  • In other words,

    換句話說,

  • the sight of you showing up at the next dinner date

    在下次的晚餐約會時,你的出現

  • might actually make your date nauseous!

    很可能就是實際上令人作嘔的原因!

  • As the old saying goes,

    俗話說:

  • the fastest way to someone's heart

    「要抓住一個人的心,

  • is through their stomach,

    要先抓住他的胃」,

  • assuming you don't make them sick in the process.

    當然前提是在這過程中,你沒有令對方身體不適。

You've probably heard of Pavlov's dogs,

你也許聽過巴夫洛夫的狗,

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 食物 父母親 口水 鈴聲 味覺

【TED-Ed】 並不只對狗有用:巴夫洛夫的制約反應  Pavlovian reactions aren't just for dogs - Benjamin N. Witts

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 05 月 18 日
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