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  • In the first part of this lesson,

    在本課程的第一部分

  • we looked at adverb clauses of time,

    我們已經認識了時間的副詞子句

  • and I showed you how to reduce them.

    並且教你簡化副詞子句的方法

  • How to shorten the clauses to phrases.

    也就是簡化副詞子句為副詞片語

  • We can also reduce adverb clauses of reason.

    而我們也同樣能夠簡化理由副詞子句

  • These clauses begin with words like because, as, since.

    這些子句通常用 because, as, since 做為開頭

  • They answer the question why.

    用來回答問題的原因

  • Again, we mostly use a present participle

    同樣的,這邊大多使用動詞的現在分詞

  • the -ing form of a verb

    也就是動詞的 -ing 形式

  • to form these phrases.

    來構成分詞片語

  • That's because most of the time, we use active verbs

    這是因為我們幾乎都使用動詞的主動形式

  • Here's an example. Because the mother heard strange sounds, she grew worried.

    舉個例子,Because the mother heard strange sounds, she grew worried.

  • "Heard" is an active verb.

    Heard 是主動的動詞

  • The mother did something.

    媽媽做了這件事

  • She heard strange sounds.

    她聽到奇怪的聲音

  • "Because the mother heard strange sounds"

    "Because the mother heard strange sounds"

  • can be reduced.

    可以被簡化為

  • Hearing strange sounds, the mother grew worried.

    Hearing strange sounds, the mother grew worried.

  • The steps should be familiar.

    簡化的步驟是相同的

  • We don't need these subordinating conjunctions in the phrases.

    副詞片語不需要從屬連接詞

  • They're understood.

    語意就已經包含在內了

  • Our new sentence:

    這就是簡化後的句子

  • Note how we use negative words

    在簡化複詞子句成為複詞片語時

  • when we shorten adverb clauses to phrases.

    要注意否定詞的用法

  • It's quite simple.

    其實滿簡單的

  • Here's an example from the story.

    這是故事中的例句

  • Focus on the phrase.

    仔細看副詞片語的部分

  • Do you see the word order?

    有發現字詞的順序嗎?

  • We put the negative word before the present participle.

    否定詞會放在現在分詞的前面

  • It's that simple.

    就這麼簡單

  • Now, can you understand what the full adverb clause would be?

    那你知道這句話原本的副詞子句是什麼嗎?

  • If we wanted to change that phrase back to a full adverb clause of reason,

    如果我們要將副詞片語還原成原來的理由副詞子句

  • We need a subordinating conjunction.

    我們必須加上一個從屬連接詞

  • - A word that expresses a reason.

    一個能夠表示因果的詞

  • Let's use BECAUSE.

    那就用 BECAUSE 吧

  • Subject: she.

    主詞: she

  • And a verb.

    動詞

  • In this case, complete with a helping verb in the past tense.

    這邊需要一個過去式助動詞來完成句子

  • Didn't feel.

    didn't feel

  • Is that clear?

    這樣懂嗎?

  • Up to now, I've only mentioned use of the present participle.

    到目前為止,我只有提到現在分詞的使用方式

  • When we change an adverb clause to a phrase,

    在簡化複詞子句成為副詞片語時

  • we sometimes need to use a past participle.

    有時候我們要用到過去分詞

  • The -ed form of a regular verb.

    動詞的 ed 形式

  • It's that third form:

    也就是動詞的第三態

  • Do - did - done.

    do - did - done

  • The third form.

    第三態

  • And we'll do this for two reasons.

    會用到過去分詞有兩個理由

  • We may need to show an earlier time.

    陳述過去發生的事

  • Or we may need to express a passive meaning.

    或是用來表達被動語態

  • Passive verbs emphasize that the subject is receiving an action.

    被動式用來表示主詞接受了某種動作

  • Let me give you some examples.

    讓我舉幾個例子

  • Here's a line from the story.

    這是故事中的某一句話

  • This phrase actually expresses both a reason

    這個副詞片語同時表現了原因

  • and an earlier event.

    以及過去發生的事件

  • The full adverb clause would be:

    還原成完整的副詞子句就是:

  • So we're changing an adverb clause with a perfect form.

    因此我們在簡化副詞子句時要用完成式

  • We need to use HAVING

    這邊必須使用 HAVING

  • plus a past participle.

    加上過去分詞

  • This form explains a sequence of events.

    這個形式表達了事件的順序

  • So when your adverb clause has a perfect verb form,

    所以當副詞子句中的動詞是完成式時

  • present or past,

    不論是現在完成式或是過去完成式

  • use HAVING + a past participle.

    請用 HAVING + 過去分詞

  • This will show that you're referring to an earlier event.

    這樣才能用來表達這件事發生在更早之前

  • Now, if I only wanted to emphasize

    現在如果我只是要強調

  • the order of events and not a reason,

    事件的順序而不強調原因的話

  • I could just use a time word

    我可以用一個時間副詞

  • and a present participle

    和現在分詞

  • and say something like this:

    這樣就可以造出這樣的句子:

  • Compare those two sentences.

    請比較這兩個句子

  • In the end, they're not that different.

    句意在最後其實沒有太大的差別

  • We also need to use a past participle

    如果副詞子句中的動詞是被動式的話

  • when we have a passive verb in the adverb clause.

    也需要用到過去分詞

  • Passive means that someone or something is receiving an action.

    被動式用在某人或某物接受了一種動作

  • Here's an example from the story.

    這是故事中的例句

  • What would the full adverb clause be?

    原本完整的副詞子句是什麼呢?

  • It's an adverb clause of time.

    這是一個時間副詞

  • "Was reassured" is a passive verb.

    Was reassured 是一個動詞的被動式

  • It's a form of BE plus a past participle.

    被動式型態為 Be動詞+過去分詞

  • Changing that to a phrase,

    將被動式轉換為分詞片語

  • we keep both parts.

    兩個部分都要保留

  • The form of BE takes the -ing form.

    BE動詞變成 ing 形式

  • The present participle.

    也就是現在分詞

  • The main verb remains a past participle.

    主要動詞維持過去分詞形式

  • Now here's where it gets a little tricky.

    接下來的部分需要動一下腦筋了

  • We have variations.

    我們來做一點變化

  • This sentence could also be written as:

    這句話可以變成這樣:

  • Why did she decide to investigate?

    為什麼他決定要去一探究竟?

  • Some might choose to write:

    有些人可能會這樣寫:

  • Personally, I think this is a little too much.

    我個人覺得這樣就有點太超過了

  • The time word "after"

    時間副詞 after

  • already establishes the order of events.

    已經表達了事件發生的順序

  • So the helping verb HAVE is really unnecessary.

    所以真的不需要助動詞 HAVE了

  • Concise is usually best.

    簡潔扼要通常是最好的

  • So consider this last variation.

    再來看看最後一個變化

  • All the sentences basically say the same thing.

    這幾句話基本上表達的都是同一個意思

  • But this last one is nice

    但最後一句最好

  • because it's so concise.

    因為它最簡潔

  • We can remove all helping verbs

    它把所有的助動詞都省略

  • and use only the past participle,

    只留下過去分詞

  • understanding that it carries a passive meaning.

    這樣也能表達被動語意

  • Something affected the mother.

    某件事影響了這個母親

  • She was reassured.

    她的疑慮被消除了

  • So now you know why you might need the help of a past participle.

    現在你懂為什麼需要用到過去分詞了吧

  • But most of the time when you're changing an adverb clause to a phrase,

    但大多數時候簡化副詞子句成為副詞片語的時候

  • you'll be working with present participles.

    都會使用現在分詞

  • You'll be changing clauses with active verbs.

    你會用動詞的主動形式

In the first part of this lesson,

在本課程的第一部分

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 英國腔 副詞 動詞 片語 簡化 形式 子句

將副詞從句還原為短語(共4篇) - 高級英語語法-。 (Reducing Adverb Clauses to Phrases (3 of 4) - Advanced English Grammar-)

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    Cai Xin Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字