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  • The brain is the center of all of our thoughts,

    大腦是我們所有思維

  • dreams,

    夢境

  • emotions,

    情感

  • and memories.

    和記憶的中心

  • It's what makes us who we are.

    它造就我們現在的樣子

  • But, there is still a lot that we don't know about the brain.

    但是,大腦仍有很多我們不瞭解的地方

  • Scientists have worked for years

    科學家們已經努力了很多年

  • on trying to understand the human brain

    試圖瞭解人類的大腦

  • using techniques like EEG and FMRI,

    利用腦電波圖 (EGG) 和 功能磁共振成像 (FMRI)

  • where we scan the brain from the outside.

    讓我們可以從外部掃描大腦

  • But what if we could look inside the brains of humans

    但如果我們可以 更深入地窺探大腦

  • and watch them as they work?

    並觀察它們運作呢?

  • Well, now we can

    現在,藉由研究

  • by looking at the brains of people

    為了治療癲癇而以手術 移除部份大腦區塊的病患

  • who are already going through surgery for clinical reasons,

    為了治療癲癇而以手術 移除部份大腦區塊的病患

  • like curing epilepsy.

    我們做得到了

  • Epilepsy is a disease

    癲癇是一種疾病

  • in which a faulty part of the brain

    肇因於大腦特特定區位

  • starts working spontaneously for no apparent reason.

    毫無原由地自發性放電

  • It's like an earthquake

    就像地震一樣

  • but inside your head.

    只不過事發生在腦部

  • There's no way to know in advance

    我們無法預期

  • when a seizure will occur,

    何時會發作

  • so the patients are always at risk

    所以病患一直都處於潛在

  • of unexpectedly losing control.

    無法控制的危險中

  • There are drugs that treat epilepsy,

    我們有藥物可以治療癲癇

  • but these don't always work.

    但不一定對每個人都有效

  • Some patients who don't respond well to the drugs

    有些無法用藥物控制的病患

  • can undergo a different treatment

    可以藉由其他療法

  • where the faulty part in their brain,

    將腦中失常的區塊

  • the part that starts the seizures,

    也就是病灶

  • is surgically removed.

    以手術方式移除

  • The challenge is knowing which part to take out.

    這手術的挑戰 是在確定移除區塊

  • How do you figure out which bit of the brain is faulty?

    你怎麼確定那個區塊有問題呢?

  • In order to find the exact location of the seizure onset,

    為了確切定位病灶

  • doctors embed electrodes directly into the patient's brain

    醫師會將電極植入病人腦部

  • around the suspected seizure center.

    可能和病發有關的區域

  • The patient then stays in the hospital for a few days,

    病患就在醫院中休息幾天

  • waiting to have a seizure

    等待癲癇發作

  • with the electrodes constantly recording

    這時候電極會持續地

  • the activity inside his or her brain.

    將病患腦部活動紀錄下來

  • Yes, now we want the patient to have a seizure

    沒錯,我們希望癲癇發生

  • so doctors can use the embedded electrodes

    如此一來,醫師才能藉由這些電極

  • to measure it and learn exactly where its origin was.

    來測量病灶,並確切找出病灶區位

  • After doctors are sure where the seizures

    在醫師確定腦中

  • come from in the brain,

    造成病發的區塊後

  • they can take the electrodes out.

    他們就可以將電極取出

  • Now they know what part of the brain they can remove

    現在他們知要切除那個大腦區塊

  • in order to cure the patient.

    才能治好病患

  • These brain electrodes can tell us

    腦內的電極除了偵測病變

  • more than just where the seizures happen.

    也可以告訴我們更多資訊

  • Based on where the doctors place the electrodes in the brain,

    基於醫師插入電極的區位

  • we can ask questions about what the brain does.

    我們可以探討該區位的功能

  • Sometimes we find one cell that starts bursting in activity

    有時候,病患在看到特定圖片時

  • every time the patient sees a particular picture,

    某個腦細胞開始出現活化的情形

  • for example, a picture of Marilyn Monroe.

    例如:瑪麗蓮 · 夢露的圖片

  • See, every time the patient sees Marilyn Monroe,

    每一次病患看到瑪麗蓮 · 夢露的圖片

  • some specific cells fire in the brain.

    特定腦細胞就會活化

  • You can now know when the patient is thinking of Marilyn Monroe

    所以你可以 藉由觀察這些細胞的活化

  • just by listening to these cells fire.

    知道病患在想著瑪麗蓮 · 夢露

  • When we find one or a few of these cells with each patient,

    當我們看到病患 腦中一個或數個細胞的活化

  • we can then do all kinds of fancy things.

    我們就可以做許多有趣的事

  • For example, we can connect the recording electrode

    例如:我們可以將這些電極

  • to a cursor on a screen

    對應到螢幕上的游標

  • and have the patient move the cursor left or right

    然後讓病患藉由思考

  • just by thinking of things.

    將游標左右移動

  • This can help people

    這可以幫助

  • who lost the ability to move their hands,

    失去手部活動能力的病患

  • like people with spinal cord injuries or wounded soldiers,

    例如:讓神經損傷病患或傷兵

  • by having them control a prosthetic arm

    藉由大腦

  • directly with their brain.

    控制他們的義肢

  • Our brain is a brilliant device

    我們的大腦是個精巧的儀器

  • which can make predictions about the future.

    它讓我們可以預測未來

  • For example, we can all know

    例如:我們會知道

  • which word will appear at the end of this...

    哪個詞將出接著這...

  • sentence.

    句子

  • The brain can solve complicated problems,

    大腦可以解決複雜的問題

  • imagine the entire universe,

    想像宇宙

  • and grasp concepts such as infinity

    和掌握浩瀚無窮的概念

  • or unicorns.

    或是獨角獸

  • The brain produces complex emotions like love or jealousy,

    大腦產生複雜的情緒,像愛或嫉妒

  • it's what makes us creative and curious,

    它也使我們產生創意和好奇

  • and it can even contemplate about itself.

    並思考大腦自己的問題

  • And the brain is the organ we use to study the brain.

    大腦是我們用來研究大腦的器官

  • I think that the brain is the most beautiful organ in our body,

    我覺得大腦是我們身體理最美麗器官

  • but then I ask myself,

    但我又問自己:

  • "Which organ is making me think that?"

    「是哪個器官讓我這樣想的呢?」

The brain is the center of all of our thoughts,

大腦是我們所有思維

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 病患 大腦 癲癇 區塊 活化

【TED-Ed】窺探大腦奧祕 - What if we could look inside human brains? - Moran Cerf

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